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Itt^. 

WAR   DEPARTMENT 

Annual  Reports,  1916 

(IN  THREE  VOLUMES) 


Volume  I 

Reports  of 

THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR 

THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF 

THE  ADJUTANT   GENERAL 

THE   INSPECTOR   GENERAL 

THE   JUDGE   ADVOCATE   GENERAL 

THE  QUARTERMASTER  GENERAL 

THE  SURGEON  GENERAL 

THE  CHIEF  OF  ORDNANCE 

THE   CHIEF  SIGNAL  OFFICER 

THE   CHIEF  OF  MILITIA  BUREAU 

THE  CHIEF  OF  COAST  ARTILLERY 

THE   SUPERINTENDENT  MILITARY  ACADEMY 

THE   CHICKAMAUGA  AND  CHATTANOOGA 

PARK  COMMISSION 
THE  GETTYSBURG  PARK  COMMISSION 
THE  SHILOH  PARK  COMMISSION 
THE  VICKSBURG  PARK  COMMISSION 


ARRANGEMENT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  REPORTS  OF  THE  WAR  DEPARTMENT 
FOR  THE  FISCAL  YEAR  ENDED  JUNE  30, 1916. 


Volume  I Secretary  of  War. 

Chief  of  Staff. 

The  Adjutant  General. 

Inspector  General. 

Judge  Advocate  General. 

Quartermaster  General. 

Surgeon  General. 

Chief  of  Ordnance. 

Chief  Signal  Officer. 

Chief  of  Militia  Bureau. 

Chief  of  Coast  Artillery. 

Superintendent  Military  Academy. 

Chickamauga  and  Chattanooga  Park  Commission. 

Gettysburg  Park  Commission. 

Shiloh  Park  Commission. 

Vicksburg  Park  Conmiission. 

Volume  II Chief  of  Engineers  (without  Appendices). 

Volume  in Chief  of  Bureau  of  Insular  Affaire. 

Governor  of  Porto  Rico. 
The  Philippine  CommJaaioiu 


i 


i  M 


CONTENTS. 


PagiL 

Report  of  the  Secretary  of  WarX 5 

Report  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  .K 153 

Report  of  The  Adjutant  General.^ 233 

Report  of  the  Inspector  General  i^. 295 

Report  of  the  Judge  Advocate  Genei a!  i 307 

Report  of  the  Quartermaster  General .". 329 

Report  of  the  Surgeon  General.*! 463 

Report  of  the  Chief  of  Ordnance.*: 803 

Report  of  the  Chief  Signal  Officer !: 857 

Report  of  the  Chief  of  Militia  Bureau 893 

Report  of  the  Chief  of  Coast  Artillery 1161 

Report  of  the  Su^rintendent  Military  Acadenay .". 1179 

Report  of  the  Chickamauga  and  Chattanooga  rark  Commission 1219 

Report  of  the  Gettysburg  Park  Commission 1227 

Report  of  the  Shiloh  Park  Commission 1239 

Report  of  the  Vickaburg  Park  Commission 1249 

3 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 


War  Department, 

Washington^  D.  (7.,  November  £0^  1916. 
To  the  President: 

I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  following  report  of  operations  of 
this  department  for  the  past  year : 

On  February  10, 1916,  Hon.  Lindley  M.  Garrison  resigned  as  Secre- 
tary of  War,  and  on  February  11,  1916,  Maj.  Gen.  Hugh  L.  Scott, 
United  States  Army,  Chief  of  Staff,  was  appointed  by  you  Secretary 
of  War,  ad  interim,  under  the  provisions  of  section  179,  Revised 
Statutes.  Gen.  Scott  served  until  March  9,  1916,  when  I  took  the 
oath  of  office  as  Secretary  of  War. 

THE  MEXICAN  SITUATION. 

TJie  raid  on  Columbus^  N.  Mex.^  and  the  Pershing  Expedition. — 
The  disturbed  conditions  on  the  Mexican  border  culminated  in  an 
attack  by  Mexican  bandits  on  Columbus,  N.  Mex.  A  description  of 
this  attack  and  of  several  engagements  that  followed  it,  gathered  from 
the  reports  received  by  the  Department,  is  given  below : 

On  the  night  of  March  8-9,  1916,  the  Mexican  outlaw,  Francisco 
Villa,  with  a  force  variously  estimated  at  from  500  to  1,000  men, 
crossed  the  international  border  from  Mexico  to  the  United  States 
at  a  point  about  3  miles  west  of  the  border-line  gate  and  concentrated 
his  force  for  an  attack  on  the  town  of  Columbus,  N.  Mex.  The  attack 
was  made  during  hours  of  extreme  darkness  and  was  for  the  purpose, 
according  to  information  subsequently  obtained  by  the  military 
authorities,  of  looting  the  town  after  disposing  of  the  garrison.  A 
fight  ensued  in  which  7  American  soldiers  were  killed  and  2  officers 
and  5  soldiers  were  wounded,  and  8  civilians  killed  and  2  wounded- 
The  Mexican  bandits  killed  in  the  town,  the  camp,  and  on  the  border 
line  numbered  67,  while  the  wounded  and  captured  number^  7. 

7 


8  REPORT   OF   THE  SECRETARY  OF   WAR. 

Immediately  after  the  raid  one  troop  of  Cavalry  crossed  the  border 
and  pursued  the  Mexicans.  An  additional  troop,  stationed  at  the 
border-line  gate,  also  mounted  and  struck  the  retreating  Mexicans 
in  the  flank;  the  two  troops,  then  joining,  continued  the  pursuit  of 
the  Mexicans  south  for  a  distance  of  12  miles,  discontinuing  the  pur- 
suit only  when  their  ammunition  was  e2diausted  and  the  horses  and 
men,  without  water  and  almost  exhausted,  could  continue-  no  longer. 
The  bandits  in  the  meantime  retreated  in  a  southeasterly  direction. 
During  this  running  fight  a  nimiber  of  Mexicans,  estimated  to  be 
between  70  and  100,  were  killed,  but  no  accurate  estimate  of  the 
woimded  can  be  made.  Much  property  and  many  animals  were  aban- 
doned by  the  Mexicans  in  their  flight. 

On  March  10,  1916,  the  commanding  general  of  the  southern  de- 
partment was  directed  to  organize  an  adequate  military  force  under 
the  command  of  Brig.  Gren.  John  J.  Pershing,  with  instructions  to 
proceed  promptly  across  the  border  in  pursuit  of  the  Mexican  out- 
laws who  had  attacked  Columbus.  Under  these  instructions,  two 
colunms  were  organized,  one  starting  from  Columbus  and  the  other 
from  Culberson's  ranch.  The  advance  of  the  Columbus  column,  con- 
sisting of  7  troops  of  the  Thirteenth  Cavalry,  the  Sixth  and  Six- 
teenth Infantry,  Battery  C,  Sixth  Field  Artillery,  and  Ambulance 
Company  No.  7,  started,  on  March  15,  on  the  road,  through  Palomas, 
Ascension,  Corralitos,  toward  Casas  Grandes.  The  Culberson  col- 
umn, consisting  of  the  Seventh  Cavalry,  10  troops  of  the  Tenth 
Cavalry,  and  Battery  B,  Sixth  Field  Artillery,  left  the  same  night, 
via  the  Ojitas  route,  and  arrived  at  Colonia  Dublan,  4  miles  north  of 
Nueva  Casas  Grandes,  on  the  night  of  March  17.  These  troops  pushed 
rapidly  south,  the  bandits  scattering  and  fleeing  from  their  front. 
Gen.  Pershing  was  acting  under  orders  to  respcQt  in  every  manner 
the  sovereignty  and  rights  of  Mexico  and  her  people,  and  to  avoid 
all  possible  occasion  of  conflict  with,  or  irritation  to,  the  representa- 
tives of  the  de  facto  Government  of  Mexico. 

The  ParroL  incident, — During  the  pursuit  of  Villa  and  his  fol- 
lowers, Maj.  Frank  Tompkins,  Thirteenth  Cavalry,  with  Troops  K 
and  M  of  that  regiment,  imder  the  command  of  Col.  W.  C.  Brown, 
Tenth  Cavalry,  camped  outside  of  the  town  of  Parral,  Mexico,  and 
sent  a  detachment  of  soldiers  to  the  town  for  the  purpose  of  purchas- 
ing supplies,  at  about  11  o'clock  a.  m.,  April  12,  1916.  Maj.  Tomp- 
kins was  cordially  received  by  the  higher  civil  and  military  officials. 


REPOBT  OP   THE   SECBETABY  OP  WAB.  9 

The  Meidcan  general,  Lozano,  accompanied  Maj.  Tompkins  on  his 
way  to  the  camp.  On  the  outskirts  of  the  town,  groups  of  native 
soldiers  and  civilians  jeered,  threw  stones,  and  fired  on  the  colunm. 
Maj.  Tompkins  at  once  took  a  defensive  position  north  of  the  rail- 
road but  was  soon  flanked  by  Mexican  troops  and  forced  to  retire. 
The  American  troops  continued  to  withdraw  to  avoid  further  com- 
plications until  they  reached  Santa  Cruz,  8  miles  from  Parral.  Gen. 
Lozano  attempted  to  control  his  men  when  the  fighting  first  began 
but  failed.  The  known  casualties  were  2  American  soldiers  killed, 
2  oflRcers  and  4  soldiers  wounded,  1  soldier  missing,  and  40  Mexican 
soldiers  killed.  The  number  of  Mexican  soldiers  wounded  is  not 
known,  although  it  is  known  that  one  Mexican  civilian  was  wounded. 

The  Carrizal  incident, — For  some  time  subsequent  to  this,  Gen. 
Pershing's  force  maintained  itself  in  substantially  the  same  position, 
using  scouting  parties  and  detachments  for  the  purpose  of  locating 
the  force  of  Villa,  which  had  been  broken  up  and  scattered  in  various 
directions  through  the  difficult  and  mountainous  country  through 
which  the  expedition  had  penetrated. 

On  the  morning  of  the  21st  of  June,  1916,  Troops  C  and  K  of  the 
Tenth  Cavalry,  under  the  command  of  Capt.  Charles  T.  Boyd,  while 
on  the  way  to  Villa  Ahumada  on  such  a  scouting  expedition,  reached 
the  town  of  Carrizal,  and  sought  permission  from  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  Mexican  forces  garrisoned  there  to  pass  through  the 
town  in  order  to  reach  Villa  Ahumada.  Gen.  Gomez,  the  Mexican 
commander,  sent  an  officer  of  his  command  to  the  American  troops 
denying  the  permission  requested.  During  the  conference,  Mexican 
troops  were  seen  to  move  toward  the  flank  of  the  American  troops. 
The  latter  assumed  a  defensive  position,  but  an  engagement  immedi- 
ately ensued,  in  which  Capt.  Charles  T.  Boyd  and  Lieut.  Henry  R. 
Adair,  Tenth  Cavalry,  and  7  enlisted  men,  were  killed,  and  Capt. 
Lewis  S.  Morey,  Tenth  Cavalry,  and  9  enlisted  men  were  wounded. 
Twenty-three  enlisted  men  of  the  Tenth  Cavalry  and  1  civilian  in- 
terpreter were  captured  and  sent  to  Chihuahua  City.  The  number 
of  Mexicans  killed  is  estimated  to  have  been  39,  including  Gen.  Gomez. 
The  number  of  wounded  is  not  known.  The  23  enlisted  men  and  the 
civilian  interpreter  captured  by  the  Mexicans  were  released  and  re- 
turned to  the  United  States  with  their  property  and  equipment. 

Gen.  Pershing's  force  has  been  on  Mexican  soil  since  the  15th 
day  of  March,  during  part  of  the  time  engaged  in  active  and  vigor- 


10  BEPOBT  OF  THE  BECBETABY  OF  WAB. 

ous  pursuit  of  bandits,  but  during  the  larger  part  of  the  time  en- 
camped generally  in  the  neighborhood  of  Colonia  Dublan.  The 
orders  to  this  expedition  pointedly  enjoined  the  maintenance  of  cor- 
dial relations  with  the  native  population  and  the  most  entire  respect 
for  the  dignity  and  sovereignty  of  the  Government  of  Mexico  and  its 
military  commanders  and  forces.  It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  point 
out  the  fidelity  with  which  these  instructions  have  been  obeyed. 
Gen.  Pershing's  force  has  not  only  maintained  itself  in  a  state  of 
physical  fitness  and  cheerful  loyalty  to  its  task,  but  the  men  have 
developed  into  a  robust  and  vigorous  body  of  troops,  and  their  rela- 
tions with  the  native  population  in  Mexico  have  been  characterized 
by  cordiality  and  friendliness,  which  was  highly  creditable  to  the 
discipline  and  spirit  of  American  soldiers.  I  can  not  too  highly 
praise  the  members  of  this  expeditionary  force,  its  commander,  and 
its  men,  for  the  restraint,  self-control,  and  zeal  which  they  have  dis- 
played and  for  the  credit  which  they  have  reflected  upon  American 
arms. 

Bandit  raids  across  the  Mexican  border. — In  addition  to  the  raid 
on  Columbus,  N.  Mex.,  several  raids  of  more  or  less  importance  have 
occurred  during  the  period  covered  by  this  report,  the  most  notable 
of  them  being : 

Glenn  Springs,  Tex.,  May  5, 1916,  the  casualties  being  3  American 
soldiers  and  1  civilian  killed ;  8  American  soldiers  woimded.  At  this 
place,  it  is  believed  that  2  Mexican  bandits  were  killed  and  a  number 
wounded,  although  it  was  impossible  to  secure  definite  information. 

San  Ygnacio,  Tex.,  June  15,  1916,  the  casualties  being  4  American 
soldiers  killed  and  5  wounded ;  6  Mexican  bandits  killed. 

Near  Fort  Hancock,  Tex.,  July  31,  1916,  1  American  soldier  and  1 
civilian  (United  States  customs  inspector)  killed,  and  1  American 
soldier  woimded;  3  Mexicans  killed  and  3  captured  by  Mexican  de 
facto  Government  troops. 

Call  of  the  Organized  Militia  and  National  Guard  into  the  service  of 
the  United  States. — ^The  known  presence  of  large  numbers  of  bandit 
forces  and  irregular  military  organizations,  hostile  alike  to  the  de  facto 
Government  of  Mexico  and  to  the  Government  and  people  of  the  United 
States,  made  it  apparent  that  further  aggression  upon  the  territory  of 
the  United  States  was  to  be  expected.  The  Mexican  border  is  a  long 
and  irregular  boundary  line,  passing  in  places  through  cities  and 


EEPOBT  OP  THE  8ECRETABY  OP  WAB.  11 

towns,  but  for  great  stretches  running  through  sparsely  settled  re- 
gions and  through  a  wild  and  difficult  country.  The  forces  at  the 
disposal  of  the  commander  of  the  Southern  Department  for  the 
protection  of  this  border  had  been  strengthened  from  time  to  time 
by  the  transfer  to  that  department  of  a  very  large  part  of  .the  Regu- 
lar Army  within  the  limits  of  the  continental  United  States,  includ- 
ing some  detachments  of  Coast  Artillery  forces,  withdrawn  from 
their  coast  defense  stations.  It  was,  however,  clear  that  even  thus 
strengthened  the  forces  under  Gen.  Funston's  command  were  inade- 
quate to  patrol  this  long  and  difficult  line  and  to  assure  safety  to  the 
life  and  property  of  American  citizens  against  raids  and  depreda- 
tions. The  President,  therefore,  deemed  it  proper  to  exercise  the 
authority  vested  in  him  by  the  Constitution  and  laws  to  call  out  the 
Organized  Militia.  On  May  9,  1916,  he  issued  a  call,  through  the 
governors  of  the  States  of  Arizona,  New  Mexico,  and  Texas,  direct- 
ing the  concentration  of  the  militia  of  those  States  at  places  to  be 
designated  by  the  commanding  general  of  the  Southern  Department. 
San  Antonio,  Columbus,  and  Douglas  were  designated  as  the 
places  of  concentration  for  the  Militia  of  Texas,  Arizona,  and  New 
Mexico,  respectively,  and  upon  the  arrival  of  the  militia,  the  neces- 
sary procedure  for  their  muster  into  the  service  of  the  United  States, 
under  the  provisions  of  the  act  approved  January  21, 1903,  as  amended 
by  the  act  of  Congress  approved  May  27,  1908,  was  at  once  entered 
upon  and  vigorously  prosecuted,  the  greater  part  of  the  militia,  so 
called,  having  been  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States 
before  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year.  It  was  also  directed  by  the  de- 
partment that  the  Federal  authorities  assume  the  duty  of  recruiting 
for  the  militia  service  of  the  United  States.  In  accordance  with 
these  directions,  the  commanding  general  of  the  Southern  Depart- 
ment was  ordered  on  May  27,  1916,  to  detail  officers  and  enlisted 
men  from  the  Texas  Militia  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States  to  recruit  the  Militia  of  Texas  to  its  full  strength,  and  similar 
orders  with  respect  to  recruiting  were  issued  with  regard  to  the 
militia  of  other  States  at  a  later  date.  The  reasons  which  caused  the 
President  to  issue  the  call  for  the  Militia  of  Texas,  Arizona,  and 
New  Mexico  on  May  9,  1916,  impelled  him,  on  June  18,  1916,  to  call 
into  the  service  of  the  United  States  a  large  part  of  the  Organized 
Militia  and  National  Guard  of  the  other  States  of  the  Union  and  the 


12  REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

District  of  Columbia,  the  call  being  duly  issued  on  the  date  last 
mentioned  through  the  governors  of  all  the  States  concerned  and  the 
Commanding  General  of  the  District  of  Columbia  Militia. 

In  the  meantime,  the  National-Defense  Act  had  been  approved  June 
8,  1916,  providing,  among  other  things,  for  the  transition  of  the 
Organized  Militia  of  the  several  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia 
into  the  National  Guard,  by  taking  the  oath  prescribed  by  that  act, 
and  this  transition  was  in  progress  in  the  several  States  when  the 
call  of  June  18  was  made.  The  call  of  the  President  found  the 
militia  at  the  very  beginning  of  its  transition  from  the  Organized 
Militia,  provided  in  the  earlier  legislation,  into  the  National  Guard, 
provided  by  the  recent  National-Defense  Act.  There  had  been  no  time 
for  the  completion  of  the  procedures  provided  for  perfecting  the 
National  Guard,  so  that  the  mass  o'f  detail  which  under  ordinary 
circumstances  is  involved  in  the  concentration  of  the  militia  at 
various  mobilization  points  was  increased  by  the  fact  that  some  of 
the  organizations  existed  wholly  under  their  earlier  status,  some  had 
completed  their  organization  under  the  National-Defense  Act,  and 
some  were  in  the  course  of  changing  their  relation  to  the  Federal 
Government  from  that  provided  by  one  to  that  provided  by  the  other 
of  these  laws.  Moreover,  the  provisions  of  the  National-Defense  Act, 
not  having  previously  been  applied,  were  required  to  be  interpreted 
in  many  respects.  There  had  not  yet  been  time  to  work  out  in  an 
orderly  way  interpretations  of  the  act  and  instructions  under  it 
for  the  guidance  either  of  officers  of  the  Begular  Army  or  of  the 
militia,  who  were  required  to  cooperate  in  such  a  movement.  The 
task  thus  imposed  upon  the  department  and  the  chiefs  of  the  bureaus 
concerned  was  most  exacting,  and  I  can  not  too  highly  praise  the  zeal 
and  intelligence  with  which  these  difficulties  were  met  or  the  self- 
sacrifice  with  which  the  personnel  of  the  department  devoted  itself 
day  and  night  to  the  speedy,  orderly,  and  successful  accomplishment 
of  its  task. 

To  have  worked  out  each  detail,  completed  the  transition  of  such 
State  organizations,  and  i-ecruited  it  to  its  full  strength  before  trans- 
ferring these  forces  to  the  border  would  have  taken  more  time  than 
the  exigencies  of  the  situation  permitted.  Instructions  were  there- 
fore given  on  June  28  to  the  commanding  generals  of  the  Eastern 
Central,  and  Western  Departments  to  transfer  each  unit  to  tlie 
border  as  soon  as  it  was  reasonably  equipped  for  field  service. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETAKY  OF  WAR.  18 

On  August  31,  1916,  the  date  of  the  latest  complete  returns  re- 
ceived, the  troops  in  the  Southern  Department  consisted  of  2,160  offi- 
cers and  45,873  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular  Army,  and  5,446  officers 
and  105,080  enlisted  men  of  the  National  Guard,  making  a  total  of 
7,606  officers  and  150,953  enlisted  men  in  that  department.  On  the 
date  given  there  were  1,557  officers  and  28,176  enlisted  men  of  the 
National  Guard  in  the  other  military  departments,  making  a  total  of 
7,003  officers  and  133,256  enlisted  men  of  the  National  Guard  in  the 
Federal  service  on  August  31,  1916. 

The  'present  situation. — The  mere  presence  of  this  enlarged  force 
on  the  border  has  served  to  preserve  peace  and  to  protect  life  and 
property.  Disturbances  by  outlaws  and  bandits  in  northern  Mexico 
have  continued  and  roving  bands  of  various  numbers  have  moved 
through  the  territory,  harassing  Mexican  forces  and  raiding  Mexi- 
can communities,  but  they  have  not  ventured  an  attack  upon  the 
people  of  the  United  States.  In  the  meantime  the  militia  forces  on 
the  border  have  been  drilled,  their  organizations  perfected,  and 
their  personnel  accustomed  to  life  in  camp  in  the  performance  of 
this  defensive  duty.  On  the  advice  of  the  military  commanders,  it 
has  been  determined  that  full  protection  can  be  given  on  the  border 
without  utilizing  the  entire  force  of  the  National  Guard  in  the 
service  of  the  United  States.  The  department  therefore  determined 
to  send  from  time  to  time  from  their  State  mobilization  camps  por- 
tions of  the  National  Guard  which  had  not  as  yet  done  border  duty, 
and  in  exchange  for  these  freshly  arrived  contingents,  the  command- 
ing general  of  the  Southern  Department  has  been  directed  to  select 
equivalent  nimibers  of  troops  which  have  been  in  actual  border 
service  for  return  to  their  home  stations  for  muster  out.  ThcHe 
movements  have  been  taking  place  with  some  rapidity  and  are  now 
substantially  completed.  The  number  of  National  Guard  now  on  the 
border  is  substantially  110,000  officers  and  men. 

From  the  beginning  the  department  appreciated  the  sacrifice  which 
the  members  of  the  National  Guard  were  called  upon  to  make  in  the 
interest  of  the  national  defense.  These  organizationw,  made  up  of 
men  engaged  in  all  sorts  of  industrial,  commercial,  and  profeiwional 
activity,  were  sununoned  suddenly  and  without  op[Xirtunity  ade- 
quately to  provide  for  a  prolonged  absenr^e  from  home.  In  many 
instances  family  illness,  business  commitmentM^  and  other  pressing 


14  REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETART  OF  WAR. 

©ngagements  had  to  be  faced,  and  an  effort  was  made  by  the  depart- 
ment in  the  presence  of  extreme  cases  of  hardships  to  minimize  the 
sacrifice.  The  most  distressing  class  of  cases  were,  of  course,  those 
of  men  with  dependent  families  or  relatives  for  whom  no  provision 
had  been  made  and  who  were  entirely  dependent  upon  the  peace- 
time earnings  of  the  citizen  soldier.  A  number  of  cases  were  pre- 
sented in  which  members  of  the  National  Guard  were  the  occupants 
of  public  office,  the  continued  functions  of  which  were  essential  to 
the  National  and  State  Governments,  and  in  some  instances  members 
of  the  National  Guard  were  found  to  be  pivotal  and  apparently  in- 
dispensable directors  of  industrial  and  commercial  enterprises  upon 
which  the  Government  is  obliged  to  rely  for  the  proper  supply  of 
commissary  and  equipment  to  the  Army  itself.  The  department 
attempted  to  deal  with  these  embarrassments  on  the  principle  that  the 
thing  best  for  the  National  Guard,  the  thing  which  would  tend  to 
strengthen  and  build  it  up,  would  be  most  in  harmony  with  the  inten- 
tion of  the  Congress  in  the  National-Defense  Act.  A  limited  number 
of  discharges  were  therefore  granted  on  the  ground  of  public  policy, 
so  as  not  to  weaken  the  spirit  of  the  National  Guard  at  home  by  de- 
priving it  of  the  regular  performance  of  the  governmental  functions 
or  of  the  industrial  and  commercial  operations  upon  which  its  sup- 
ply and  maintenance  depended.  For  the  relief  of  those  members  of 
the  National  Guard  having  dependent  families  or  relatives  an  order 
was  made  authorizing  the  discharge  of  all  soldiers  so  circumstanced 
upon  their  own  application.  A  relatively  small  number  of  members 
of  the  National  Guard  took  advantage  of  this  order  and  were  re- 
turned to  their  homes.  By  this  means  acute  distress  was  prevented 
and  the  organization  of  community  relief  for  dependent  families, 
which  had  been  imdertaken  in  many  places  as  soon  as  the  call  for  the 
Guard  was  issued,  was  rendered  less  burdensome.  The  Congress  later 
appropriated  the  sum  of  $2,000,000  to  be  expended  by  the  department 
under  certain  limitations  provided  in  the  act  in  the  care  of  the  de- 
pendents of  soldiers,  and  this  operation  made  unnecessary  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  original  order  authorizing  the  discharge  of  such 
members  of  the  Guard.  The  order  was  therefore  withdrawn,  and  the 
department  is  now  engaged  in  the  distribution  of  the  funds  provided 
by  Congi*ess  for  the  object  stated. 

The  National  Guard  is,  both  by  law  and  in  contemplation  of  its 
members,  the  line  of  defense  immediately  back  of  the  Regular  Army. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB.  15 

It  is  organized  for  the  purpose  of  responding  quickly  to  emergency 
calls,  but  our  country  has  been  singularly  free  from  international 
boundary  difficulty  which  required  more  force  than  could  be  found 
in  the  organizations  of  the  Regular  Army  within  the  country.  The 
sort  of  duty  presented  by  the  Mexican  difficulty,  therefore,  is  un- 
usual and  may  well  have  been  unanticipated.  The  readiness  with 
which  the  militia  responded  to  this  call  was  most  gratifying,  and 
when  the  transitional  condition  in  which  it  was  found  by  the  call  is 
remembered,  the  confusions  and  difficulties  attending  the  mobiliza- 
tion will  seem  insignificant  in  comparison  with  its  success  and  with 
the  splendid  spirit  with  which  both  men  and  officers  of  the  National 
Guard  responded. 

The  duty  in  Mexico  and  on  the  border  has  been  of  the  most  trying 
kind  which  soldiers  can  be  called  upon  to  perform.  The  move- 
ment and  enthusiasm  of  active  military  operations  supplies  a  spirit 
of  its  own,  but  the  soldier  who  is  required  to  wait  inactive  finds  it 
difficult  to  reconcile  himself  to  the  privations  of  camp  life  and  to  the 
separations  from  home,  friends,  and  normal  occupation  required 
of  him,  and  yet  this  most  trying  of  services  is  just  what  has  been 
required  of  our  Regular  Army  and  of  the  National  Guard  on  the 
border.  Their  time  has  of  course  been  used  in  profitable  military 
training,  and  an  enormous  incidental  advantage  has  accrued  to  the 
country  therefrom.  But  it  is  not  strange  that  some  restlessness  and 
complaint  have  been  heard  both  from  an  occasional  member  of  one 
of  the  Guard  forces  and  from  their  friends  at  home  who  have  not 
appreciated  the  necessity  for  their  sacrifice,  in  view  of  the  absence 
of  active  operations.  These  complaints,  however,  have  been  minor 
and  infrequent.  The  spirit  of  the  regiments  has  been  high,  their 
service  cheerful,  and  their  appreciation  both  of  their  opportunity 
for  public  service  and  of  the  value  of  the  training  received  by  them 
has  been  evidenced  from  all  quarters. 

In  a  subsequent  part  of  this  report  I  deal  with  the  question  of 
health  and  sanitation,  so  that  I  here  but  remark  in  passing  that  the 
health  of  the  soldiers  on  the  border  has  been  remarkable;  their 
freedom  from  camp  fevers  and  from  serious  illnesses  of  all  kinds  is 
perhaps  as  striking  an  incident  of  efficient  medical  supervision  as 
can  be  found  in  the  history  of  any  army.  The  initial  difficulties  of 
supply  and  transportation  were  soon  solved.  I  have  personally  met 
the  officers  and  men  of  several  regiments  which  have  returned  from 


14  REPORT  OF  THE  SECBETART  OF  WAR. 

engagements  had  to  be  faced,  and  an  effort  was  made  by  the  depart- 
ment in  the  presence  of  extreme  cases  of  hardships  to  minimize  the 
sacrifice.  The  most  distressing  class  of  cases  were,  of  course,  those 
of  men  with  dependent  families  or  relatives  for  whom  no  provision 
had  been  made  and  who  were  entirely  dependent  upon  the  peace- 
time earnings  of  the  citizen  soldier.  A  number  of  cases  were  pre- 
sented in  which  members  of  the  National  Guard  were  the  occupants 
of  public  office,  the  continued  functions  of  which  were  essential  to 
the  National  and  State  Governments,  and  in  some  instances  members 
of  the  National  Guard  were  found  to  be  pivotal  and  apparently  in- 
dispensable directors  of  industrial  and  commercial  enterprises  upon 
which  the  Government  is  obliged  to  rely  for  the  proper  supply  of 
commissary  and  equipment  to  the  Army  itself.  The  department 
attempted  to  deal  with  these  embarrassments  on  the  principle  that  the 
thing  best  for  the  National  Guard,  the  thing  which  would  tend  to 
strengthen  and  build  it  up,  would  be  most  in  harmony  with  the  inten- 
tion of  the  Congress  in  the  National-Defense  Act.  A  limited  number 
of  discharges  were  therefore  granted  on  the  groimd  of  public  policy, 
so  as  not  to  weaken  the  spirit  of  the  National  Guard  at  home  by  de- 
priving it  of  the  regular  performance  of  the  governmental  functions 
or  of  the  industrial  and  commercial  operations  upon  which  its  sup- 
ply and  maintenance  depended.  For  the  relief  of  those  members  of 
the  National  Guard  having  dependent  families  or  relatives  an  order 
was  made  authorizing  the  discharge  of  all  soldiers  so  circumstanced 
upon  their  own  application.  A  relatively  small  number  of  members 
of  the  National  Guard  took  advantage  of  this  order  and  were  re- 
turned to  their  homes.  By  this  means  acute  distress  was  prevented 
and  the  organization  of  community  relief  for  dependent  families, 
which  had  been  undertaken  in  many  places  as  soon  as  the  call  for  the 
Guard  was  issued,  was  rendered  less  burdensome.  The  Congress  later 
appropriated  the  sum  of  $2,000,000  to  be  expended  by  the  department 
under  certain  limitations  provided  in  the  act  in  the  care  of  the  de- 
pendents of  soldiers,  and  this  operation  made  unnecessary  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  original  order  authorizing  the  discharge  of  such 
members  of  the  Guard.  The  order  was  therefore  withdrawn,  and  the 
department  is  now  engaged  in  the  distribution  of  the  funds  provided 
by  Congress  for  the  object  stated. 

The  National  Guard  is,  both  by  law  and  in  contemplation  of  its 
members,  the  line  of  defense  immediately  back  of  the  Regular  Army. 


,  »-  • 


1.  •* 


v:: 


K 


BEPOET  OF  THE  8ECRETAEY  OP  WAR.  17 

opportunities  of  the  kind.  In  the  development  of  such  a  program 
we  can  remember  that  for  the  most  part  any  Army  is  made  up  of 
young  men,  and  those  wholesome  recreations  and  activities  to  which 
young  men  normally  resort  can  be  made  the  basis  of  what  the  Army 
ought  to  undertake  to  supply  for  its  own  uses, 
r  ^  Transportation  of  the  Regular  Arm/y  and  militia  to  the  Mexican 
harder, — In  a  previous  portion  of  this  report  I  have  discussed  the  raid 
on  Columbus,  N.  Mex.,  and  the  military  measures  adopted  in  con- 
sequence of  it,  including  the  call  of  the  Organized  Militia  and 
National  Guard  into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  It  seems 
to  me  worth  while,  however,  to  make  a  somewhat  detailed  refer- 
ence to  the  transportation  of  these  troops  to  the  Mexican  border, 
both  because  I  desire  an  opportunity  to  report  specifically  the  efficient 
cooperation  of  the  railroads  with  the  Government  and  also  be- 
cause the  general  question  of  transportation  facilities  is  one  of 
very  great  military  importance. 

The  railroads  of  the  United  States  have  been  built  in  response 
to  commercial  and  industrial  needs.  Our  continent  has  been  de- 
veloped and  opened  up  by  a  process  of  railroad  building  which 
had  in  view  the  transportation  of  raw  materials  and  finished  prod- 
ucts, rendering  our  mineral  and  lumber  resources  accessible  and 
enabling  our  rapidly  increasing  population  to  develop  the  agri- 
cultural  and  economic  resources  of  the  Nation.  It  is  probably  just 
to  say,  however,  that  very  little  thought  has  been  given  in  our 
railroad  development  to  their  possible  use  for  military  purposes. 
We  have  built  no  strategic  railroads,  our  frontiers  have  been  neg- 
lected as  possible  scenes  of  military  operations,  and  there  has  ac- 
cordingly been  little  or  no  railroad  building  which  had  as  its  object 
a  possible  call  upon  the  railroads  of  the  country  rapidly  to  trans- 
port large  bodies  of  men  and  to  maintain  continuous  streams  of 
military  supplies  for  their  support.  This  was  not  unnatural,  as 
the  wide  seas  have  been  the  frontier  of  the  United  States,  and  we 
have  been  in  contact  with  no  highly  organized  and  powerful  mili- 
tary nation.  Our  relations  with  our  continental  neighbors  have 
been  peaceful  and  friendly,  and  the  development  of  civilization 
on  this  continent  has  had  an  industrial  and  commercial  aspect 
with  little  or  no  suggestion  of  military  preparation.  We  have, 
it  is  true,  given  far  less  thought  to  the  problem  of  transportation 

69176*'--WAB  1916— VOL  1 2 


16  EEPORT  OF  THE  SECBETAEY  OF  WAB. 

the  border,  and  without  minimizing  the  inconvenience  to  which 
these  men  have  been  put  and  the  sacrifices  which  they  have  made,  I 
can  not  help  feeling  that  they  have  received  some  compensation  from 
the  experience,  as  they  present  uniformly  pictures  of  splendid, 
vigorous  bodies  of  men,  trained  and  disciplined,  and  with  the  added 
dignity  which  comes  from  having  performed  a  saving  service  for 
their  country. 

Many  valuable  lessons  will  be  learned  from  this  mobilization  experi- 
ence which  the  department  hopes  can  be  applied  in  further  organiza- 
tion of  the  National  Guard.  As  yet  it  is  too  soon  to  sum  up  in  detail 
all  of  these  experiences,  nor  would  it  be  just  to  the  Guard  to  measure 
its  response  to  this  need  by  a  mere  statistical  exhibit  of  its  condition 
at  the  time  of  the  call  or  the  time  of  the  transfer  of  its  units  to  the 
border.  In  this  connection,  however,  I  desire  to  point  out  that 
under  modern  conditions  one  of  the  great  needs  of  the  Army  organ- 
ization is  a  suitable  program  of  recreational  activity  for  soldiers 
during  periods  of  enforced  inactivity.  In  his  home  station  the 
soldier  of  the  Regular  Army  will  undoubtedly  in  the  future  make 
use  more  and  more  largely  of  educational  opportunities  and  there 
will  be  automatically  evolved  certain  recreational  activities  proper 
to  the  place,  the  climate,  and  the  disposition  of  the  men,  but  the 
soldier  in  camp  has  not  the  permanent  facilities  which  can  be  found 
in  the  well-ordered  Army  post.  His  entire  time  can  not  be  spent 
in  drill,  and  there  is,  therefore,  very  great  need  for  the  development 
of  a  systematic  plan  which  will  provide  for  the  soldier  under  such 
conditions  an  opportunity  for  sound,  healthful,  and  agreeable  recrea- 
tion. The  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  has  realized  this  need 
and  most  generously  undertaken  to  provide  facilities  for  our  troops 
on  the  border  which  under  the  conditions  may  be  regarded  as  com- 
parable to  social  and  recreational  opportunities  offered  by  their 
institutions  to  the  young  men  of  our  cities.  Undoubtedly,  this 
service  has  been  of  the  highest  value  and  has  been  appreciated  by 
the  men  as  well  as  by  the  department.  I  venture,  however,  to  express 
the  hope  that  we  shall  be  able  to  devise,  as  a  part  of  our  own  siys- 
tematic  provision  for  the  Army,  recreational  facilities  and  opportuni- 
ties which  will  follow  the  Army  to  its  camp,  and  both  brighten  the 
life  of  the  Army  and  occupy  the  leisure  of  its  members  when  the 
exigencies  of  the  service  require  their  separation  from  accustomed 


BEPOET  OF  THE  8ECRETAEY  OP  WAB.  17 

opportunities  of  the  kind.  In  the  development  of  such  a  program 
we  can  remember  that  for  the  most  part  any  Army  is  made  up  of 
young  men,  and  those  wholesome  recreations  and  activities  to  which 
young  men  normally  resort  can  be  made  the  basis  of  what  the  Army 
ought  to  undertake  to  supply  for  its  own  uses. 

Transportation  of  the  Regulor  Arm/y  and  militia  to  the  Mexican 
border, — In  a  previous  portion  of  this  report  I  have  discussed  the  raid 
on  Columbus,  N.  Hex.,  and  the  military  measures  adopted  in  con- 
sequence of  it,  including  the  call  of  the  Organized  Militia  and 
National  Guard  into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  It  seems 
to  me  worth  while,  however,  to  make  a  somewhat  detailed  refer- 
ence to  the  transportation  of  these  troops  to  the  Mexican  border, 
both  because  I  desire  an  opportunity  to  report  specifically  the  efficient 
cooperation  of  the  railroads  with,  the  Government  and  also  be- 
cause the  general  question  of  transportation  facilities  is  one  of 
very  great  military  importance. 

The  railroads  of  the  United  States  have  been  built  in  response 
to  commercial  and  industrial  needs.  Our  continent  has  been  de- 
veloped and  opened  up  by  a  process  of  railroad  building  which 
had  in  view  the  transportation  of  raw  materials  and  finished  prod- 
ucts, rendering  our  mineral  and  lumber  resources  accessible  and 
enabling  our  rapidly  increasing  population  to  develop  the  agri- 
cultural  and  economic  resources  of  the  Nation.  It  is  probably  just 
to  say,  however,  that  very  little  thought  has  been  given  in  our 
railroad  development  to  their  possible  use  for  military  purposes. 
We  have  built  no  strategic  railroads,  our  frontiers  have  been  neg- 
lected as  possible  scenes  of  military  operations,  and  there  has  ac- 
cordingly been  little  or  no  railroad  building  which  had  as  its  object 
a  possible  call  upon  the  railroads  of  the  country  rapidly  to  trans- 
port large  bodies  of  men  and  to  maintain  continuous  streams  of 
military  supplies  for  their  support.  This  was  not  unnatural,  as 
the  wide  seas  have  been  the  frontier  of  the  United  States,  and  we 
have  been  in  contact  with  no  highly  organized  and  powerful  mili- 
tary nation.  Our  relations  with  our  continental  neighbors  have 
been  peaceful  and  friendly,  and  the  development  of  civilization 
on  this  continent  has  had  an  industrial  and  commercial  aspect 
with  little  or  no  suggestion  of  military  preparation.  We  have, 
it  is  true,  given  far  less  thought  to  the  problem  of  transportation 

69176'— WAB  1916— VOL  1 2 


18  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB. 

from  a  military  point  of  view  than  other  great  nations,  but  our 
occasion  for  thinking  in  that  direction  has  been  less  urgent.  The 
War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff  has  made  interesting 
and  valuable  studies  upon  the  mobilization  and  use  of  transpor- 
tation equipment,  and  undoubtedly  the  Council  of  National  De- 
fense will  give  further  valuable  study  to  this  question;  but  the 
disturbed  condition  on  the  Mexican  border  in  consequence  of  the 
Columbus  raid  gave  us  an  actual  experiment  in  the  use  of  our 
railroads,  the  readiness  with  which  their  facilities  could  be  organ- 
ized in  the  service  of  the  Government,  and' a  most  instructive  and 
helpful  demonstration  of  the  hearty  cooperation  which  the  Gov- 
ernment can  expect  from  those  who  manage  these  great  trans- 
portation enterprises.  From  the  report  of  the  Quartermaster  Gen- 
eral I  quote  the  following  description  of  the  steps  taken  and  the 
results  obtained : 

OOOPKBATION  BrfWIUCN  THS  TBAN8P0BTATI0N  OOICPANDBS  AND  THE  QUABTEBMA8TEB 

C0BP8. 

Especial  attention  was  devoted  daring  the  fiscal  year  1916  to  the  establish- 
ment of  a  closer  cooperation  between  the  Quartermaster  Ck)rps  and  the  various 
transportation  interests  with  a  view  to  coordination  in  the  movements  of  troops 
and  supplies  for  the  Army.  The  officer  in  charge  of  the  transportation  division. 
Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General,  appeared  before  several  of  the  transporta- 
tion associations  and  outlined  a  plan  of  mutual  cooperation  which  would  be  of 
benefit  to  both  the  carriers  and  the  Government  in  case  any  necessity  arose 
involving  the  transportation  of  large  numbers  of  troops,  the  plan  outlined  being 
practically  that  which  has  since  been  placed  in  effect. 

Under  date  of  October  16,  1915,  a  letter  was  prepared  in  the  Office  of  the 
Quartermaster  General  recommending  that  the  Secretary  of  War  communicate 
with  the  American  Railway  Association  (which  association  is  composed  of  the 
presidents,  general  managers,  and  other  chief  operating  officials  of  the  Ameri- 
can raUways),  and  suggest  the  establishment  within  that  association  of  a 
committee  on  military  transportation  to  whom  the  department  could  look  for 
any  information  that  might  be  desired  as  to  the  railroads  of  the  United  States, 
and  with  a  further  view  to  coordination  and  cooperation  between  the  raUroads 
and  the  War  Department  in  the  transportation  of  troops  and  suppUes  of  the 
United  States.  On  October  26,  1915,  a  letter  of  the  nature  indicated  was  sent 
by  the  Secretary  of  War  to  the  American  Railway  Association,  and  after  some 
further  correspondence  a  "special  committee  on  cooperation  with  the  mUitary 
authorities"  was  appointed  by  that  association.  This  conunittee  was,  and  is, 
composed  of  the  foUowing  gentlemen: 

Fairfax  Harrison  (chairman),  president  Southern  RaUway. 

R.  M.  Aishton,  president  (Chicago  &  North  Western  RaUway. 


EEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OP  WAB.  19 

A.  W.  Thompson,  vice  president  Baltimore  &  Oliio  Railroad. 

W.  G.  Besler,  president  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey. 

Conferences  were  held  with  this  committee,  and  a  general  plan  of  cooperation 
outlined  to  be  placed  in  effect  at  the  time  of  any  public  emergency. 

Immediately  after  the  call  for  mobilization  of  the  State  troops  was  issued 
this  committee  met  in  the  Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General  with  Lieut  Col. 
C3hauncey  B.  Baker,  representing  that  office,  and  the  plans  previously  determined 
were  at  once  placed  in  effect  Arrangements  were  made  for  placing  a  compe- 
tent railroad  official  at  each  department  headquarters,  at  each  mobilization 
camp,  and  in  the  Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General.  These  representatives 
were  to  act  as  an  advisor  to  the  officers  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps  at  these 
various  points  on  any  matters  affecting  rail  transportation.  They  were  all 
men  of  the  highest  reputation  in  the  railroad  world  and  did  not  represent  any 
particular  railroad,  but  were  representatives  of  all  lines  interested. 

Directly  after  the  announcement  of  the  mobilization  this  committee  of  the 
American  Railway  Association  also  called  upon  representatives  of  the  various 
railroads  of  the  country  to  meet  in  Washington  for  the  purpose  of  extending 
every  possible  assistance  among  the  railroads  themselves.  The  object  of  this 
meeting  was  to  make  all  of  the  railroad  equipment  motive  power,  and  personnel 
of  the  country  available  to  affect  this  movement  in  the  most  expeditious  manner 
possDile. 

The  main  object  of  the  special  committee  on  cooperation  with  the  military 
authorities  was  to  asHst  the  War  Department  in  the  transportation  of  troops 
and  supplies,  and  the  committee  acted  only  on  instructions  from  the  War 
Department  except  in  matters  directly  affecting  the  operation  of  trains. 

When  it  was  definitely  known  that  an  organization  was  to  move  the  camp 
quartermaster  consulted  with  the  American  Railroad  Association  representative 
at  his  camp  and  advised  him  as  to  the  strength  of  the  organization,  and  it  was 
the  duty  of  the  American  Railway  Association  representative  to  see  that  all 
railroad  equipment  other  than  tourist  cars,  was  promptly  assembled  in  time 
for  the  movement  Tourist  cars  were  ordered  direct  from  the  Office  of  the 
Quartermaster  General,  and  the  camp  quartermaster  was  immediately  advised 
by  wire  whether  tourist  cars  could  be  furnished  from  point  of  origin;  if  not, 
the  American  Railway  Association  representative  was  so  advised,  and  it  was 
his  duty  to  see  that  coaches  were  senired  for  the  movement 

In  1912  the  Quartermaster  General's  Office  took  up  with  the  American  Rail- 
way Master  Car  Builders'  Association  the  question  of  placing  placards,  in  time 
of  war  or  threatened  war,  on  all  carload  shipments  of  Government  property. 
As  a  result  of  a  large  amount  of  correspondence  a  plan  was  formulated  which 
was  accepted  by  all  the  railroads  in  the  country,  and  a  series  of  placards  adopted. 
Through  the  agency  of  the  American  Railway  Association  all  railway  officials 
and  employees  were  notified  that  cars  so  placarded  must  be  given  right  of  way 
from  point  of  origin  to  point  of  destination.  Such  cars  are  placed  in  the 
fastest  moving  freight  trains  and  kept  constantly  moving  to  point  of  destina> 


20  BEPOBT  OP  THE  SEOBBTABY  OP  WAB. 

tlon,  where  they  are  immediately  delivered,  and  at  once  identified,  shifted  Into 
position,  discharged,  and  released  without  the  necessity  of  waiting  for  the 
formal  bills  of  lading  and  official  papers  of  the  railways  and  the  Government, 
the  placards  themselves  serving  to  fully  identify  all  shipments.  All  placards 
bear  the  legend  "  UNITED  STATES  ARMY  "  at  the  head,  followed  by  the  de- 
partment to  which  supplies  belong,  the  car  initial,  car  number,  point  of 
shipment,  contents,  consignee,  destination,  routing,  date  shipped,  and  con- 
signor. Oars  bearing  these  cards  are  never  sidetracked  nor  shifted  into  yards 
except  to  be  placed  in  through  freight  trains.  Should  a  car  become  dam- 
aged through  any  cause,  it  is  given  preference  and  precedence  for  any  repairs ; 
and  if  repairs  require  an  extended  period,  contents  are  loaded  into  another  car 
and  the  movement  continued. 

As  a  result  of  this  understanding  between  the  railroads  and  the  Quarter- 
master Qenerars  Office  shipments  of  freight  are  being  made  with  remarkable 
expedition.  Many  instances  are  cited  where  freight  shipments  have  been  sent 
through  from  Washington  and  vicinity  to  the  Texas  border  in  four  days,  and 
from  New  York  and  vicinity  In  five  days  or  less;  freight  from  Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  has  reached  San  Antonio,  Tex.,  in  79  hours ;  from  the  Lakes  to  the  border 
shipments  have  been  made  in  an  elapsed  time  of  a  little  more  than  48  hours. 

The  hearty  cooperation  of  the  railroads  in  making  these  shipments  has  been 
rendered  without  any  hesitation  whatever,  with  all  the  energy  possible,  and 
without  additional  charge  to  the  Government. 

It  is  believed  that  this  simple  device,  with  the  fullest  cooperation  of  the 
railroads,  has  removed  one  of  the  principal  sources  of  criticism  applicable  to 
the  period  of  mobilization  in  18d8. 

Where  special,  urgent  shipments  have  been  made  they  have  been  followed 
through  by  wire  to  destination,  and  most  satisfactory  results  have  been  obtained 
in  every  instance. 

As  a  specific  example  showing  how  the  cooperation  of  the  railroad  com- 
panies assisted  the  Army  there  may  be  cited  the  case  of  the  first  motor  truck 
company  purchased  for  the  expeditionary  forces  in  Mexico. 

Bids  were  Invited  for  a  number  of  trucks,  and  award  made  about  5  o'clock 
the  evening  of  March  14.  Twenty-seven  trucks  were  purchased  under  this 
advertisement  in  Wisconsin.  These  trucks  were  inspected,  the  personnel  to 
operate  them  employed,  the  trucks  were  loaded  in  14  cars,  and  tourist  car 
furnished  for  the  personnel,  and  the  train  left  at  8.11  a.  m.  March  16.  It 
arrived  at  Ck)lumbus,  N.  Mex.,  1,601  miles  away,  shortly  after  noon  on  the  18th ; 
the  trucks  were  unloaded  from  the  cars,  loaded  with  supplies,  and  sent  across 
the  border,  reaching  Gen.  Pershing's  command  with  adequate  supplies  of  food 
before  he  had  exhausted  the  supplies  taken  with  him  from  Oolumbus. 

In  a  little  more  than  four  days  after  orders  were  placed  with  the  manufac- 
turers these  trucks  had  gone  across  the  border  at  Columbus,  1,000  miles  away 
from  the  factory,  loaded  with  supplies. 

The  general  plan  of  cooperation  also  provided  for  coordinating  the  duties  of 
the  Pullman  Co.  in  furnishing  sleeping-car  equipment,  and  under  this  plan,  when 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  8ECRETABY  OP  WAB.  21 

it  became  necessary  to  mobilize  the  Organized  Militia,  tlie  supply  and  distri- 
bution of  tourist  sleeping  cars  was  handled  directly  under  the  Instructions 
of  the  Quartermaster  General  of  the  Army.  In  order  to  centralize  the  furnish- 
ing of  tourist  sleepers  at  the  point  most  convenient  to  the  Oovemment,  to 
utilize  the  available  supply  of  these  cars  to  the  best  advantage,  and  to  ke^ 
them  constantly  in  service  the  Pullman  Ck).  changed  the  supervision  of  the 
supply  and  movement  of  these  cars  from  the  headquarters  of  the  company  at 
Chicago  to  Washington,  where  they  stationed  Mr.  C.  W.  Henry,  assistant  to 
superintendent  of  car  service,  with  a  competent  force.  Mr.  Henry  was  In  Imme- 
diate touch  with  the  Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General,  and  on  receipt  of 
request  from  camp  quartermasters  for  tourist  cars  he  was  advised  of  the  needs 
and  at  once  took  steps  to  supply  the  cars  if  they  were  available  at  any  point 
Reports  were  received  by  him  dally  from  all  parts  of  the  United  States  showing 
the  number  of  tourist  cars  that  were  available  In  all  sections  of  the  country,  and 
in  cases  when,  on  account  of  the  necessity  for  immediate  departure.  It  was 
Impossible  to  furnish  cars  from  the  starting  point,  this  branch  of  the  Pullman 
Co.  used  every  effort  to  furnish  the  cars  en  route,  Inunedlately  starting  such 
cars  as  could  be  secured  over  the  route  to  be  taken  by  the  troops,  so  that  they 
could  be  transferred  to  tourist  sleeping  cars  at  the  first  possible  opportunity. 
During  the  first  two  weeks  of  the  concentration  this  force  was  on  duty  until 
nearly  midnight  every  day,  including  Sundays,  and  deserves  great  credit  for 
the  excellent  assistance  rendered  the  Government 

The  great  value  of  the  plans  made  for  cooperation  and  coordination  between 
the  railroads  and  the  War  Department  was  fully  demonstrated  In  the  mobiliza- 
tion and  concentration  of  the  Organized  Mllltla.  Every  assistance  possible  was 
rendered  the  Government,  not  only  by  the  American  Railway  Association  and 
the  Pullman  Ck).,  but  by  the  various  passenger  associations,  and  by  the  officials 
and  employees  of  all  the  railroads  concerned,  from  the  presidents  of  the  com- 
panies down  to  the  minor  employees.  In  addition  to  the  representative  of  the 
American  Railway  Association,  nearly  all  the  Important  southwestern  railway 
lines  had  representatives  In  Washington  during  the  entire  movement,  and  these 
representatives  kept  In  close  touch  with  the  transportation  over  their  respective 
lines  and  were  available  for  consultation  at  any  time,  if  desired  by  the  depart- 
ment. The  cooperation  of  the  American  Railway  Association  representatives, 
with  their  expert  knowledge  of  transportation  conditions,  has  proved  of  great 
value  to  the  department,  and  quartermasters  Imve  been  relieved  of  a  great 
deal  of  trouble  and  annoyance  heretofore  experienced  In  the  mobilization  of 
large  bodies  of  troops. 

It  is  believed  that  the  careful  plan  of  cooperation  adopted  and  the  assistance 
of  the  transportation  interests  in  this  plan  has  demonstrated  that  the  problem 
of  rail  congestion,  which  was  the  bugaboo  of  the  mobilization  of  troops  In  1898, 
has  been  entirely  eliminated. 

The  arrangements  entered  Into  with  railway  lines  in  eastern  and  western 
territory,  as  referred  to  in  the  Ajmual  Report  of  the  Quartermaster  (General  for 
1015,  pages  50  and  51,  were  continued  during  the  fiscal  year  1916,  and  resulted 


22  EEPOBT  OP  THE  SECRETAEY  OF  WAB. 

In  a  saying  of  approximately  $40,000  on  passenger  traffic.  Negotiations  are 
now  under  way  witli  lines  in  New  England  and  soutlieastern  territory  on  a 
similar  basis  with  every  prospect  of  a  successful  conclusion ;  this  arrangement 
will  then  cover  the  entire  United  States.  Briefly,  it  provides  for  a  deduction 
of  5  per  cent  from  the  usual  fare  available  to  the  Government  and  for  an  equita- 
ble distribution  of  the  traffic  between  all  lines  Interested ;  it  simplifies  the  settle- 
ment of  accounts  and  insures  the  cooperation  of  the  various  carriers. 

During  the  early  days  of  the  transportation  of  large  bodies  of  the 
militia  to  the  Mexican  border  some  uneasiness  was  felt  throughout 
the  country  lest  the  great  distances  to  be  traveled  by  some  of  these 
organizations  and  the  hurried  preparation  of  their  supplies  might 
produce  conditions  prejudicial  to  the  health  and  comfort  of  the  men. 
This  apprehension  was  quickly  allayed.  The  cases  of  inconvenience 
were  relatively  few.  No  really  serious  situation  developed,  and  it 
seems  to  me  just  to  claim  for  the  War  Department  and  for  the  co- 
operating railroads  that  they  managed  a  task,  although  of  unusual 
difficulty  and  size,  with  great  skill  and  most  commendable  success. 
After  the  first  hurried  days  order  rapidly  appeared  and  although  we 
have  during  the  past  summer  moved  larger  bodies  of  troops  longer 
distances  than  is  at  all  customary,  the  movements  have  been  carried 
out  with  order,  and  most  comfortable  and  adequate  provision  has  been 
made  for  the  men  both  going  to  and  returning  from  the  Mexican 
border. 

Motor-truck  transportation. — ^The  absence  of  railroad  facilities 
paralleling  the  international  boundary  between  Mexico  and  the 
United  States  and  the  penetration  of  the  Pershing  expedition  into 
Mexico  at  a  point  removed  from  inmiediate  access  to  railroad  facili- 
ties led  to  very  large  use  by  the  Army  of  motor  trucks.  The  report 
of  the  Quartermaster  General  covers  in  detail  the  purchases  made 
and  the  service  rendered.  I  refer  to  the  subject  only  to  point  out 
that  the  department  was  able  to  maintain  by  motor  truck  an  un- 
broken supply  service  for  Gen.  Periling  and  enormously  to  increase 
the  efficiency  of  the  border  patrol  by  the  use  of  motor  vehicles.  The 
development  of  the  motor  truck  in  the  past  few  years  has  produced  a 
vehicle  which  is  able  to  traverse  wild,  unbroken  coimtry  and,  ex- 
cept under  abnormal  conditions,  to  transport  soldiers  and  their 
supplies  with  certainty  and  rapidity.  Our  whole  experience  in 
this  regard  is  of  great  value,  and  careful  studies  are  being  made 
of  the  efficiency  of  the  various  types  of  motor  vehicles  in  the 
border  service.    Undoubtedly  a  standard-size  truck  and  a  stand- 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB.  28 

ard  design  will  be  evolved,  and  the  subsequent  equipment  of  the 
Army  with  motor  baggage  trains  and  motor-propelled  ordnance 
will  proceed  upon  a  sounder  foundation  of  information  than  could 
have  been  possible  but  for  the  lessons  learned  from  this  experience. 


Inci^ease  in  enlisted  strength  in  an  emergency. — By  joint  resolu- 
tion approved  March  17,  1916,  Congress  made  provision  for  increas- 
ing the  number  of  enlisted  men  of  the  Army  in  an  emergency,  in  the 
following  language: 

•  •  •  When  In  the  Judgment  of  the  President  an  emergency  arises  which 
makes  it  necessary*  aU  organisations  of  the  Army  which  are  now  below  the 
maximum  enlisted  strength  authorized  by  law  shall  be  raised  forthwith  to 
that  strength  and  shall  be  maintained  as  nearly  as  possible  thereat  so  long 
as  the  emergency  shall  continue:  Provided,  That  the  total  enlisted  strength 
of  any  of  said  arms  of  the  service  shall  not  Include  unassigned  recruits 
therefor  at  depots  or  elsewhere,  but  such  recruits  shall  at  no  time  exceed 
by  more  than  five  per  centum  the  total  enlisted  strength  prescribed  for 
such  arms;  and  the  enlisted  men  now  or  hereafter  authorized  by  law  for 
other  branches  of  the  military  service  shall  be  provided  and  maintained 
without  any  Impairment  of  the  enlisted  strength  prescribed  for  any  of  said  arms. 

The  strength  of  the  Army  authorized  under  the  provisions  of  the 
act  of  Februarv  2,  1901,  as  modified  by  the  joint  resolution  of 
March  17,  lOlG,  is  as  follows: 


nnnobw  of  Mrvic«. 


Enlbted 
men. 


<^iMrUnnMt«r  Corpi 

MsdimI  D«paftm«iit 

rorra  of  En^liiccn 

OroDaBc*  r)«ii«rtm«Dt 

Siioial  Corfii 

OftTslry 

Field  Artnipry 

CoMt  ArtUltfy  C«n» 

InluitrT 

Porto  Kico  Rtflmrot  of  Inftm try 

UnlUd  SUtM  HOiterY  Anuteiiif  dttadimtnti 

RocniltlDff  partita,  rttniii  d«pMS,  and  unaaiijEDed  raenilta 

UaitodStAtM  Dlfciplliiary  Bvnckacuarda 

Borrfcx  ochool  dttaenni  tnts 

With  dJaciplinvy  or0uUt»tlau 

Moimtid  orderliw 

iBdJan  ■DDuta 


•  6,409 

1,083 

l.llS 

1,473 

17,694 

6,368 

19,321 

64,443 

699 

683 

6,006 

360 

746 

110 

7 

78 


Total  R»ffiitar  A  nay. 
PhlllppiM  acoitu 


117.305 
6.733 


133.038 


•  InqladM  tnltatod  stmiKth  (6,000  men)  of  the  Qtmrtermaater  Corpa,  whlob  under  the  proTliiona  of  the 
•ft  of  rooKrcMi  apnrovcd  Aur.  34,  1913  (37  St&t.  L.,  6(0),  are  not  to  be  counted  aa  a  part  of  the  eollated 
fom  provided  bv  law.  Under  the  proviafona  of  the  act  of  June  3, 1016,  the  enlisted  atrength  of  tbe  Quar- 
termaater  Corpa  h  Included  in  the  s&encth  of  the  Ref^ilar  Army. 

»  The  act  of  Jime  3, 1916,  provldaa  that  the  enllated  «tr«nfrth  of  the  Hoepital  Corps  ia  not  to  be  oountMl  as 
a  part  of  the  enllated  atranj^th  of  the  Army,  which  la  fimilar  to  the  provlaloo  contained  in  the  act  of  Mar.  L 
107  (M  8^t  L.,  436).    The  authorlied  strength  of  the  Uoapital  Corpa  on  Jane  30.  ivitt.  was  6,3881 


24  EEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR, 

Recruiting. — For  some  time  prior  to  the  date  of  this  enactment  the 
general  recruiting  service  had  been  so  successful  in  keeping  the  Army 
filled  to  the  strength  then  authorized  that  recruiting  had  been  cur- 
tailed and  at  various  times  it  had  been  found  necessary  to  discon- 
tinue the  acceptance  of  new  applicants  for  enlistment  in  some  arms 
of  the  service. 

Anticipating  the  action  of  Congress  in  enacting  the  joint  resolu- 
tion of  March  17,  1916,  orders  were  given  en  March  13,  1916,  to  re- 
open recruiting  stations  that  had  been  closed  and  to  open  additional 
ones  in  productive  places  and  to  prosecute  the  work  of  obtaining 
recruits  for  the  Army  without  regard  to  hours.  Recruiting  oflScers 
circularized  the  population  of  the  districts  in  which  they  were  op- 
erating with  special  circulars  showing  the  advantages  of  Army  life 
and  urging  all  qualified  to  avail  themselves  of  those  advantages. 

An  experienced  sergeant  in  the  recruiting  service  was  detailed 
with  the  Government  exhibit  on  the  "Safety-first''  train,  which 
made  a  tour  of  the  country  during  last  spring  and  summer.  Printed 
matter  relating  to  the  recruiting  service  was  distributed  in  large 
quantities,  including  thousands  of  copies  of  the  law  enacted  May  4, 
1916,  authorizing  the  appointment  of  cadets  to  the  United  States 
Military  Academy  from  the  ranks  of  the  Army.  This  seemed  to 
arouse  a  great  deal  of  interest  among  a  very  desirable  class  of  young 
men  who  visited  the  train. 

All  recruiting  oflScers  were  also  advised  of  the  provisions  of  this 
law  and  instructed  to  give  it  the  widest  publicity  possible. 

A  booklet  setting  forth  the  experiences  of  a  recruit  for  the  Army 
at  a  recruit  depot  was  also  published.  It  was  prepared  by  a  news- 
paper reporter  who  entered  the  recruit  depot  as  a  recruit  and  was 
afforded  every  opportunity  to  acquaint  himself  thoroughly  with  the 
manner  in  which  the  Army  prepares  its  soldiers  at  recruit  depots 
before  sending  them  to  their  organizations.  The  author  lived  the 
life  of  a  recruit  at  the  depot,  was  granted  no  indulgences  other  than 
those  extended  to  other  recruits,  and  relates  his  experiences  in  a 
thoroughly  unprejudiced  manner. 

Another  publication  issued  by  the  recruiting  service  shows  the 
various  employments  in  civil  life  open  to  soldiers  who  have  availed 
themselves  of  the  many  opportunities  for  vocational  training 
afforded  by  the  Army  and  have  been  discharged  with  a  good  char- 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  25 

acter.  It  is  contemplated  to  have  the  recruiting  officers  scattered 
throughout  the  country  in  the  centers  of  population  lend  every 
assistance  possible  toward  securing  for  honorably  discharged  soldiers 
employment  in  civil  life  in  the  various  capacities  set  forth  in  the 
publication.  It  is  hoped  and  believed  that  the  fact  made  known 
through  this  publication  that  the  Government  does  not  lose  interest 
in  the  former  soldier  upon  his  discharge  from  the  service,  but  aids 
him  in  applying  in  civil  life  the  vocational  training  he  has  acquired 
in  the  Army,  will  go  a  long  way  toward  convincing  the  public  that 
the  term  of  service  in  the  Army  is  a  very  desirable  experience  for 
any  young  man — an  experience  that  will  not  only  aid  him  physically 
and  mentally,  that  will  not  only  train  him  morally  and  manually, 
but  that  will  also  enable  him  to  advance  himself  by  reason  of  that 
mental  and  manual  training  in  civil  life  after  he  shall  have  been 
separated  from  military  service. 

There  has  been  an  increase  in  the  number  of  accepted  applicants 
for  enlistment  since  the  passage  of  the  joint  resolution  referred  to, 
but  it  has  not  been  as  marked  an  increase  as  desired.  This  is  un- 
doubtedly due  to  several  causes.  The  first  and  probably  the  prin- 
cipal cause  is  the  present  labor  condition  throughout  the  country. 
Recruiting  officers  from  all  sections  report  that  never  in  their  experi- 
ence has  there  been  the  demand  for  labor  in  all  lines  of  industry  that 
exists  and  that  has  existed  for  the  past  several  months.  In  the  large 
manufacturing  districts  the  demand  for  labor  is  far  in  excess  of  the 
supply.  Wages  are  high  and  all  who  desire  employment  readily 
secure  it.  In  the  agricultural  districts  the  demand  for  labor  was 
active  during  the  summer  and  early  fall,  and  the  supply  was  inade- 
quate. Thus  the  recruiting  service,  which  is  simply  one  of  many 
employers,  has  been  unable  to  secure  the  recruits  needed.  However, 
during  June,  July,  and  August,  1916,  the  number  of  enlistments 
increased  practically  175  per  cent  over  the  number  for  the  corre- 
sponding months  in  1915. 

The  National-Defense  Act  approved  June  8,  1916,  authorizes  the 
President,  in  his  discretion,  to  utilize  the  services  of  postmasters  of 
the  second,  third,  and  fourth  classes  in  procuring  enlistments  of 
recruits  for  the  Army,  and  as  a  result  of  your  action  under  this  law 
all  postmasters  of  the  second,  third,  and  fourth  classes  in  the  United 
States,  estimated  to  be  about  56,000,  are  now  authorized  to  act  as 
recruiting  agents  for  the  Army. 


26 


BEPOBT  OP  THE  SECRETABY  OF  WAB. 


In  addition  to  the  duty  of  recruiting  for  the  Regular  Army,  the 
recruiting  service  has  been  charged  recently  with  the  duty  of  recruit- 
ing for  the  Organized  Militia  mustered  into  the  military  service  of 
the  United  States. 

Authorized  strength. — On  June  30,  1916,  the  authorized  strength 
of  the  Kegular  Army,  including  Medical  Department,  was  5,018 
officers  and  122,693  enlisted  men;  an  increase  of  184  officers  and 
25,445  enlisted  men  over  the  preceding  year.  In  addition,  the  au- 
thorized strength  of  the  Philippine  Scouts  was  182  officers  and  5,733 
enlisted  men,  the  same  as  during  the  preceding  year. 

Actual  strength. — On  June  30,  1916,  the  actual  strength  of  the 
Regular  Army,  including  Medical  Department,  was  4,843  officers  and 
97,013  enlisted  men;  a  total  of  101,856,  and  an  increase  during  the 
year  of  227  officers  and  1,248  enlisted  men.  In  addition  to  this,  the 
actual  strength  of  the  Philippine  Scouts  was  182  officers,  the  same  as 
last  year,  and  5,603  enlisted  men,  an  increase  of  173  during  the  year. 

On  that  date  the  Army,  including  the  Philippine  Scouts,  was  dis- 
tributed geographically  as  follows: 


Oeognphical  distribution. 


Officers. 


In  th€  United  States* 

In  Alflska. .  .......  .    •••••    •••••»•••••••«..• 

In  the  Philippine  Isliuidj: 

Uesnilar  Army 

Philippine  Scouts. 

In  China. 

In  Porto  Rico 

In  Hawaii 

In  the  Canal  Zone 

Troops  en  route  and  olBoers  at  foreign  stations. 


Total. 


Total. 


71,038 
792 

U,884 
6,785 
1,374 

714 
8,445 
7.099 

610 

107,041 


«  Includes  troops  serving  In  Mexico. 

*  Includes  154  first  lieutenants  of  the  Medical  Reserve  Corps. 

*  Includes  4,670  enlisted  men  of  the  Medical  Department. 

Increased  strength  and  organization  provided  hy  National-Defense 
Act. — ^The  National-Defense  Act  of  June  3,  1916,  authorized  a  con- 
siderable increase  in  the  national  forces;  the  increase  in  the  number 
of  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular  Army  to  be  made  in  five 
annual  increments,  beginning  July  1,  1916.  It  provides  for  four 
chesses  of  soldiers  in  the  United  States:  First,  the  Regular  Army; 
second,  the  National  Guard ;  third,  the  Enlisted  Reserve  Corps ;  all 
of  which  shall  exist  in  time  of  peace;  and,  fourth,  the  Volunteer 
Army,  which  shall  be  raised  only  in  time  of  war.  The  peace  strength 
of  the  Regular  Army  is  fixed  by  the  act  at  approximately  11,450 


EEPOBT  OP  THE  SEOEETAEY  OP  WAB.  27 

officers,  including  the  182  officers  of  the  Philippine  Scouts;  not  to 
exceed  175,000  troops  of  the  line  (including  the  Ordnance  JDepart- 
ment),  approximately  42,750  noncombatant  troops,  including  the 
unassigned  recruits,  and  5,733  Philippine  Scouts,  making  a  total 
of  approximately  223,580.  The  total  enlisted  strength  of  the  Medi- 
cal Department  is  limited  to  5  per  cent  of  the  total  enlisted  strength 
of  the  Army,  and  it  can  not  be  determined  at  this  time  because 
the  strength  of  all  the  other  staff  corps  and  departments  is  not  fixed. 
The  National  Guard  will  probably  consist  of  about  17,000  officers 
and  440,000  men.  The  number  of  men  who  will  join  the  Enlisted 
Reserve  Corps  can  not  be  foretold.  They  are  practically  enlisted 
specialists  for  the  technical  departments  of  the  Army  recruited  in 
time  of  peace  for  use  in  time  of  war  only,  and  are  subject  in  time 
of  peace  to  short  periods  of  training  yearly.  Volunteers  can  be 
called  in  time  of  war  when  and  in  such  numbers  as  Congress  shall 
authorize. 

The  maximum  number  of  officers  (war  strength)  of  the  Begular 
Army  under  the  act  is  approximately  12,030,  the  additional  580  over 
peace  strength  being  in  the  Medical  Department.  The  exact  nimiber 
of  officers  authorized  can  not  be  given  because  the  number  of  addi- 
tional officers  varies  from  time  to  time,  and  the  number  of  retired 
officers  that  will  be  transferred  to  the  active  list  tmder  the  provisions 
of  the  act  of  March  4, 1915,  can  not  be  foretold.  The  total  maximum 
enlisted  strength  (war  strength)  of  the  Regular  Army,  including  the 
Philippine  Scouts,  is  approximately  298,000.  This  figure  is  based 
on  total  increases  in  the  staff  corps  and  departments  in  proportion 
to  the  increases  authorized  for  the  first  increment. 

The  total  nimiber  of  officers  authorized  for  the  fiscal  year  1917  is 
7,252,  including  182  officers  of  the  Philippine  Scouts. 

By  General  Orders  No.  50,  September  23,  1916,  as  am^ded,  the 
organization  of  the  authorized  enlisted  strength  of  the  Army,  includ- 
ing the  first  increment  under  the  act  of  June  3, 1916,  was  established 
as  follows : 

Infantry,  38  regiments 51, 224 

Cavalry,  17  regiments 17, 857 

Field  Artillery,  9  regiments 7, 881 

Engineers,  3  regiments  and  1  mounted  company 2, 108 

Coast  Artillery  Coii>s 21, 423 

Staff  corps  and  departments 19. 224 


28  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR* 

Philippine  Scouts 5, 783 

Miscellaneous  organizations  and  special  allowances 18,857 

Total  enlisted  strength  of  the  Army  (Including  the  Medical  De- 
partment)   188,807 

Total  enlisted  strength  of  the  Army,  excluding  the  Medical  Department-  182, 288 
Total  enlisted  strength  of  the  Army,  excluding  the  Porto  Rico  Regiment, 
the  Philippine  Scouts,  and  the  unassigned  recruits,  and  including  the 

Medical  Department 128, 108 

Total  enlisted  force  of  the  line  of  the  Regular  Army,  excluding  the 
Philippine  Scouts  and  the  enlisted  men  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps,  of 
the  Medical  Department,  and  of  the  Signal  Corps,  and  the  unassigned 
recruits 106,558 

Actual  increase. — ^The  actual  increase  in  the  Army,  provided  as  a 
part  of  the  general  legislation  for  preparedness,  is  as  follows: 

An  increase  in  the  Army  of  about  6yJi20  officers  at  minimum  or 
peace  strength  and  about  7/)00  at  maximum  strength^  and  of  about 
llfifiOO  enlisted  men  at  minimum  and  about  170/)00  at  maximum 
strength^  the  increase  to  be  m>ade  in  five  annual  increments, — The 
Army  will  be  increased  34rJ  regiments  of  Infantry,  10  regiments  of 
Cavalry,  15  regiments  of  Field  Artillery,  93  companies  of  Coast  Ar- 
tillery, 5  regiments  of  Engineers,  2  battalions  of  Mounted  Engineers, 
the  necessary  number  of  auxiliary  troops  in  the  Medical  Department, 
Quartermaster  Corps,  Signal  Corps,  and  the  unassigned  recruits,  and 
in  addition  thereto  the  number  of  Philippine  Scouts  that  may  be  de- 
termined upon  by  the  President,  not  to  exceed  a  maximum  of  12,000. 

The  number  of  general  officers  of  the  Army  has  been  increased 
from  7  major  generals  and  17  brigadier  generals  to  11  major  generals 
and  36  brigadier  generals.  This  will  provide  the  necessary  general 
officers  to  command  the  divisions  and  brigades  and  furnish  the  gen- 
eral officers  for  the  General  Staff. 

The  General  Staff  Corps  has  been  increased  from  38  officers  to  57 
officers. 

The  Adjutant  General's  Department,  the  Inspector  Greneral's  De- 
partment, the  Judge  Advocate  General's  Department,  the  Quarter- 
master Corps,  the  Medical  Department,  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  Ord- 
nance Department,  and  Signal  Corps  have  all  been  materially  in- 
creased to  meet  the  increased  size  of  the  Regular  Army.  There  is 
nothing  materially  new  in  regard  to  these  departments  or  corps. 

The  increase  in  the  Regular  Army  will  be  made  in  five  annual 
increments,  beginning  July  1,  1916,  and  running  to  July  1,  1920, 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECKETABY  OF  WAR.  29 

although  the  President  is  authorized  to  make  the  increase  more  rap- 
idly in  case  of  emergency. 

The  figures  given  above  (except  those  quoted  from  General  Orders 
No.  50)  are  approximate,  and  while  based  upon  the  best  data  obtain- 
able at  this  time,  are  subject  to  material  changes,  because  the  strength 
of  some  of  the  staff  corps  and  departments  is  not  fixed  by  the  act 
but  is  left  to  the  discretion  of  the  President  to  be  fixed  by  him  from 
time  to  time,  in  accordance  with  the  needs  of  the  service. 

An  o-fficera*  reserve  corps;  a  reserve  oificers^  training  corps^  and  an 
enlisted  reserve  corps. — An  officers'  reserve  corps  is  provided  which 
will  authorize  the  commissioning  of  civilians  up  to  and  including  the 
grade  of  major  in  the  various  branches  of  the  Army.  These  men  can 
be  selected  and  trained  in  time  of  peace,  and  the  officers  so  obtained 
will  be  far  better  prepared  than  any  volunteers  that  could  be  raised 
hurriedly  at  the  outbreak  of  war.  In  order  to  obtain  these  reserve 
officers,  a  reserve  officers'  training  corps  is  authorized  which  will 
consist  of  units  at  the  various  colleges,  academies,  and  universities 
throughout  the  country  where  military  education  and  training  will 
be  given  which,  in  connection  with  six  weeks'  field  training  each  sum- 
mer, will  give  a  personnel  for  the  officers'  reserve  corps  that  is  far 
better  equipped  for  the  duties  of  an  officer  than  any  heretofore 
available. 

In  order  to  provide  the  enlisted  men  for  the  various  technical  staff 
corps  and  departments,  an  enlisted  reserve  corps  has  been  authorized, 
which  will  consist  of  men  whose  daily  occupation  in  civil  life  spe- 
cially fits  them  for  duty  in  the  Engineer,  Signal,  and  Quartermaster 
Corps,  and  in  the  Ordnance  and  Medical  Departments.  This  en- 
listed reserve  corps  will  provide  the  railway  operatives,  bridge  build- 
ers, chauffeurs,  hospital  attendants,  nurses,  telegraphers,  etc.,  re- 
quired for  the  departments  and  corps  mentioned.  It  is  impracticable 
to  keep  in  the  Eegular  Army  the  number  of  men  of  these  classes  that 
will  be  necessary  in  time  of  war,  and  the  enlisted  reserve  corps  will 
provide  for  the  deficiency. 

HEALTH  AND  SANFTATION. 

In  the  health  statistics  of  the  Army  the  calendar  year  is  used. 
During  the  past  year  the  health  of  the  Army  was  excellent.  There 
were  no  epidemics  or  unusual  occurrences  of  infectious  diseases. 


30  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETABY  OP  WAB. 

Typhoid  fever. — ^There  were  throughout  the  year  but  eight  cases  of 
typhoid  fever  in  the  entire  Army,  none  of  which  resulted  in  death. 
This  record  is  the  more  remarkable  when  it  is  considered  that  during 
the  14  months  from  May  1,  1898,  to  June  30,  1899,  covering  the 
period  of  the  Spanish-American  War,  there  were  2,774  deaths  from 
typhoid  fever,  and  that  this  disease  was  alone  responsible  for  more 
than  one-half  of  the  entire  disease  mortality  in  the  Army.  The 
experience  in  1898  was  made  the  basis  of  an  investigation  into  the 
matter  of  infection  and  dissemination  of  the  disease  in  military 
camps,  and  from  that  time  imtil  now  the  medical  department  of  the 
Army  has  waged  a  ceaseless  battle  against  typhoid  fever,  culminating 
in  the  adoption  of  antityphoid  vaccination,  the  results  of  which  are 
even  more  striking  than  those  following  the  introduction  of  vaccina- 
tion against  smallpox.  Indeed,  the  success  of  science  in  this  contest 
constitutes  one  of  the  most  interesting  and  brilliant  chapters  in  the 
history  of  preventive  medicine. 

Malarial  fevers, — Malarial  fever,  formerly  one  of  the  largest  con- 
tributors to  the  noneffective  rate  in  the  service,  showed  in  the  year 
under  examination  the  lowest  rate  in  the  history  of  the  Army.  The 
record  in  the  Philippine  Islands  is  especially  creditable,  but  in  gen- 
eral it  may  be  said  that  with  the  growth  of  sanitary  knowledge  this 
disabling  group  of  disease  is  being  brought  under  control. 

The  rate  for  tuberculosis  was  3.49  per  cent  per  1,000,  the  lowest  in 
the  record  of  the  Army,  and  real  progress  was  made  in  the  control 
of  venereal  disease. 

The  general  decline  in  alcoholism  throughout  the  country  is  seen 
in  the  Army  in  a  steadily  diminished  rate  during  the  past  15  years, 
and,  while  both  in  the  matter  of  venereal  disease  and  excessive  alco- 
holic indulgence  we  are  making  obvious  progress,  I  am  entirely 
clear  that  the  working  out  of  the  educational  and  recreational  pro- 
grams suggested  elsewhere  in  this  report  will  have  a  tendency  to 
accelerate  our  progress  in  the  prevention  and  restriction  of  these 
troubles.  Both  are  caused  by  personal  indulgence.  Personal  indul- 
gence is  stimulated  by  unoccupied  and  uninteresting  leisure,  and  both 
are  resisted  by  that  sort  of  sound  body  and  mind  which  result  from 
a  life  lived  under  normal  and  wholesome  circumstances  and  filled 
with  an  interesting  variety  of  work  and  refreshment. 

The  health  statistics  of  the  Army  are  especially  interesting,  in  view 
of  the  fact  that  they  cover  about  100,000  men  having  a  far  extended 


REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR.  31 

field  of  action,  distributed  literally  over  two  hemispheres,  and  there- 
fore subject  to  epidemic  contact  and  to  the  presence  of  contagion  in 
foreign  service,  from  which  the  civilian  or  nonmilitary  population  of 
the  continental  United  States  is  more  adequately  protected  by  local 
sanitary  safeguards. 

Expedition  into  Mexico. — ^The  expeditionary  force  which,  in 
March,  1916,  entered  Mexico  comprised  troops  of  all  branches,  num- 
bering approximately  10,000  men.  During  the  several  months  of 
their  stay  these  "men  have  been  under  the  most  trying  climatic  and 
sanitary  conditions,  having  to  construct  the  sanitary  appliances  and 
facilities  of  their  camps,  and  frequently  being  in  stations  where  ade- 
quate water  supply  was  difficult  to  secure.  It  is  a  matter  of  interest 
to  note  that  the  health  of  these  troops  is  really  remarkable.  They 
have  made  plain  their  efficiency,  and  their  noneffective  rate  has  com- 
pared favorably  with  the  best  attained  by  home  troops  under  garri- 
son conditions. 

The  mobilization  of  the  National  Guard  on  the  Mexican  border 
presented  to  the  medical  staff  of  the  Army  a  large  and  delicate  prob- 
lem. The  men  comprising  these  Guard  regiments  were  drawn  from 
all  parts  of  the  United  States,  from  our  great  cities  and  from  the 
rural  districts,  from  high  uplands  and  low  valleys,  from  mountain 
and  plain.  They  were  transported  at  the  height  of  the  summer  heat 
to  the  climate  of  southern  Texas,  to  which  few,  if  any,  of  them  were 
in  the  least  accustomed.  They  exchanged  home  life  for  crowded  rail- 
road trains  and  crowded  railroad  trains  for  hastily  prepared  camps. 
They  underwent  at  once  an  immediate  dietary  change  and  as  com- 
plete a  change  of  habit  and  occupation.  All  of  the  facilities  of  the 
health  service  of  the  Army  were  at  once  devoted  to  sanitary  and 
prophylactic  measures  for  the  safety  of  these  men.  The  resources  of 
the  Department  of  Agriculture  were  generously  and  freely  placed  at 
the  disposal  of  the  War  Department  to  aid  in  food  examination  and 
in  the  extermination  of  pests,  which  are  nearly  always  the  carriers 
of  disease,  with  the  astonishing  result  that  the  sick  rate  of  the  com- 
bined forces  on  the  border  since  the  mobilization  has  been  less  than 
2  per  cent.  This  is  equivalent  to  a  noneffective  rate  of  18  per 
1,000.  This  I  believe  to  be  the  lowest  noneffective  rate  maintained 
in  any  similar  body  of  men  in  our  history,  and  I  am  told  that  it 
compares  favorably  with  the  best  done  by  any  country  at  any  time. 
The  credit  therefor  belongs  primarily  to  commanding  officers,  the 


y 


32  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Surgeon  General  and  Quartermaster  General  and  their  associates. 
They  have,  however,  been  intelligently  aided  by  the  medical  officers 
of  the  National  Guard,  and  of  course  have  had  the  hearty  cooperation 
and  support  of  the  War  Department  and  the  use  of  all  the  facilities 
of  the  other  departments  of  the  Government  which  could  contribute 
to  the  accomplishment  of  their  task.  The  result  is  not  only  gratify- 
ing in  that  it  shows  what  progress  we  have  made  in  sanitary  science 
in  the  Army,  but  it  has  given  the  country  confidence  in  the  ability 
of  the  military  authorities  to  safeguard  the  health  of  soldiers,  and 
an  assurance  that  the  inevitable  casualty  list  of  military  operations 
will  not  be  supplemented  by  the  horrors  of  preventable  sickness  and 
death,  as  was  formerly  the  case  before  preventive  medicine  had  so  far 
wrought  its  saving  service  to  mankind. 

ADDITIONAL  LEOISLATION  ENACTED  FOB  PBEPABEDNESS. 

Increase  in  rmmber  of  cadets  at  the  United  States  Military  Acad- 
emy.— The  enlargement  of  the  Army  provided  by  the  National  De- 
fense Act  clearly  called  for  an  increase  in  the  number  of  trained 
oflScers  available  for  service.  Experience  both  in  our  own  Army  and 
abroad  has  shown  that  while  longer  and  longer  periods  of  training  are 
necessary  to  fit  the  soldier  for  his  task  in  modem  war  the  most  serious 
delay  in  preparation  for  a  great  national  emergency  arises  in  the 
training  of  officers,  who  must  have  not  only  the  vigorous  health  and 
hardened  bodies  of  the  soldier  but  technical  knowledge  of  those 
new  and  mechanical  implements  which  have  been  devised  and  are 
being  devised  for  use  in  warfare.  The  officer  must  have  too  the  dis- 
cipline of  mind  which  can  both  obey  and  command,  and  this  sort 
of  discipline  comes  only  with  training  and  experience. 

The  art  of  war  under  modem  conditions  engages  vastly  larger 
bodies  of  men  and  a  more  complete  coordination  of  all  the  national 
resources  than  was  formerly  the  case.  Success  may  depend  upon 
rapidity  of  transportation  both  of  men  and  supplies.  The  use  of 
railroads  and  of  motor  transportation  has  taken  the  place  of  the 
old-fashioned  marching  and  maneuvering,  and  under  modem  con- 
ditions a  smaller  number  of  men  moved  by  carefully  prepared  trans- 
portation facilities  is  sometimes  enabled  to  ma^  its  strength  so  as 
to  overcome  disparity  of  numbers.  As  no  army  is  stronger  than 
its  supply  train  the  dependence  of  any  military  force  upon  properly 
coordinated  and  efficiently  served  transportation  facilities  is  obvious. 


EEPOBT  OP  THE  8ECEETAEY  OF  WAB.  8C 

The  implements  of  war  have  multiplied  and  we  now  have  direct  fire 
from  the  artillery,  rifle  fire  from  the  infantry,  and  the  cavalry 
reconnaissance  and  charge  supplemented,  if  not  replaced,  by  indirect 
artillery  fire  at  vastly  increased  ranges,  the  high  explosive  shell, 
the  machine  gun,  and  the  aeroplane.  These  added  agents  are  the 
contributions  of  science  to  the  art  of  war.  They  are  scientific  in 
their  principles  of  construction  and  in  their  mode  of  use,  and  the 
whole  art  of  war  is  as  different  from  that  practiced  a  few  genera- 
tions ago  as  the  processes  of  higher  mathematics  are  different  from 
simple  algebraic  computations.  The  strength  of  the  individual 
soldier  has  passed  out  of  his  arm  and  into  his  head,  and  as  his  art 
now  depends  upon  intricate  mechanical  tools  his  skill  must  often  be 
that  of  the  trained  mechanic  and  his  knowledge  that  of  the  scientist. 
Especially  are  these  higher  requirements  made  of  officers  and  the 
necessity  for  a  longer  period  of  training  and  for  training  of  a  finer 
kind  is  more  and  more  apparent. 

The  United  States  Military  Academy  at  West  Point  has  almost 
from  its  origin  ranked  foremost  among  the  military  schools  of  the 
world.  Its  site  is  one  of  the  most  impressive  in  America,  its  equip- 
ment of  buildings  adequate,  convenient,  and  inspiring  in  their  beauty 
and  suggestiveness.  The  officers  educated  there  have  made  a  body 
of  men  who  from  the  beginning  of  the  Republic  have  demonstrated 
the  spirit  of  self-sacrifice  for  the  preservation  of  the  liberty  of  the 
country,  and  while  many  brilliant  officers  have  come  into  the  Army 
from  civil  life  it  remains  true  that  the  great  body  of  officers  needed 
in  the  Army  have  come  from  the  Military  Academy  and  in  the  future 
must  be  expected  to  secure  their  education  and  discipline  there.  As 
the  art  of  war  has  grown  more  intricate  special  service  schools  have 
been  established,  in  which  young  officers  are  gathered  for  courses, 
post-graduate  in  their  nature,  in  the  several  arms  of  the  service,  and 
these  schools  deserve  enlargement  and  encouragement  at  the  hands 
of  Congress.  This,  in  my  judgment,  is  especially  true  of  the  En- 
gineer School  for  reasons  to  which  I  shall  refer  later,  but  the  funda- 
mental basis  of  the  officers'  education  must  for  the  greater  part  con- 
tinue to  be  supplied  at  the  Military  Academy  at  West  Point,  and  it 
is  therefore  fortunate  that  Congress,  in  the  act  approved  May  4, 
1916,  has  authorized  an  increase  in  the  number  of  cadets  and  has 
made  that  increase  in  such  fashion  that  it  will  fall  gradually  upon 

69176*— WAB  1916— VOL  1 3 


34  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR, 

the  teaching  facilities  of  the  academy  and  enable  it  to  absorb  its 
increased  work  without  confusion  or  loss  of  quality. 

For  a  number  of  years  the  department  had  urged  Congress  to  make 
some  provision  that  would  afford  a  wider  opportunity  for  desirable 
young  men  with  a  taste  for  militry  life  to  secure  appointments  to 
West  Point.  It  was  pointed  out  that  Congress  had  made  large 
expenditures  to  build  and  equip  this  splendid  educational  institution, 
and  that  there  was  every  reason  why  it  should  be  operated  and  main- 
tained at  its  maximum  capacity. 

By  the  terms  of  the  act  of  May  4,  1916,  the  Corps  of  Cadets — 

•  •  •  shaU  hereafter  consist  of  two  for  each  congressional  district,  two 
from  each  Territory,  four  from  the  District  of  Ck>lumhia,  two  from  natives  of 
Porto  Rico,  four  from  each  State  at  large,  and  eighty  from  the  United  States  at 
large,  twenty  of  whom  shall  be  selected  from  among  the  honor  graduates  of  edu- 
cational institutions  having  officers  of  the  Regular  Army  detailed  as  professors 
of  military  science  and  tactics  under  existing 4aw  or  any  law  hereafter  enacted 
for  the  detail  of  officers  of  the  Regular  Army  to  such 'institutions,  and  which 
institutions  are  designated  as  "  honor  schools  "  upon  the  determination  of  their 
relative  standing  at  the  last  preceding  annual  inspection  regularly  made  by  the 
War  Department.  They  shall  be  appointed  by  the  President  and  shall,  with  the 
exception  of  the  eighty  appointed  from  the  United  States  at  large,  be  actual  resi- 
dents of  the  congressional  or  Territorial  district,  or  of  the  District  of  Columbia, 
or  of  the  Island  of  Porto  Rico,  or  of  the  States,  respectively,  from  which  they 
purport  to  be  appointed:  Providedy  That  so  much  of  the  act  of  Congress  ap- 
proved March  fourth,  nineteen  hundred  and  fifteen  (Thirty-eighth  Statutes  at 
Large,  page  eleven  hundred  and  twenty-eight),  as  provides  for  the  admission 
of  a  successor  to  any  cadet  who  shall  have  finished  three  years  of  his  course  at 
the  academy  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby,  repealed :  Provided  further.  That  the 
appointment  of  each  member  of  the  present  Corps  of  Cadets  is  validated  and 
confirmed. 

Sec.  2.  That  the  President  is  hereby  authorized  to  appoint  cadets  to  the  United 
States  Military  Academy  from  among  enlisted  men  In  number  as  nearly  equal  as 
practicable  of  the  Regular  Army  and  the  National  Guard  between  the  ages  of 
nineteen  and  twenty-two  years  who  have  served  as  enlisted  men  not  less  than 
one  year,  to  be  selected  under  such  regulations  as  the  President  may  prescribe : 
Provided,  That  the  total  number  so  selected  shall  not  exceed  one  hundred  and 
eighty  at  any  one  time. 

Sec.  3.  That,  under  such  regulations  as  the  President  shall  prescribe,  the  in- 
crease in  the  number  of  cadets  provided  for  by  this  act  shall  be  divided  Into  four 
annual  Increments,  which  shall  be  as  nearly  equal  as  practicable  and  be  equitably 
distributed  among  the  sources  from  which  appointments  are  authorized. 

The  total  number  of  cadets  authorized  prior  to  the  passage  of  the 
act  of  May  4,  1916,  was  668.    The  new  act  authorizes  an  increase  of 


EEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  35 

664,  to  be  made  in  four  annual  increments,  so  that  the  number  of 
cadets  authorized  for  the  first  year  is  834 ;  second  year,  1,000 ;  third 
year,  1,166;  and  for  the  fourth  year,  1,332. 

On  September  1, 1916,  the  beginning  of  the  current  academic  year, 
there  were  769  cadets  on  the  rolls,  including  4  Filipino  cadets  and  2 
foreign  cadets,  1  from  China  and  1  from  Cuba.  Those  cadets  were 
divided  among  the  four  classes  as  follows:  First  class,  141;  second 
class,  156 ;  third  class,  147 ;  and  fourth  class,  325. 

The  usual  examination  of  candidates  for  admission  to  the  Military 
Academy  was  held  at  various  military  posts,  beginning  March  21, 
1916.  An  additional  examination  was  held,  beginning  June  6,  1916, 
to  fill  the  102  vacancies  that  existed  after  the  regular  examination, 
and  also  to  fill  the  vacancies  (166)  in  the  first  annual  increment  of  the 
increase  in  the  Corps  of  Cadets  provided  for  by  the  act  above  quoted. 
Inasmuch  as  it  became  apparent  that  not  enough  cadets  to  fill  the 
vacancies  in  the  first  increment  would  be  obtained  from  this  exami^ 
nation,  it  was  decided  to  hold  still  another  examination  (physical) 
on  June  27, 1916,  mental  qualification  being  by  certificate  only.  The 
total  number  of  candidates  designated  for  the  three  examinations 
was  1,228.  Of  that  number,  202  failed  to  report  for  examination; 
12  declined  appointment,  their  appointments  were  canceled,  or  they 
were  prevented  by  sickness  from  reporting;  515  were  rejected  upon 
mental  or  physical  examination,  or  upon  both ;  109  failed  to  complete 
the  mental  or  physical  examination,  or  both ;  1  was  refused  admission 
because  of  cribbing;  and  (at  the  June  27  examination)  2  qualified 
physically  and  failed  to  submit  educational  certificates.  There  were 
no  vacancies  for  58  alternates  and  5  candidates  at  large  who  qualified. 
The  remaining  324  candidates  were  found  qualified  and  were  ad- 
mitted to  the  academy.  After  the  examination  of  June  27  there 
were  26  vacancies  in  the  first  increment. 

The  number  of  cadets  authorized  for  1916  is  834.  There  being  767 
cadets  on  the  rolls  (excluding  the  2  foreign  cadets)  on  September  1, 
1916,  there  was  a  total  of  67  vacancies  on  that  date.  That  number 
has  been  increased  by  resignations  and  death,  so  that  the  number  of 
vacancies  now  is  77. 

The  training  of  citizens;  Reserve  Officers*  Traming  Carps. — In 
addition  to  the  provision  made  for  an  enlargement  of  the  student 
body  at  the  Military  Academy,  the  country  has  witnessed  a  rapid 


36  REPOET  OF  THE  SECRETABY  OF  WAR. 

development  of  interest  in  citizen  training.  The  reorganization 
and  federalization  of  the  militia,  provided  by  the  National-Defense 
Act,  is  in  part  a  response  to  this  impulse,  but  several  interesting 
and  promising  experiments  of  a  more  novel  kind  are  in  progress. 
First  of  these  is  the  establishment  and  maintenance  at  various  edu- 
cational institutions  throughout  the  country  of  a  reserve  officers' 
training  corps.  By  this  means  it  is  hoped  to  utilize  the  facilities 
of  public  and  private  educational  institutions  to  give  instruction 
to  large  bodies  of  students  in  the  elements  of  military  science  and 
tactics.  Officers  of  the  Army  are  detailed  to  these  institutions  as 
professors.  In  1915,  5,200  students  who  had  completed  courses  of 
training  under  the  supervision  of  officers  were  graduated  from 
colleges,  while  the  total  number  of  students  in  colleges  who  had 
received  some  military  instruction  in  that  year  imder  officers  of  the 
Army  was  82,000.  The  total  enrollment  of  male  students  in  colleges 
to  which  this  sort  of  instruction  may  be  applied  is  about  170,000. 
By  an  enlargement  and  development  of  the  plan  it  is  hoped  that  a 
substantial  portion  of  these  students  may  be  given  the  benefit  of 
military  instruction.  An  association  of  collegiate  authorities  for 
the  consideration  of  this  subject  is  working  actively  in  harmony 
with  the  War  Department  and  with  the  aid  of  the  War  College 
Division  of  the  General  Staff  studies  have  been  made  which  it  is 
hoped  will  make  this  training  increasingly  acceptable  and  useful. 
Indeed,  it  may  fairly  be  said  that  among  the  best  educators  of  the 
country,  the  disoiplinary  value  of  elementary  military  instruction 
is  coming  to  be  realized  and  appreciated,  and,  without  at  all  trans- 
forming our  institutions  of  higher  learning  into  military  establish- 
ments, the  spirit  of  order  and  devotion  to  the  service  of  the  country, 
which  is  the  normal  result  of  military  discipline,  is  being  incul- 
cated into  an  increasing  number  of  young  men  with  results  bene- 
ficial alike  to  the  student  body  and  to  the  institutions  and  with 
very  promising  results  in  the  matter  of  preparedness  against  any 
emergency  which  may  arise. 

Vocational  training  in  the  Army. — ^This  is  a  subject  to  which 
serious  attention  has  been  given,  but  its  possibilities  are  only  begin- 
ning to  be  developed.  The  primary  purpose  of  the  soldier  when  not 
in  active  operations  is,  of  course,  preparation  for  active  operations; 


EEPOET  OP  THE  SECKETABY  OF  WAR.  37 

but  armies  are  made  of  young  men,  in  a  large  number  of  cases  a 
single  enlistment  only  is  served,  and  these  young  men  with  strong 
and  vigorous  bodies  return  to  the  conmiercial  and  industrial  life  of 
the  Nation  often  to  find  themselves  at  a  disadvantage  in  securing 
industrial  or  commercial  employment,  because  other  young  men  of 
their  age  have  spent  years  in  apprenticeship  and  are  therefore  more 
available  and  better  trained.  The  Army  posts  of  the  Nation  can 
not  be  suddenly  converted  into  schools.  So  far  a  system  of  volun- 
tary educational  opportunity  has  been  offered.  In  some  posts  sub- 
stantial progress  has  been  made,  and  the  opportunity  for  progress  is 
particularly  present  in  the  stations  of  the  Coast  Artillery,  where 
the  garrisons  are  more  permanent  than  are  the  organizations  of  the 
mobile  army. 
The  recent  National-Defense  Act  provides  on  this  subject: 

In  addition  to  mUitary  training  soldiers  while  in  the  active  service  sliall 
hereafter  be  given  the  opportunity  to  study  and  receive  instruction  upon  educa- 
tional lines  of  such  character  as  to  increase  their  military  efficiency  and  enable 
them  to  return  to  civil  life  better  equipped  for  industrial,  commercial,  and 
general  business  occupations.  Civilian  teachers  may  be  employed  to  aid  the 
Army  officers  in  giving  such  instruction,  and  part  of  this  instruction  may  con- 
sist of  vocational  education  either  in  agriculture  or  the  mechanic  arts.  The 
Secretary  of  War,  with  the  approval  of  the  President,  shall  prescribe  rules  and 
regulations  for  conducting  the  instruction  herein  provided  for,  and  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  shaU  have  the  power  at  aU  times  to  suspend,  increase,  or  decrease 
the  amount  of  such  instmction  offered  as  may  in  his  judgment  be  consistent 
with  the  requirements  of  military  instruction  and  service  of  the  soldiers. 

Under  this  provision  consistent  plans  can  be  made,  and  highly 
beneficial  results  should  follow. 

Undoubtedly  we  shall  ccone  to  a  mode  of  Army  life,  which,  while 
doing  full  justice  to  military  drill  and  to  that  physical  training  so 
necessary  to  give  the  soldier  a  robust  endurance  of  physical  hard- 
ship, will  at  the  same  time  afford  him  an  opportunity  to  acquire 
mental  tri^ining  and  manual  skill,  and  at  the  same  time  round  out 
his  life  with  wholesome  recreations  and  diversions,  so  that  member- 
ship in  the  military  forces  of  the  Nation  will  have  added  to  its 
patriotic  usefulness  a  compensating  opportunity  for  growth  to  the 
soldier  and  preparation  for  him  which  will  make  his  nonmilitary 
years  useful  and  happy. 


38  EEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETABY  OF  WAR. 

Training  camps. — Something  over  three  years  ago  Maj.  Gen.  Leon- 
ard Wood,  then  Chief  of  Staff,  put  into  operation  a  plan  for  camps  of 
instruction  at  which  students  were  permitted  to  attend  for  training 
without  cost  to  the  United  States.  The  plan  was  later  enlarged  to 
permit  the  attendance  of  business  men  and  has  been  carried  forward 
year  by  year  with  increasing  success  and  interest.  During  the  present 
year  the  need  for  the  Regular  Army  on  the  Mexican  border  has  deprived 
these  training  camps  of  some  of  the  officers  and  troops  which  would 
have  been  desirable  as  aids  in  the  instruction  and  organization  of 
the  work;  but  in  spite  of  this  difficulty,  five  camps  were  held  at 
Plattsburg,  two  at  Oglethorpe,  one  at  Fort  Terry,  six  at  Fort  Wads- 
worth,  in  the  Eastern  Department,  with  a  total  attendance  of  12,200 
men  and  boys.  In  the  Western  Department  camps  were  established 
at  the  Presidio  and  at  American  Lake.  A  satisfactory  camp  was 
held  at  San  Antonio,  Tex.;  and  in  view  of  the  recognition  of  this 
mode  of  training  by  Congress,  it  is  safe  to  assume  that  much  greater 
usefulness  can  be  predicted  for  them  in  subsequent  years,  and  that 
the  field  of  selection  of  those  applying  to  attend  will  be  greatly 
enlarged  by  reason  of  the  provision  made  for  the  payment  of  trans- 
portation and  subsistence  by  the  Federal  Government  for  those  who 
attend. 

Council  of  National  Defense. — ^The  challenge  of  the  European 
war  brought  the  attention  of  Congress  not  merely  to  the  neces- 
sity for  an  increase  in  the  personnel  of  the  Regular  Army,  pro- 
vision for  a  larger  supply  of  officers,  and  a  better  organiza- 
tion of  the  National  Guard,  but  also  to  the  fact  that  in  any  great 
national  military  emergency  industrial  mobilization  was  an  indis- 
pensable element  to  success.  Legislation  was  therefore  enacted 
looking  to  an  investigation  of  the  financial,  industrial,  and  com- 
mercial resources  of  the  Nation  and  such  prevision  of  them  as 
would  enable  them  to  be  speedily  mobilized  for  the  national  defense. 
The  most  conspicuous  step  in  this  program  was  the  creation  of  the 
Council  of  National  Defense,  consisting  of  the  Secretaries  of  War, 
the  Navy,  the  Interior,  Agriculture,  Commerce,  and  Labor,  under 
whom,  and  upon  whose  nomination,  the  President  is  authorized  to 
appoint  an  advisory  commission  of  seven  citizens  qualified  by  the 
possession  of  special  knowledge  of  the  industrial  and  commercial 
resources  of  the  country,  and  to  this  Council  of  National  Defense, 


EEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OP  WAB.  39 

advised  by  the  advisory  commission,  is  committed  the  task  of  coordi- 
nating the  military,  industrial,  and  commercial  resources  of  the 
Nation  in  connection  with  its  defense.  Its  duties  are  set  forth  in 
the  act  as  follows : 

It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  Ck>uncll  of  National  Defense  to  supervise  and  direct 
investigations  and  make  recommendations  to  the  President  and  the  heads  of 
executive  departments  as  to  tlie  location  of  railroads  with  reference  to  the 
frontier  of  the  United  States,  so  as  to  render  possible  expeditious  concentration 
of  troops  and  supplies  to  points  of  defense ;  the  coordination  of  military,  indus- 
trial, and  commercial  purposes  in  the  location  of  extensive  highways  and 
branch  lines  of  railroad ;  the  utilization  of  waterways ;  the  mobilization  of  mili- 
tary and  naval  resources  for  defense;  the  increase  of  domestic  production  of 
articles  and  materials  essential  to  the  support  of  armies  and  of  the  people  dur- 
ing the  interruption  of  foreign  commerce;  the  development  of  seagoing  trans- 
portation ;  data  as  to  amounts,  location,  methods,  and  means  of  production  and 
availability  of  military  supplies;  the  giving  of  information  to  producers  and 
manufacturers  as  to  the  class  of  supplies  needed  by  the  military  and  other 
services  of  the  Government,  the  requirements  relating  thereto,  and  the  creation 
of  relations  which  will  render  possible  in  time  of  need  the  immediate  concentra- 
tion and  utilization  of  the  resources  of  the  Nation. 

Power  is  given  to  the  council  to  select  a  director  who  will  be  the  ex- 
ecutive oflScer,  and  an  adequate  appropriation  is  made  for  the  employ- 
ment of  expert  and  clerical  help,  so  that  there  will  be  established  in 
Washington  as  an  agency  of  the  Government  a  central  body  which 
will  catalogue  the  resources  of  the  Nation  and  create  such  relations 
between  our  industrial  and  commercial  agencies  as  will  equip  them 
to  respond  instantly  to  any  call  from  the  Government.  In  this  way, 
the  problems  which  in  some  countries  had  to  be  faced  unforeseen  until 
after  a  national  emergency  had  arisen  will  be  anticipated  in  the 
United  States,  and  the  confusion,  delay,  and  loss  due  to  haste  in  a 
moment  of  national  danger  will  be  obviated  by  rational,  just,  and 
timely  provisions  made  in  advance  of  trouble.  It  may  well  be  that 
some  part  of  the  work  of  the  council  having  a  purely  military  useful- 
ness will  not  be  needed,  but  the  general  effect  of  such  a  plan  in  opera- 
tion will  be  to  produce  more  healthful  and  harmonious  relations  be- 
tween the  Government  and  business,  and  to  give  to  the  great  industrial 
and  commercial  enterprises  of  the  country  a  national  and  patriotic 
aspect,  which  will  both  keep  the  country  prepared,  should  emergency 
arise,  and  stimulate  sound  business  and  industrial  methods  through- 
out the  country.    The  Council  of  National  Defense  is  authorized  to 


40  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

create  commissions,  subordinate  to  the  advisory  commission,  for  the 
study  of  special  problems.  Thus  many  committees  of  inquiry  of  a 
technical  and  scientific  character,  casually  created  heretofore  for  the 
consideration  of  special  problems,  will  be  able  to  be  coordinated  under 
the  general  direction  of  the  council,  and  duplication  of  work  and 
conflict  of  jurisdiction  avoided.  The  act  provides  for  reports  to  be 
made  through  the  council  to  the  President,  and  from  the  President 
to  Congress,  so  that  a  great  body  of  valuable  and  healthful  informa- 
tion will  undoubtedly  result. 

Progress  in  aviation. — Congress  has  recognized  the  great  im- 
portance of  aviation  to  the  United  States  Army  and  has  made  this 
recognition  effective  by  increasing  the  appropriations  of  the  last 
fiscal  year  from  $300,000  to  more  than  $14,000,000  for  the  fiscal  year 
ending  June  30,  1917.  It  has  enlarged  the  aviation  personnel  by 
increasing  the  commissioned  force  from  60  officers  to  77  for  the  year 
1917  and  the  enlisted  men  from  260  to  1,800.  In  addition,  there  have 
been  provided  for  aviation,  an  officers'  reserve  corps  and  an  enlisted 
reserve  corps. 

The  project  for  the  development  of  the  aviation  section  con- 
templates 7  aero  squadrons  for  the  Eegular  Army,  12  squadrons  for 
the  National  Ouard  divisions,  and  5  for  the  defenses  on  both  coasts 
besides  aerostatic  units  for  the  mobile  Army  and  Coast  Artillery. 
The  personnel  for  these  will  be  made  up  from  officers  and  enlisted 
men  of  the  Regular  Army,  of  the  Reserve  Corps,  and  of  the  National 
Guard  units. 

On  May  20,  1916,  Lieut.  Col.  George  O.  Squier,  Signal  Corps, 
assumed  command  of  the  aviation  section.  Since  that  date  the 
general  plan  of  administration  has  been  to  incorporate  in  the  design 
and  construction  of  equipment  and  in  the  system  of  training  mili- 
tary aviators,  lessons  gained  by  experience  in  the  present  European 
war  and  in  our  own  actual  field  experience  in  Mexico  and  elsewhere. 

The  problem  of  organization  of  the  Army  air  service  has  been 
studied  with  a  view  to  establishing  a  sound  base  which  will  lend  itself 
to  future  expansion  into  an  efficient  service. 

A  thorough  study  of  the  aeroplane  industry  has  been  made  by  a 
technical  board  of  officers  and  civilian  engineers,  to  learn  the  pro- 
ductive capacity  of  the  manufacturers  in  the  United  States.  This 
was  to  insure  that  the  War  Department  might  obtain  the  best  equip- 


REPOBT  OF  THE  SEOBETABY  OF  WAB.  41 

ment  available  and  also  to  improve  and  develop  the  general  design 
of  aeroplanes  of  various  necessary  military  types.  In  this  latter 
connection  the  department  has  published  specifications  for  the  differ- 
ent types  of  military  aeroplanes,  endeavoring  to  incorporate  in  these 
specifications  the  requirements  from  the  military  standpoint  and 
those  lessons  in  design  and  construction  learned  from  actual  field 
experience. 

Endeavor  has  been  made  toward  the  development  of  equipment 
for  our  military  air  service  to  meet  conditions  which  are  very 
similar  to  those  that  obtain  in  the  European  war  and  those  peculiar 
to  this  country.  Every  effort  has  been  made  to  improve  power  plants 
for  aeroplanes.  Bombs,  bomb-dropping  sights,  special  cameras, 
mounts  for  machine  guns,  automatic  controlling  devices,  instru- 
ments for  navigation,  and  for  aid  to  the  pilot,  and  many  other  acces- 
sories have  been  developed.  A  radio  set  has  been  developed  which 
has  transmitted  messages  across  140  miles. 

In  all  this  development  the  policy  has  been  to  endeavor  to  obtain 
assistance  from  the  greatest  civilian  specialists  in  the  country. 
Material  assistance  has  been  received  from  the  National  Advisory 
Conmiittee  for  Aeronautics,  the.  Bureau  of  Standards,  and  the 
American  Society  of  Automobile  Engineers,  all  of  which  have  dis- 
played a  degree  of  interest  which  is  extremely  encouraging. 

Orders  have  been  placed  (or  proposals  solicited)  to  date  for  mili- 
tary aeroplanes  as  follows : 

Two-plane  reconnoissanoe  biplanes 91 

Advance  training  aeroplanes 120 

Primary  training  aeroplanes 84 

One-plane  pursuit  aeroplanes 18 

Two-plane  reconnoissance  hydroaeroplanes 155 

Two-plane  land  combat  aeroplanes 6 


Total 419 

Five  captive  balloons  for  field  artillery  fire  control  have  been 
ordered. 

Specially  designed  portable  weatherproof  hangars,  machine  shops, 
special  trucks,  and  portable  machine  tools  have  been  purchased,  or 
ordered. 

Schools  conducted  by  competent  personnel  have  been  established 
at  Mineola,  Long  Island,  near  New  York  City,  and  at  Chicago,  lU., 
in  addition  to  that  already  established  and  in  operation  at  San 


42  EEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETARY  OF  WAR. 

Diego,  Cal.    A  base  for  equipping  land  squadrons  and  instructing  in 
advanced  military  aviation  has  been  established  at  San  Antonio,  Tex. 
As  a  result  of  the  training  at  these  schools,  the  following  have 
qualified  since  May  20, 1916,  as  junior  military  aviators: 

At  San  Diego,  Cal.,  officers  of  the  Regular  Army 22 

At  Mineola,  Long  Island,  N.  Y.,  officer  of  the  National  Guard  of  New 
York 1 

Total 28 

The  following  have  qualified  as  reserve  military  aviators: 

At  Mineolo,  Long  Island,  N.  Y. : 

Officers  of  the  National  Guard 8 

Civilians 4 


Total 


7 


In  addition,  the  following  students  are  at  present  under  instruc- 
tion: 

At  San  Diego,  Cal.,  officers  of  the  Regular  Array 38 

At  Mineola,  Long  Island,  N.  Y.,  officers  of  the  National  Guard L  16 

At  Chicago,  111. : 

Officer  of  the  National  Guard 1 

Civilians 7 

Total 62 

The  nucleus  of  a  division  to  operate  lighter-than-air  craft  has  been 
established. 

Procurement  of  military  supplies. — Under  the  former  law  the  Fed- 
eral Government  in  time  of  war  would  have  to  enter  the  markets  of  the 
country  to  obtain  ammunition,  arms,  and  other  supplies  just  as  an  in- 
dividual would,  but  the  new  law  authorizes  the  President  in  time  of 
war  to  exercise  a  power  analogous  to  that  of  eminent  domain  over  the 
various  manufacturing  plants  in  the  country  and  gives  Government 
orders  precedence  over  all  private  orders.  Authority  is  also  given  to 
the  Ordnance  Department  to  prepare,  in  time  of  peace,  the  necessary 
gauges,  jigs,  dies,  and  other  special  tools  required  in  the  manufacture 
of  arms  and  ammunition,  and  to  give  to  specially  equipped  manufac- 
turers educational  orders  which  while  limited  in  amount  will  insure 
private  manufacturers  having  the  necessary  experience  and  force  to 
enter  rapidly  upon  the  manufacture  of  munitions  in  the  event  of  neces- 
sity. Congress  authorized  the  appointment  of  a  board  to  study  and 
report  to  Congress  upon  the  advisability  of  exclusive  Government 


BEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR,  43 

manufacture  of  war  materials.  This  board  has  been  appointed  and  is 
proceeding  with  its  investigation.  No  forecast  can  as  yet  be  given  of 
the  conclusions,  but  the  subject  is  one  of  very  great  importance. 
There  are  in  the  United  States  at  the  present  time  a  great  many 
industrial  establishments  which  have  turned  aside  from  their  ordi- 
nary business  to  the  manufacture  of  war  materials,  and  large  plants 
have  been  established  for  this  special  object. 

After  the  passage  of  the  occasion  for  which  these  enterprises 
were  established  the  difficulty  will  arise  as  to  whether  their  facilities 
are  to  be  transformed  and  devoted  to  other  industrial  uses  or  any 
part  of  them  preserved  in  readiness  for  similar  supplies  for  the 
United  States.  Some  of  these  plants  are  located  on  the  seacoast  and 
others  at  more  remote  places.  It  will  therefore  be  incumbent  upon 
the  department  to  select  for  patronage  and  encouragement  certain 
of  them,  and  in  determining  which  are  to  be  so  chosen  a  variety  of 
military  considerations  arise.  It  would  seem,  however,  that  with 
such  facilities  in  existence  it  will  be  unwise  to  allow  them  to  be  dis- 
mantled, and  the  necessary  large  additions  made  to  existing  Govern- 
ment facilities  which  would  be  required  to  equip  the  Government  to 
supply  its  own  needs  under  war  conditions,  and  as  any  war  condition 
requires  a  mobilization  of  the  entire  industrial  resources  of  the 
Nation  there  would  seem  to  be  no  reason  why  munitions  of  war 
should  be  separated  out  for  Government  monopoly,  unless  that  course 
should  turn  out  to  be  necessary  to  prevent  the  appearance  of  pro- 
spective war  profits  as  a  disturbing  element  in  the  policy  of  the 
Nation. 

Nitrate  plant. — The  National-Defense  Act  appropriates  $20,000,000 
for  the  establishment  of  a  nitrate  plant.  The  manufacture  of  powder 
depends  upon  nitric  acid,  and  the  supply  of  nitric  acid  is  in  a  large 
part  based  upon  importations  of  Chile  saltpeter.  European  Govern- 
ments finding  their  supply  of  nitric  acid  from  a  similar  source  inter- 
rupted have  resorted  to  the  fixation  of  atmospheric  nitrogen.  As  there 
is  no  adequate  body  of  natural  nitrate  to  be  found  among  the  min- 
eral resources  of  the  United  States,  Congress  wisely  provided  for  the 
establishment  of  a  plant  or  plants  upon  which  the  United  States 
could  rely  as  an  alternative  to  the  foreign  source  which  at  present  is 
the  basis  of  all  powder  manufacturing  in  the  country.  Immediately 
after  the  making  of  the  appropriation  the  department  began  a  study 


46  KEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

did  not  seem  to  work  well,  although  its  theory  met  with  the 
approval  of  the  War  Department,  and  constant  efforts  were  made 
both  to  broaden  its  scope  and  increase  the  efficiency  of  its  opera- 
tion. My  immediate  predecessor,  Secretary  of  War  Garrison,  in  his 
annual  report  for  1913,  drew  the  analogy  between  the  practice  of  in- 
dustrial concerns  and  the  Army,  suggesting  the  tendency  of  mere 
seniority  promotion  to  cause  a  lack  of  initiative  and  study  on  the  part 
of  officers.  He  very  justly  observed  that  there  is  a  surprising  amount 
of  ambition  and  initiative  in  the  Army,  but  that  it  is  largely  self- 
generated  and  receives  very  little  stimulation  from  the  promotion 
system.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  we  see  the  same  condition  in  civil  life — 
young  men  of  great  ingenuity  and  devotion  who  are  attending  the 
postgraduate  courses  in  our  universities  and  are  ordinarily  required 
to  do  a  piece  of  original  research  work  as  the  basis  of  their  pretensions 
to  the  degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy.  They  are  filled  with  research 
zeal.  When,  however,  they  are  through  with  their  university  course 
and  undertake  the  daily  grind  of  teaching  in  academic  institutions, 
their  separation  from  the  inspiring  university  atmosphere  and  from 
daily  association  with  others  engaged  in  original  work  tends  gradu- 
ally to  lull  the  impulse  to  investigation,  and  the  task  of  original 
research  is  passed  along  to  their  successors  at  the  universities,  while 
they  become  drill  masters,  disciplinarians,  and  teachers,  but  not  con- 
tributors to  the  original  thought  of  their  science. 

The  life  of  the  Army  officer  when  he  is  at  the  War  College  or 
in  one  of  the  service  schools  where  military  matters  are  the  daily 
concern  of  a  large  number  of  brilliant  men  is  full  of  that  inspii*ation 
which  maintains  interest  in  the  latest  developments  of  military 
science.  But  as  officers  scatter  to  outlying  Army  posts,  some- 
times in  the  Tropics  and  sometimes  in  remote  sections  of  the  conti- 
nental United  States,  the  officer  soon  feels  the  loss  of  contact  with 
other  investigating  minds,  and  if  mere  seniority  is  to  continue  to 
secure  an  orderly  promotion  for  him  which  can  neither  be  accelerated 
by  his  effort  nor  retarded  by  his  inactivity,  a  substantial  encourage- 
ment to  development  is  lost.  In  response  to  considerations  of  this 
sort  the  act  of  June  3, 1916,  extended  the  provisions  of  previous  laws 
requiring  examination  to  determine  fitness  of  officers  for  promotion 
so  as  to  include  examination  for  promotion  to  all  grades  below  that 
of  brigadier  general.  Under  the  operations  of  this  law  there  will  be 
constantly  before  the  mind  of  the  officer  the  necessity  of  keeping  him- 


BEPOBT  OP  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB.  45 

that  an  invasion  of  this  field  would  probably  not  greatly  increase 
the  available  stock  of  fertilizers  in  peace  times,  because  it  would  not 
increase  the  actual  nitrogen  supply  of  the  country  but  would  merely 
divert  a  part  of  it,  or  all  of  it,  at  certain  times  into  war  materials. 
Of  course,  if  the  Government  were  to  adopt  this  source,  it  would 
lead  to  a  large  increase  in  the  by-product  oven  method  of  coking,  and 
in  that  way  the  fertilizer  supply  would  be  augmented.  The  cyanamid 
process,  which  undoubtedly  is  the  most  useful  from  the  point  of  view 
of  fertilizer  product,  depends  upon  a  large  supply  of  electrical  power 
and  the  proximity  of  certain  mineral  and  shale  bodies  for  its  economic 
iiQccess.  The  arc  process,  which  likewise  depends  upon  the  presence 
of  a  large  supply  of  electrical  power,  is  independent  of  mineral 
resources,  but  is  less  valuable  in  peace  times  as  a  source  of  fertilizer 
production. 

We  thus  see  that  if  either  of  the  electrical  processes  are  resorted  to 
it  will  be  necessary  to  select  a  site  or  sites  for  the  production  of  hydro- 
electric power,  and  this  selection  will  have  to  be  made  with  a  view 
to  the  accessibility  of  mineral  elements  needed  for  association  in  the 
peace  and  war  time  products  of  the  plant,  and  the  selection  will  also 
have  to  consider  the  location  of  the  site  with  a  view  to  its  defense  in 
the  event  of  war  and  the  readiness  and  economy  with  which  its  prod- 
ucts can  be  distributed  in  war  times  to  the  military  forces  of  the 
Nation  and  in  peace  times  to  the  farming  community  which  can  be 
expected  to  use  the  fertilizer  product.  The  subject  is  thus  seen  to  be 
one  of  intricacy,  and,  while  the  solution  of  the  questions  presented 
has  not  yet  been  made,  the  studies  being  made  are  of  such  character 
as  to  insure  a  scientific  treatment  of  the  question  and  a  careful  and 
effective  use  of  the  funds  appropriated  by  Congress  for  this  im- 
portant object. 

Examinations  for  promotion, — As  early  as  October  1,  l»yu,  Mr. 
Redfield  Proctor,  Secretary  of  War,  advocated  in  his  annual  report 
and  secured  the  enactment  of  a  measure  providing  a  system  of 
examination  for  all  officers  of  the  Army  below  the  rank  of  major 
and  making  the  right  to  promotion  conditional  thereon.  The 
theory  which  has  long  obtained  in  the  Army,  of  promotion  by 
seniority,  was  not  disturbed  except  that  the  requirement  of  a  suc- 
cessful examination  was  made  an  additional  condition  precedent, 
the  examinations  not  being  competitive  but  qualifying.     The  law 


46  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

did  not  seem  to  work  well,  although  its  theory  met  with  the 
approval  of  the  War  Department,  and  constant  efforts  were  made 
both  to  broaden  its  scope  and  increase  the  efficiency  of  its  opera- 
tion. My  immediate  predecessor,  Secretary  of  War  Garrison,  in  his 
annual  report  for  1913,  drew  the  analogy  between  the  practice  of  in- 
dustrial concerns  and  the  Army,  suggesting  the  tendency  of  mere 
seniority  promotion  to  cause  a  lack  of  initiative  and  study  on  the  part 
of  officers.  He  very  justly  observed  that  there  is  a  surprising  amount 
of  ambition  and  initiative  in  the  Army,  but  that  it  is  largely  self- 
generated  and  receives  very  little  stimulation  from  the  promotion 
system.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  we  see  the  same  condition  in  civil  life — 
young  men  of  great  ingenuity  and  devotion  who  are  attending  the 
postgraduate  courses  in  our  universities  and  are  ordinarily  required 
to  do  a  piece  of  original  research  work  as  the  basis  of  their  pretensions 
to  the  degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy.  They  are  filled  with  research 
zeal.  When,  however,  they  are  through  with  their  university  course 
and  undertake  the  daily  grind  of  teaching  in  academic  institutions, 
their  separation  from  the  inspiring  university  atmosphere  and  from 
daily  association  with  others  engaged  in  original  work  tends  gradu- 
ally to  lull  the  impulse  to  investigation,  and  the  task  of  original 
research  is  passed  along  to  their  successors  at  the  universities,  while 
they  become  drill  masters,  disciplinarians,  and  teachers,  but  not  con- 
tributors to  the  original  thought  of  their  science. 

The  life  of  the  Army  officer  when  he  is  at  the  War  College  or 
in  one  of  the  service  schools  where  military  matters  are  the  daily 
concern  of  a  large  number  of  brilliant  men  is  full  of  that  inspiration 
which  maintains  interest  in  the  latest  developments  of  military 
science.  But  as  officers  scatter  to  outlying  Army  posts,  some- 
times in  the  Tropics  and  sometimes  in  remote  sections  of  the  conti- 
nental United  States,  the  officer  soon  feels  the  loss  of  contact  with 
other  investigating  minds,  and  if  mere  seniority  is  to  continue  to 
secure  an  orderly  promotion  for  him  which  can  neither  be  accelerated 
by  his  effort  nor  retarded  by  his  inactivity,  a  substantial  encourage- 
ment to  development  is  lost.  In  response  to  considerations  of  this 
sort  the  act  of  June  3, 1916,  extended  the  provisions  of  previous  laws 
requiring  examination  to  determine  fitness  of  officers  for  promotion 
so  as  to  include  examination  for  promotion  to  all  grades  below  that 
of  brigadier  general.  Under  the  operations  of  this  law  there  will  be 
constantly  before  the  mind  of  the  officer  the  necessity  of  keeping  him- 


REPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETARY  OP  WAR.  47 

self  abreast  of  the  developments  in  military  matters  and  of  not  allow- 
ing his  general  education  to  stagnate  or  be  lost  in  a  dull  routine  of 
disciplinary  observances.  The  law  ought  not  to  be  harshly  em- 
ployed, but  in  the  normal  development  of  its  operation  eliminations 
will  take  place  of  oflBcers  who  have  lost  interest  in  their  career  and 
in  the  development  of  military  science,  and  a  certain  minimum  of 
growth  will  become  a  fixed  requirement  as  officers  advance  in  the 
service  to  positions  of  larger  responsibility. 

*  Revision  of  the  Articles  of  War. — From  the  point  of  view  of  the 
daily  discipline  and  control  of  the  Army,  perhaps  no  step  in  recent 
years  has  been  more  helpful  than  the  revision  of  the  Articles  of  War, 
enacted  into  law  as  a  part  of  the  Army  appropriation  act  approved 
August  29, 1916.  For  many  years  the  Army  has  felt  that  the  Articles 
of  War  needed  revision.  Many  of  these  articles  have  remained 
unchanged  for  a  century,  while  new  theories  of  discipline  have 
been  current  in  all  the  civilized  countries  of  the  world,  and  in  our 
own  country  profound  modifications  have  taken  place  in  the  admin- 
istration of  both  civil  and  criminal  law.  The  extension  of  the  field 
of  operations  of  the  Army  of  the  United  States  beyond  our  conti- 
nental borders  and  other  changes  in  the  domestic  and  international 
situation  of  the  United  States  have  presented  conditions  which  the 
old  articles  were  not  adapted  to  meet.  The  revision  of  the  articles, 
therefore,  was  most  needed,  and  the  work  of  the  Judge  Advocate 
General  in  preparing  the  revised  articles  is  a  singularly  able  piece 
of  work,  introducing  needed  reforms,  and  throughout  characterized 
by  moderation  and  a  conservative  attitude  toward  an  established  and 
well-imderstood  disciplinary  system. 

Revision  of  military  laws. — ^The  act  of  August  29,  1916,  further 
directs  a  revision  and  codification  of  all  the  military  laws  of  the  coun- 
try. This  is  a  large  and  difficult  task  and  yet  one  very  necessary  to 
be  performed.  For  many  years  Congress  has  enacted  a  great  variety 
of  laws,  some  of  them  directly  military  in  character  and  others  touch- 
ing the  Military  Establishment  only  at  a  tangent,  so  that  scattered 
through  the  statutes  is  a  lot  of  piecemeal  legislation  requiring  the 
most  expert  and  trained  knowledge  for  its  use.  It  will  be  a  great  ad- 
vance in  the  conduct  of  the  Military  Establishment  to  have  all  of 
these  laws  brought  together,  placed  in  their  true  relation  to  one 
another,  their  accidental  conflicts  eliminated,  and  a  consistent  and 


48  REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

plain  body  of  laws  erected  for  the  guidance  of  those  who  come 
within  the  scope  and  operation  of  our  so-called  military  laws.  It 
is  my  hope  that  this  code  can  be  submitted  to  Congress  at  an  early 
day,  and  while  the  Congress  will  undoubtedly  find  it  necessary 
carefully  to  examine  the  work  before  giving  its  approval,  it  will 
be  presented  in  a  form  which  will  show  that  the  effort  has  been 
to  omit  obsolete  and  redundant  matter  without  substantially  chang- 
ing the  effect  of  existing  law  except  in  such  obvious  cases  as  will 
appeal  at  once  to  the  lawmaking  body. 

MILITABY  TBAINING  IN  HIGH  SCHOOLS. 

The  statement  made  by  the  War  College  Division  of  the  General 
Staff  entitled  "A  Statement  of  a  Proper  Military  Policy  for  the  United 
States,"  gave  us  some  idea  of  the  size  of  an  army  which  would  be  needed 
in  this  country  in  the  event  of  any  serious  emergency.  As  one  contribu- 
tion to  the  preparation  of  the  necessary  number  of  men,  a  proper  sys- 
tem of  training  for  high  schools  was  developed  by  Capt.  E.  Z.  Steever 
and  applied  with  marked  success  in  the  public  high  schools  of  the 
State  of  Wyoming.  The  Steever  plan  has  come  to  be  known  as  the 
•*  Wyoming  plan."  It  has  been  extensively  written  up  in  periodicals 
of  general  circulation  and  interest,  and  requests  come  almost  daily 
to  the  War  Department  for  the  services  of  Capt.  Steever  to  introduce 
the  system  into  the  public  secondary  schools.  The  plan  embraces  the 
preparation  of  a  high -school  boy  in  military,  moral,  civic,  business, 
and  educational  equipment,  and  its  fundamental  basis  rests  upon  the 
natural  evolution  of  leadership  among  boys  and  the  value  of  organi- 
zation and  coordination  in  groups  of  young  men.  The  system  can 
not  be  said  to  compete  with  recognized  athletic  diversions,  but  it 
offers  opportunities  for  larger  masses  and  spreads  its  benefit  in  the 
physical  training  over  wider  areas  than  is  possible  under  the  inten- 
sive form  which  modem  athletics  has  taken.  The  entire  enlistment  is 
voluntary  and  the  exercises  are  carefully  adjusted  so  as  not  to  com- 
pete or  interfere  with  the  normal  academic  work  of  the  school.  The 
exercises  are  only  in  part  directly  military  and  are  designed  to 
stimulate  the  interest  of  all  normal  and  healthy  boys,  thus  afford- 
ing an  invitation  to  those  who  are  not  normally  the  most  fit  physi- 
cally to  develop  vigorous,  sturdy  bodies,  with  clean  minds  and  or- 
dered and  disciplined  habits. 


BEPOET  OF  THE  SECBETAEY  OP  WAE.  49 

There  is  just  enough  of  a  soldier  aspect  to  teach  constantly  the 
lesson  of  the  obligation  of  the  citizen  to  serve  the  State  in  a  crisis, 
and  under  the  wise  restraints  which  have  been  introduced  into  the 
system  even  the  most  devoted  adherents  of  peaceful  policies  for  our 
Government  have  not  felt  that  there  was  any  danger  of  the  devel- 
opment of  a  militarist  attitude  in  the  student  body. 

GENEBAL  STAFF  COBPS. 

Duties  and  functions  as  prescribed  hy  National-Defense  Act. — The 
act  for  making  further  and  more  effectual  provision  for  the  national 
defense,  and  other  purposes,  approved  June  3,  1916,  provided  many 
enlargements  and  changes  in  the  Army.  A  large  part  of  the  dis- 
cussion in  Congress  and  of  the  illustrative  and  preparatory  work 
in  the  War  Department  had  been  done  prior  to  my  assumption  of 
the  duties  of  Secretary  of  War.  Some  questions  as  to  the  results 
of  this  act,  however,  and  of  the  intention  of  Congress  in  passing 
it  arose  for  almost  immediate  consideration  and  required  a  careful 
historical  study  of  Army  legislation  covering  a  long  period  of 
years.  None  of  these  questions  was  more  important  or  diflScult 
than  that  affecting  the  organization  of  the  General  Staff  and  the 
relation  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  alike  to  the  Secretary  and  the  Army. 

For  many  years  the  superior  military  authority  in  the  Army 

was  vested  in  the  Commanding  General  of  the  Army.    The  em- 

barrkssments  attending  the  somewhat  uncertain  duties  of  that  officer 

and  the  growth  of  the  principal  staff  organizations  in  the  armies 

of  other  countries  sharply  directed  the  attention  of  various  Sec-. 

retaries  of  War  to  the  need  of  a  reorganization,  and  the  first  step 

in  that  direction  was  taken  by  the  creation  of  the  Army  War  College 

Board,  which  Secretary  Root  described  to  be  as  near  an  approach 

to  the  establishment  of  the  General  Staff  as  was  practicable  under 

the  law  existing  in  1899.    In  1901  Secretary  Root,  in  his  report, 

formally  urged  the  establishment  by  law  of  the  General  Staff,  of 

which  the  War  College  Board  should  form  a  part.    In  his  annual 

report  for  1902  Secretary  Root  again  urged  his  recommendation, 

saying : 

Our  mUitary  system  Is,  however,  stUl  exceedingly  defective  at  the  top. 
We  have  a  personnel  unsurpassed  anywhere.  ♦  ♦  ♦  We  have  the  dUferent 
branches  of  the  military  service  well  organized,  each  within  itself  for  the 
X)erformance  of  its  duty ;  our  administrative  staff  and  supply  departments  have 

eOlTe'—WAB  1916— VOL  1 1 


50  BEPORT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB, 

at  their  heads  good  and  competent  men,  faithful  to  their  duty,  each  attending 
assiduously  to  the  business  of  his  department;  but  when  we  come  to  the  co- 
ordination and  direction  of  all  these  means  and  agencies  of  warfare,  so  that 
all  parts  of  the  machine  shall  work  true  together,  we  are  weak.  Our  system 
makes  no  adequate  provision  for  the  directing  brain  which  every  army  must 
have  to  work  successfully.  Ck)mmon  experience  has  shown  that  this  can  not 
be  furnished  by  any  single  man  without  assistants,  and  that  it  requires  a 
body  of  officers  working  together  with  the  direction  of  a  chief,  and  entirely 
separate  from  the  Army.  •  ♦  •  This  body  of  officers  In  distinction  from 
the  administrative  staff  has  come  to  be  called  a  general  staff. 

The  subject  thus  presented  was  very  fully  and  earnestly  considered 
by  the  Military  Committees  of  the  two  Houses,  and  resulted  in  the 
passage  of  the  act  of  February  14, 1903,  which  abolished  the  separate 
office  of  Commanding  General  of  the  Army,  provided  for  a  military 
Chief  of  Staff,  who,  under  the  direction  of  the  President  or  of  the 
Secretary  of  War,  representing  him,  should  have  supervision  not 
only  of  all  troops  of  the  line,  but  of  the  special  staff  and  supply 
departments,  which  theretofore  had  reported  directly  to  the  Sec- 
retary of  War,  and  it  created  for  the  assistance  of  the  Chief  of  Staff 
a  corps  of  44  officers  who  were  relieved  from  all  other  duties.  The 
inauguration  of  this  system  was  a  complete  and  fundamental  change 
in  the  administration  of  the  AVar  Department.  It  was  not  unnatu- 
rally attended  by  some  misunderstanding  and  difficulties,  growing 
out  of  the  transfer  of  authority  and  independence  from  a  series  of 
uncoordinated  administrative  staff  officers  into  a  harmonized  and 
coordinated  body  under  the  supervision  and  control  of  a  single 
military  officer.  The  embarrassing  question  constantly  presented 
itself  as  to  just  how  far  the  functions  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  invaded 
the  administrative  independence  of  various  bureau  chiefs,  and,  while 
the  question  was  always  considered  in  a  fair  and  tolerant  spirit,  it 
sometimes  became  the  basis  of  anxious  controversy,  if  not  misunder- 
standing. 

In  the  act  of  June  3, 1916,  and  particularly  in  section  5  of  that  act, 
some  language  was  introduced  by  Congress  apparently  for  the  pur- 
pose of  setting  at  rest  some  of  this  misunderstanding.  Unhappily, 
however,  doubt  immediately  arose  as  to  the  scope,  effect,  and  inten- 
tion of  the  language  so  employed.  One  possible  view  of  its  meaning 
would  have  in  effect  limited  the  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  and  his 
associates  to  the  consideration  of  more  or  less  abstract  questions  of 
military  policy  and  would  have  deprived  him  of  that  basis  of 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  51 

knowledge  necessary  for  the  performance  of  any  coordinating  func- 
tion. In  effect,  this  would  have  been  a  return  to  the  old  system  of 
more  or  less  independent  bureau  organizations  reporting  to  and 
dealing  directly  with  the  Secretary  of  War  and  coordinated  only  to 
tlie  extent  that  his  personal  information  enabled  him  to  effect  such 
a  result.  It  would,  of  course,  have  left  the  Chief  of  Staff  and  the 
General  Staff  in  existence,  but  would  have  limited  their  functions 
practically  to  the  work  originally  undertaken  by  the  War  College 
Board,  and  later  by  the  War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff. 
Since  Congress  had  apparently  addressed  its  attention  to  this  sub- 
ject and  had  used  some  new  language,  it  became  important  very 
earnestly  to  inquire  just  what  the  legislation  intended  to  accomplish 
and  how  far  the  interpretation  above  suggested  as  possible  was 
necessitated  by  the  language  used. 

As  this  question  is  one  of  far-reaching  importance,  I  take  the 
liberty  of  attaching  to  this  report  as  Appendix  A  the  decision  of  the 
Secretary  of  War  *  on  the  effect  of  section  5  of  the  National-Defense 
Act,  in  which  the  subject  is  examined  with  critical  care  and  the 
conclusion  reached  that — 

The  structure  [General  Staff]  erected  by  the  act  of  1903  remains  as  then 
created,  except  for  the  explicit  modifications  provided  in  the  act  of  1916. 

And— 

That  the  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  is  charged  with  the  supervision  of  the 
various  departments,  bureaus,  and  offices  of  the  War  Department  for  the  pur- 
pose of  coordinating  their  activities  and  for  the  purpose  of  so  informing  the 
Judgment  of  the  Secretary  of  War  that  he  may  not  by  inadvertence  or  unfamll- 
iarity  with  military  practice  take  action  which  would  be  prejudicial  to 
harmonious  results  In  the  military  service. 

This  conclusion  was  reached  by  a  study  of  the  language  actually 
used,  which,  after  all,  was  merely  a  prohibition  upon  the  officers  de- 
tailed into  the  General  Staff  Corps  from  the  performance  of  adminis- 
trative duties  and  was  in  no  expressed  sense  a  repeal  of  any  of  the 
earlier  legislation  which  subjected  the  administrative  staff  officers  to 
the  supervising,  coordinating,  and  informing  powers  reposed  in  the 
members  of  the  General  Staff  Corps  by  the  act  of  1903.  It  seemed 
entirely  clear  to  me  that  had  the  Congress  intended  a  larger  effect  for 


>The  able  opinion  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  on  this  question  Is  attached  as  m 
part  of  Appendix  A,  so  that  the  perplexity  of  the  question  from  both  points  of  view  may 
ba  seen. 


52  REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

its  language  it  would  not  have  been  content  to  leave  that  effect  to 
inference  and  expanded  definitions  of  terms  ordinarily  having  much 
more  limited  meaning.  The  result  of  all  the  legislation,  therefore, 
including  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  June  3, 1916,  dealing  with  this 
subject  seemed  to  me  to  be  that  Congress  has  adhered  to  the  policy 
inaugurated  in  1903,  that  it  continues  to  recognize  the  wisdom  of  a 
General  Staff  in  the  American  Army,  and  that  not  a  staff  for  the 
academic  consideration  of  theoretical  problems,  but  such  a  staff  as 
can,  on  the  basis  of  intimate  acquaintance  with  both  the  War  De- 
partment bureaus  and  the  Army  at  large,  act  as  a  coordinating  and 
reconciling  agency.  The  considerations  which  moved  Congress  to 
the  passage  of  the  act  of  1903  were  of  the  weightiest  character.  For- 
eign experience,  which  was  then  considered  determinative  of  proper 
military  policy  in  this  regard,  has  since  that  time  become  more  con- 
clusively persuasive  in  the  same  direction,  and  I  am  clear  that  any 
abandonment  of  the  theory  of  the  General  Staff,  or  any  diminution 
of  the  coordinating  power  of  the  Chief  of  the  General  Staff,  would 
be  a  backward  step  and  would  scatter  the  military  energies  of  our 
Army,  which  are  now  so  happily  concentrated  and  coordinated.  It  is 
proper  to  be  remembered  in  this  connection  that  the  Chief  of  the 
General  Staff  bears  a  more  personal  relation  to  the  Secretary  of 
War  and,  through  him,  to  the  President  than  is  borne  by  any  other 
officer  in  the  Army.  The  occupant  of  the  office  changes  at  the  will 
of  the  Secretary  of  War,  and  in  order  that  the  policy  of  the  Presi- 
dent may  be  aptly  and  sympathetically  impressed  upon  the  military 
establishment,  it  seems  imperative  that  there  should  be  continued  in 
the  Chief  of  Staff  the  largest  power  of  supervision  and  that  he  should 
be  enabled  to  keep  constantly  informed,  even  in  detail,  as  to  the 
operations  of  the  various  subdivisions  of  the  military  activities  of 
the  department,  so  that  the  Secretary  of  War  may  rely  upon  him  in 
un  immediate  and  personal  sense  for  advice  which  is  based  upon  a 
view  of  the  whole  Army  rather  than  upon  the  advice,  however  frank 
and  disinterested,  of  individuals  whose  chief  interests  are  associated 
with  subdivisions  of,  or  specialties  in,  the  service. 

Having  reached  a  definite  opinion  as  to  the  intention  of  Congress, 
I  have  directed  obedience  to  that  intention  by  a  continuation  of  the 
policy  established  inmiediately  upon  the  passage  of  the  act  of  1903, 
and  this  result,  I  am  confident,  will  be  regarded  by  the  Army  as 
conducive  to  its  growth  in  efficiency  and  to  the  establishment  of  har- 


REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR.  53 

monious  and  just  relations  between  the  various  elements  of  the 
service. 

Number  of  oificera  required. — At  the  time  of  the  creation  of  the 
General  Staff  Corps  the  number  of  officers  at  first  detailed  thereto 
was  fixed  at  45  as  the  proper  number  to  perform  this  new  and  some- 
what experimental  duty.  In  1912  the  General  Staff  was  reduced  by 
one  general  officer  and  eight  captains.  The  reduction  so  seriously 
interfered  with  the  work  of  the  General  Staff  as  to  cause  a  special 
emphasis  to  be  laid  by  the  department  in  its  recommendations  to 
Congress  on  the  subject.  Having  an  intimate  knowledge  of  the 
increase  and  development  of  its  own  fimctions  and  possibilities  of 
usefulness,  the  General  Staff  recommended  94  as  the  number  that 
should  compose  that  body.  The  new  National-Defense  Act  as  passed 
by  the  Senate  fixed  the  number  at  92,  but  when  the  bill  emerged  from 
conference,  the  General  Staff,  aside  from  its  general  officers,  was 
increased  by  18  officers  only,  and  they  were  to  come,  like  the  other 
increases  authorized  for  the  Army,  in  five  annual  increments.  And 
the  National-Defense  Act  further  provided  that  not  more  than  one- 
half  of  the  officers  detailed  in  the  General  Staff  Corps  shall  at  any 
time  be  stationed  or  assigned  to  or  employed  upon  any  duty  in  or 
near  the  District  of  Columbia.  It  seems  quite  clear  that  the  law  as 
thus  enacted  leaves  the  General  Staff  Corps  insufficiently  provided 
for,  so  far  as  numbers  are  concerned,  and  the  department  is  em- 
barrassed in  the  selection  of  suitable  officers  for  this  most  important 
duty,  both  by  the  restriction  prohibiting  the  assignment  to  duty  in 
or  near  Washington  of  more  than  one-half  of  the  corps  and  also  by 
the  detached-service  law  and  other  restrictions  which  limit  choice. 
The  detached-service  law  was  a  part  of  the  appropriation  act  for  the 
Army  approved  August  24,  1912,  and  requires  that  commissioned 
officers  of  the  line  of  the  Army  below  the  rank  of  major  shall  not  be 
detached  unless  they  have  been  actually  present  for  duty  for  at  least 
two  of  the  last  preceding  six  years  with  troops  of  that  branch  of  the 
service  in  which  the  officer  in  question  is  commissioned. 

With  the  purpose  of  this  law  I  have  complete  sympathy,  in  that  it 
is  an  effort  to  require  the  return  of  officers  to  service  with  troops  at 
such  frequent  intervals  as  to  assure  knowledge  of  troop  conditions 
and  line  service  in  those  who  are  from  time  to  time  detached  for 
special  and  expert  work.  It  seems  to  be  a  very  safe  generalization 
that  all  officers  of  the  Army,  with  the  possible  exception  of  a  very  few 


54  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

performing  highly  specialized  service,  ought  to  be  returned  to  service 
with  troops  from  time  to  time,  so  that  their  details,  or  periods  of  de- 
tachment, will  be  refreshed  by  knowledge  of  actual  army  conditions. 
But  I  doubt  the  wisdom  of  allowing  this  principle  to  limit  the  choice 
of  the  department  in  the  selection  of  officers  for  the  General  StaflP. 
The  duties  of  that  body  are  of  such  paramount  importance  to  the 
success  of  the  whole  military  establishment  that  the  War  Department 
ought  to  be  free  from  any  arbitrary  restriction  in  reaching  out  into 
the  service  at  any  time  for  the  man  or  men  best  qualified  to  perform 
this  central  and  pivotal  function. 

A  board  of  officers  was  recently  constituted  in  the  War  Department 
to  recommend  for  selection  the  necessary  number  of  officers  to  fill 
vacancies  in  the  General  Staff.    The  board  reports  that  it — 

was  seriously  han<llcnpped  by  the  fact  that  many  of  the  officers  whom  it  con- 
sidered eminently  fit  were  either  on  the  detached  officers*  list,  on  duty  in  the 
Philippines  with  a  considerable  period  to  serve,  or  were  within  one  year  of  their 
promotion,  or  detailed  In  other  staff  departments. 

T^ndoubtedly  the  difficulty  here  sought  to  be  solved  by  Congress  is 
a  real  one.  Washington,  being  the  Capital  and  the  seat  of  the  War 
Department,  is  a  desirable  place  of  residence  for  officers  of  the  Army, 
and,  where  personal  preference  is  allowed  to  control,  undoubtedly  the 
tendency  will  be,  for  one  reason  or  another,  to  allow  too  large  a  num- 
ber of  officers  in  Washington,  at  the  expense  of  an  adequate  officering 
of  outlying  posts.  It  would  seem,  however,  that,  in  view  of  the 
firmly  established  theory  and  practice  of  the  dominance  of  the  Chief 
of  the  General  Staff  and  his  supervision  over  and  coordination  of  all 
the  various  branches  of  the  military  establishment,  the  power  might 
safely  be  left  to  the  Secretary  of  War  to  set  aside  in  individual  cases 
restrictions  of  this  kind  in  the  interest  of  the  most  efficient  organiza- 
tion of  the  General  Staff  Corps.  Incidentally  it  may  be  remarked 
that  these  restrictive  provisions  impose  upon  the  Government  a  very 
substantial  increase  in  the  expense  of  the  military  establishment,  re- 
quiring, as  they  do,  arbitrarily,  frequent  changes  in  the  assignment 
of  officers,  and  their  transportation  from  place  to  place. 

SCIENTinC  MANAGEMENT. 

The  supplies  of  the  Army  are  in  part  purchased  in  the  open  market 
and  under  contract  and  in  part  manufactured  in  Government  arse- 
nals.   The  question  of  the  relation  between  the  Government  as  em- 


REPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETAKY  OP  WAB,  55 

ployer  and  its  employees  in  these  arsenals  is  a  part  of  the  general 
labor  question  of  the  country.  The  theory  which  the  department 
attempts  to  follow  is,  in  general  terms,  that  the  Government  should 
be  the  model  employer,  and  to  a  large  extent  this  theory  is  successfully 
applied.  In  the  matter  of  hours  of  labor,  sanitary  conditions,  holi- 
days, and  sick  leave  there  is  perhaps  no  better  industrial  condition  in 
the  United  States  than  that  maintained  by  the  War  Department  in 
these  industrial  plants.  The  question  of  wages  and  the  basis  of 
wages  is,  however,  under  more  or  less  constant  discussion.  Roughly 
speaking,  the  department  undertakes  to  establish  wage  rates  by  deter- 
mination of  the  prevailing  rate  of  wages  in  similar  employments 
within  the  district  in  which  the  particular  arsenal  is  located,  and  it 
uses  Bureau  of  Labor  statistics  of  the  Department  of  Labor  in  select- 
ing the  territory  which  shall  comprise  the  district  and  in  determining 
rates  of  wages  for  similar  work.  The  result  is  that  the  employees 
of  the  Government  receive  the  prevailing  rate  of  wage  in  their  respec- 
tive occupations,  but  usually  for  a  day  of  shorter  hours  than  is 
observed  in  the  private  industries  from  which  the  information  is 
drawn,  and  clearly  for  work  done  under  conditions  much  more  favor- 
able to  the  public  employee  than  to  the  private  employee.  The  diffi- 
culty in  this  whole  matter,  however,  arises  from  the  use  of  more  or 
less  arbitrary  methods  for  piecework  and  day  wage  determination. 
Many  efforts  have  been  made  to  introduce  just  principles  into  this 
delicate  determination.  A  system  of  time  studies  and  premiums 
known  as  the  "  Taylor  system  "  was  adopted  in  part  in  some  of  the 
arsenals,  but  it  met  with  the  opposition  of  organized  labor  and  Con- 
gress prohibited  the  use  of  the  system.  We  have  been  obliged,  there- 
fore, to  fall  back  upon  the  less  scientific  and  less  just  methods  pre- 
viously employed. 

It  seems  without  doubt  that  an  efficiency  system  properly  con- 
structed and  justly  applied  is  fairer  alike  to  the  Government  and  to 
the  employee  than  any  more  haphazard  method.  The  objection  of 
organized  labor  is  not  unnatural;  it  proceeds  from  the  belief  that  all 
efficiency  systems  tend  to  become  "speeding-up"  systems  and  that 
their  logical  operation  increases  the  output  without  a  corresponding 
increase  of  wage.  This,  however,  must,  of  course,  be  due  to  the 
method  of  applying  the  system  rather  than  to  the  system  itself,  and 
after  examining  the  results  obtained  in  Government  arsenals  where 
the  system  was  in  whole  or  in  part  followed,  I  am  persuaded  that 


56  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB. 

no  such  evil  effects  as  these  were  permitted  to  occur.  How  far  the 
action  of  Congress  was  dictated  by  a  belief  that  efficiency  systems 
inevitably  tended  to  the  enervation  of  the  employee  I  have  not  the 
means  of  knowing,  nor  do  I  know  what  evidences  of  such  results  in 
private  establishments  were  considered,  but  under  the  law  as  it  now 
is  the  department  is  prohibited  from  using  time  studies  and  pre- 
miums, and  is  therefore  deprived  of  the  means  of  acquiring  the  sort 
of  knowledge  without  which  just  wage  regulation  is  impossible,  or  of 
offering  inducements  to  zeal  and  good  workmanship,  which  if  offered 
in  moderation  constitute  a  just  recognition  of  individual  skill  and 
energy.  My  own  belief  is  that  most  of  the  difficulties  which  have  been 
felt  to  inhere  in  efficiency  systems  arise  from  the  fact  that  they  are 
employers'  systems  and  that  the  employee  has  no  voice  nor  part 
either  in  the  making  or  application  of  the  systems.  We  are  un- 
happily prevented  by  existing  legislation  from  any  experiments. 
Were  it  otherwise  I  would  be  much  interested  to  discover,  if  possible, 
a  plan  by  which  the  Government  and  its  employees  might  cooperate 
in  the  devising  and  application  of  methods  fair  to  both  for  the 
determination  of  relative  skill  and  zeal  among  operatives,  which 
would  at  the  same  time  protect  the  interests  of  the  Government  as 
employer,  and  while  conserving  the  strength  and  energy  of  the 
employees  distribute  justly  among  them  the  rewards  of  faithful 
service. 

STJGK^ESTED  LEGISLATION. 

Engineer  School. — ^I  have  referred  above  to  the  special-service 
schools  already  established  in  the  Army  to  supplement  with  post- 
graduate courses  the  fundamental  training  given  to  officers  at  West 
Point.  The  Army  War  College  is,  of  course,  one  of  these  and  de- 
votes its  teaching  force  to  the  study  of  the  principles  of  strategy  and 
military  policy.  The  service  schools  seek  to  specialize  in  their  par- 
ticular branches  of  the  service,  and  the  rapidity  with  which  new 
implements  of  war  are  developing  and  their  highly  scientific  char- 
acter make  it  increasingly  important  that  special  study  should  be 
given  to  such  subjects  as  precision  in  indirect  Artillery  fire,  the  use 
of  the  machine  gun,  the  modern  uses  of  Cavalry  and  military  avia- 
tion. To  one  of  these  schools,  however,  I  desire  to  ask  particular 
attention.  The  Engineer  Corps  of  the  Army  for  many  years  com- 
prised a  large  part  of  the  most  eminent  engineering  talent  in  the 


BEPOBT  OP  THE  SECRET ABY  OP  WAR.  57 

country.  Its  oflScers  are  still  men  of  great  distinction  and  ability, 
but  the  science  of  engineering  in  its  various  aspects  has  become 
fundamental  to  the  entire  industrial  life  of  the  Nation.  The  civil, 
electrical,  mechanical,  and  chemical  engineer  is  to  be  found  in  every 
great  industry,  and  the  rewards  offered  in  civil  life  to  the  engineer 
are  now  attractive  in  the  highest  degree.  It  is  very  necessary  that 
the  Army  should  be  continuously  supplied  with  well-trained  en- 
gineers. 

The  peace-time  occupations  of  the  War  Department  and  of  the 
Army  rest  in  a  high  degree  upon  the  Engineer  force,  and  the  great 
problems  of  river  and  harbor  improvement  and  development  for  the 
promotion  of  navigation  and  for  the  conservation  of  the  water  power 
of  the  countrj'  are  in  the  hands  of  that  corps.  Of  course,  in  war 
the  engineer,  as  bridge  builder,  road  maker,  builder  of  fortifications, 
and  a  variety  of  other  construction  enterprises,  is  essential  to  military 
success.  But  the  science  of  engineering,  like  all  other  sciences  now- 
adays, is  rapidly  developing.  Every  new  application  of  scientific 
principles  to  industry  affects  the  engineer,  and  it  is  of  the  highest 
importance  that  the  Engineer  Corps  of  the  Army  should  continue  to 
contain  a  progressive,  highly  trained  body  of  men  thoroughly  abreast 
of  all  the  developments  in  science  applicable  alike  to  those  engi- 
neering functions  of  the  Government  in  times  of  peace  and  to  the 
great  call  made  upon  the  engineer  in  times  of  war.  The  Engineer 
School  maintained  at  the  Washington  barracks  seems  to  me  an  inade- 
quate response  to  this  obvious  need,  and  I  trust  the  attention  of 
Congress  can  at  some  suitable  time  be  called  to  the  wisdom  of 
providing  facilities  for  original  research  and  continuous  and  funda- 
mental training  for  our  body  of  engineers,  that  will  keep  them  in  the 
very  forefront  of  engineering  science. 

National  preparatory  schools. — The  suggestion  made  with  regard 
to  preparatory  military  schools  is,  of  course,  independent  of  the 
widespread  movement  for  vocational  training  in  the  Army  here- 
tofore mentioned. 

The  method  of  selection  of  cadets  for  West  Point  has  for  years  con- 
sisted of  designation  by  the  President,  Senators,  and  Representatives, 
with  examination  as  a  prerequisite  to  acceptance ;  but  we  are  learning 
daily  that  a  nation  efficiently  organized  from  a  military  point  of 
view  must  of  necessity  be  efficiently  organized  industrially.  We  are 
learning  also  that  the  ideal  military  preparation  of  any  country  is 


58  KEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OP  WAB. 

one  which  is  readily  expanded  in  an  emergency  so  as  to  include 
great  numbers  of  men  in  the  industrial  and  commercial  life  of 
the  nation  who  have  had  enough  preliminary  training  to  make 
them  convertible  by  brief  additional  training  into  oflScers.  Should 
the  United  States  ever  be  called  upon  to  meet  a  great  military 
emergency  a  large  army  would  have  to  be  sustained  and  sup- 
ported by  a  highly  coordinated  industrial  system.  There  should 
therefore  be  in  the  country  at  all  times  a  great  body  of  men  trained 
as  mechanics,  whose  places  in  such  an  emergency  would  be  not 
in  the  ranks  of  the  fighting  forces  but  at  the  lathes  and  forges 
from  which  the  anmiimition  supply  of  the  Army  must  be  drawn. 
I  venture  to  believe  that  if  the  Federal  Government  were  to  estab- 
lish in  a  number  of  places  throughout  the  country  schools  prepara- 
tory to  the  Military  Academy  at  West  Point  and  the  Naval 
Academy  at  Annapolis,  in  which  the  rudiments  of  a  sound  edu- 
cation, the  elements  of  mechanical  skill,  the  principles  of  business 
coordination,  and  the  beginnings  of  military  science  were  taught, 
these  schools  would  develop  the  natural  aptitudes  of  the  students 
in  such  a  way  as  to  supply  those  fittest  by  temperament  and  talent 
to  pursue  in  the  Military  Academy  and  the  Naval  Academy  the  study 
of  military  science;  and  incidentally  these  schools  would  furnish  a 
great  body  of  men  returning  to  civil  life  fitted  by  training  either 
to  respond  in  an  emergency  to  a  call  to  the  colors  or  to  take  their 
places  as  civil  soldiers  in  the  service  of  the  Government  in  those 
industries  and  undertakings  fundamental  to  the  successful  conduct 
of  military  operations. 

The  suggestion  here  made  ought  not  perhaps  to  be  further  elabo- 
rated in  this  report,  but  I  think  it  will  be  apparent  on  reflection 
that  no  expenditure  in  contemplation  of  a  great  military  emer- 
gency would  be  more  apt  or  helpful  than  one  which  gave  to  25,000 
or  30,000  young  men  the  inspiration  of  industrial  education  at  the 
hands  of  the  Government,  indoctrinated  them  with  the  spirit  of  serv- 
ice to  their  country,  and  tabulated  them  so  that  they  would  be  always 
available  for  either  the  military  or  industrial  service  which 
their  academic  experience  indicated  most  in  accordance  with  their 
aptitudes.  It  seems  equally  likely  that  schools  of  this  sort  would 
spread  the  field  of  selection  ideally  over  the  country  and  make 
the  cadets  at  West  Point  and  midshipmen  at  Annapolis  bodies  of 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  59 

young  men  selected  by  a  demonstration  of  their  special  aptitude  for 
the  pursuit  of  military  service. 

THE  BOABD  OF  OBDNANCE  AND  FOBTIFICATION. 

The  Board  of  Ordnance  and  Fortification  is  one  of  the  most 
important  standing  boards  of  the  War  Department.  It  meets 
weekly  for  the  consideration  of  questions  affecting  the  fortifica- 
tions of  the  United  States  and  the  arming  of  our  forces  with 
suitable  implements  of  war.  Scientific  discoveries  and  invention 
are  being  made  on  every  hand  imder  the  stimulus  of  the  world 
war,  and  this  board  endeavors  to  keep  abreast  of  the  progress  made 
throughout  the  world,  to  consider  and  weigh  the  claims  of  inventors 
and  the  possible  applications  of  science  to  warfare,  to  the  end 
that  our  Army  may  be  provided  with  equipment  of  the  best,  at 
least  to  the  extent  possible  under  the  appropriations  made  by  Con- 
gress for  the  purpose.  I  do  not  undertake  to  give  any  detailed 
account  of  the  operations  of  the  board,  but  two  or  three  subjects 
considered  by  it  are  sufficiently  interesting  for  passing  comment. 

During  the  past  fiscal  year  the  Board  of  Ordnance  and  Forti- 
fication has  conducted  important  tests  at  Fort  Morgan,  Ala.,  in 
cooperation  with  the  Navy,  to  determine  the  effect  of  hostile  gun- 
fire on  our  coast  fortifications.  An  experimental  emplacement  with 
a  gun  mounted  on  a  disappearing  carriage  was  fired  upon  by  ships 
with  their  heaviest  guns  at  varying  ranges.  These  tests  were  con- 
ducted in  the  presence  of  members  of  the  board  and  accomplished 
the  purpose  for  which  they  were  made. 

Hammond  radiodynamic  system  of  torpedo  control, — Further 
study  and  tests  of  an  apparatus  for  the  control  of  submarine  tor- 
pedoes by  radio,  which  had  been  under  consideration  by  the  board 
since  the  early  part  of  1913,  had  resulted  in  a  recommendation  by 
the  board  on  February  12,  1915,  for  the  purchase  of  all  the  secrets, 
patents,  and  developed  methods  pertaining  to  the  Hammond  radio- 
dynamic  system  of  torpedo  control.  This  recommendation  was 
renewed  by  the  board  at  its  meeting  on  February  15,  1916,  and  was 
supported  in  hearings  before  congressional  committees.  Appro- 
priations were  made  for  the  purchase  of  the  rights  to  the  invention 
and  the  installation  of  one  unit  of  the  system,  subject  to  the  approval 
by  the  President  after  a  satisfactory  demonstration  before  a  board 


60  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

of  three  Army  and  three  Navy  officers.  This  board  has  been  named, 
and  preparations  for  the  test  are  in  progress. 

The  board  has  also  been  engaged  in  the  development  of  railway 
mounts  for  certain  types  of  ordnance,  motor  trucks,  armored  cars, 
serial  photography,  searchlights,  and  flare  bombs,  and  in  the  de- 
velopment and  test  of  the  radio  control  of  torpedoes  from  an  aero- 
plane in  flight  under  the  Hammond  system. 

Development  of  a  portable  searchlight  for  field  artillery,  inaugu- 
rated in  1906,  was  finally  completed  and  the  searchlight  turned 
over  to  the  Field  Artillery  Board  for  test. 

MACHINE  OTJNS. 

Perhaps  no  invention  has  more  profoundly  modified  the  art  of 
war  than  the  machine  gun.  In  the  European  war  this  arm  has  been 
brought  into  very  great  prominence.  It  had,  however,  been  de- 
veloped to  a  serviceable  state  at  the  time  of  the  Spanish-American 
War,  although  its  use  on  a  large  scale  had  not  been  developed  in  any 
army  until  the  outbreak  of  the  European  war.  In  1912  Congi«ess 
by  an  appropriation  sanctioned  the  allowance  of  the  War  Depart- 
ment of  four  machine  guns  per  regiment.  From  time  to  time  tests 
have  been  made  by  the  War  Department  to  determine  the  relative 
serviceableness  and  efficiency  of  various  machine  guns.  These  tests 
have  been  attended  by  considerable  controversy  and  the  claims  of 
different  types  of  machine  guns  have  been  urged  upon  the  public 
attention  by  widespread  newspaper  comment.  In  the  meantime,  in 
response  to  the  stimulus  of  the  European  war,  inventors  and  makers 
have  hastened  to  develop  and  improve  their  respective  arms  and  the 
field  of  selection  has  constantly  widened  so  that  when  the  Congress 
at  the  last  session  appropriated  $12,000,000  for  the  procurement  of 
machine  guns  it  seemed  important,  for  obvious  reasons,  to  free  the 
air  of  the  various  controversies  and  to  set  at  rest  in  as  final  a  fashion 
as  possible  the  conflicting  claims  of  makers  and  inventors.  A  board 
was  therefore  created  in  the  War  Department,  made  up  in  part  of 
officers  and  in  part  of  civilians,  all  of  whom  were  selected  so  as  to 
avoid  any  suggestion  of  prejudice  on  their  part  growing  out  of 
previous  controversies  and  tests. 

The  board  was  instructed  to  take  into  consideration  all  tests  pre- 
viously made  and  to  collate  and  study  the  European  experience  and 


KEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  61 

hear  from  the  representatives  of  all  makers,  and  to  conduct  under  its 
own  guidance  such  tests  as  in  its  judgment  were  necessary  or  appro- 
priate to  a  final  determination  of  the  present  state  of  the  art.  On 
the  basis  of  this  sort  of  an  investigation,  the  board  was  instructed 
to  advise  the  department  on  the  expenditure  of  the  $12,000,000 
appropriated  for  this  purpose.  A  preliminary  report  has  been  made 
by  this  board,  selecting  the  Vickers-Maxim  type  for  heavy  machine 
guns,  recommending  the  purchase  of  a  large  supply  of  them,  and 
fixing  a  date  in  May  at  which  time  exhaustive  tests  to  determine 
the  relative  excellence  of  various  types  of  light  machine  guns  are 
to  be  made.  The  nature  of  military  operations  plainly  dictates  that 
our  Army  should  be  supplied  in  some  proportion  with  guns  of  a 
heavy  and  of  a  light  type  for  defensive  operations.  From  fixed 
points  the  heavier  type  is  doubtless  the  more  reliable,  but  in  rapid 
charging  and  field  operations  and  in  aeroplane  work  the  mo- 
bility of  the  arm  is  an  important  consideration.  It  is  therefore 
highly  important  that  the  Army  should  be  supplied  with  an  ade- 
quate number  of  both  types  of  arm.  The  recommendations  of  the 
board  already  made  recognize  the  wisdom  of  this  course,  and  its 
c'onclusions  when  finally  reached  will  no  doubt  be  accepted  as 
authoritative,  although  this  is  the  field  of  most  rapid  advance  in  the 
perfection  of  arms,  and  the  department  will  welcome  each  improve- 
ment and  seek  to  avail  itself  of  the  progress  made  so  that  our  equip- 
ment can  at  all  times  be  of  the  most  modern  and  effective  kind. 

THE  PHILIPPINE  GOVERNMENT. 

Governor  General  Harrison's  administration  has  continued  to  be 
marked  by  cordial  relations  between  the  executive  and  legislative 
branches  of  the  government  and  between  the  upper  appointive  house 
of  the  legislature  and  the  lower  house.  The  recommendations  of  the 
Governor  General  to  the  legislature  have  been  promptly  formulated 
into  law.  The  legislature  passed  satisfactory  appropriation  bills  and 
imposed  additional  taxes  to  meet  decreases  in  the  revenues  as  the 
result  of  the  European  war. 

Progress  among  the  Moros  and  other  non-Christians  in  the  De- 
partment of  Mindanao  and  Sulu,  where  Gov.  Carpenter  has  con- 
tinued in  office,  has  exceeded  the  most  sanguine  anticipation. 

Peace  and  good  order  have  so  marked  the  administration  of 
Governor  General  Harrison  that  it  should  be  unnecessary  hereafter 


62  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

in  official  reports  to  mention  these  subjects,  of  such  frequent  reference 
in  past  reports  of  the  Philippine  Islands. 

The  financial  condition  of  the  government  is  excellent. 

Detailed  information  with  'reference  to  our  government  in  the 
Philippine  Islands  will  be  found  in  the  annual  reports  of  the  Gov- 
ernor General  and  the  Philippine  Commission  and  of  the  Bureau  of 
Insular  Affairs  of'  the  War  Department,  transmitted  with  this 
report. 

Congress  at  its  last  session  was  most  attentive  to  the  reconmienda- 
tions  of  the  Philippine  government  and  of  this  department  with 
reference  thereto.  In  addition  to  making  effective  several  of  the 
less  important  recommendations,  it  enacted  the  new  Philippine 
organic  act,  which  was  approved  by  the  President  on  August  29, 
1916.  While  there  has  been  continuous  progress  in  the  development 
of  the  Philippines  toward  self-government  during  American  occu- 
I)ation,  this  is  the  first  step  of  importance  that  Congress  has  taken 
in  recognition  of  this  development  since  the  passage  in  1902  of  the 
act  for  the  temporary  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands. 

POBTO  RICO. 

The  past  year  has  been  one  of  marked  prosperity  in  the  industries 
of  Porto  Rico,  particularly  in  what  has  become  by  far  the  greatest 
industry,  the  production  of  sugar. 

There  was  natural  disappointment  in  Porto  Rico  at  the  failure 
to  secure  the  enactment  by  Congress  at  its  last  session  of  the  proposed 
new  organic  act.  It  passed  the  House  of  Representatives,  but  failed 
to  receive  consideration  by  the  Senate,  and  is  still  pending.  It  is 
hoped  that  at  the  coming  session  of  Congress  this  act  will  be  passed. 
It  may  be  said  now  to  have  been  pending  for  six  years,  since  the 
House  of  Representatives  in  1910  passed  a  bill  which  embodied  the 
most  important  features  of  the  pending  bill.  The  disappointment 
of  the  Porto  Rican  people  is  greatest  because  of  the  continued  failure 
to  grant  to  them  American  citizenship,  an  aspiration  in  which  they 
have  been  encouraged  by  every  President  of  the  United  States  since 
1905. 

The  progress  of  the  government  and  people  of  Porto  Rico  is  set 
forth  fully  in  the  annual  repoil  of  the  governor,  transmitted  here- 
with. 


BEPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR,  63 

THE  PANAMA  CANAL. 

The  Panama  Canal  has  been  opened  to  commerce  since  August 
15,  1914.  However,  on  account  of  slides,  the  canal  was  closed  to 
traffic  from  September  18,  1915,  to  April  15,  1916.  The  governor 
of  the  Panama  Canal,  in  his  last  annual  report,  has  again  reported 
very  fully  on  the  slide  situation  and  corrects  many  misapprehen- 
sions that  exist  concerning  conditions  on  the  Isthmus.  He  is  con- 
fident that  the  slides  will  be  overcome  finally  and  for  all  time,  and 
that  there  will  be  no  further  serious  interruptions  to  traffic. 

These  same  general  conclusions  were  also  reached  by  a  committee 
of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences,  appointed  at  your  request, 
from  which  I  quote  the  following  paragraph  from  the  preliminary 
report  made  by  that  committee : 

The  committee  looks  to  the  future  of  the  canal  with  confidence.  It  is 
not  unmindful  of  the  labor  necessary  to  deal  with  the  present  slides;  and 
it  realizes  that  slides  may  be  a  considerable,  but  not  an  unreasonably  large, 
maintenance  charge  upon  the  canal  for  a  number  of  years;  it  also  realizes 
that  trouble  In  the  Culebra  district  may  possibly  again  close  the  canal. 
Nevertheless,  the  committee  firmly  believes  that,  after  the  present  dlfllculties 
have  been  overcome,  navigation  tljrough  the  <anal  is  not  likely  again  to  be 
seriously  Interrupted.  There  Is  absolutely  no  Justification  for  the  statement 
that  traffic  will  be  repeatedly  interrupted  during  long  periods  for  years  to 
come.  The  canal  will  serve  the  great  purpose  for  which  it  was  constructed, 
and  the  realization  of  that  purpose  in  the  near  future  Is  assured. 

During  the  part  of  the  fiscal  year  that  the  canal  was  open  to 
traffic,  411  vessels  passed  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  with 
a  total  net  tonnage  of  1,308,230  tons  and  1,434,236  cargo  tons.  Of 
this  total  number  of  vessels,  50  were  engaged  in  United  States 
coastwise  trade,  with  a  net  tonnage  of  183,372  tons  and  a  cargo 
tonnage  of  227,103  tons.  Three  hundred  and  seventy-six  vessels 
passed  from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic,  with  a  total  net  tonnage 
of  1,171,531  tons  and  a  cargo  tonnage  of  1,705,810  tons.  Of  this 
number  of  vessels,  41  were  engaged  in  the  coastwise  trade,  with 
a  net  tonnage  of  167,594  tons  and  a  cargo  tonnage  of  217,285  tons. 
The  total  cargo  tonnage  that  traversed  the  canal  during  the  fiscal 
year  amounted  to  3,140,046  tons. 

Canal  tolls. — ^The  tolls  collected  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June 
30, 1916,  from  vessels  using  the  canal  amounted  to  $2,399,830.42. 


64  EEPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

In  his  annual  report  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1916,  Gen. 
Goethals,  Governor  of  the  Panama  Canal,  again  calls  attention  to 
the  confusion  resulting  from  the  application  of  the  United  States 
rules  of  measurement  of  vessels  in  addition  to  the  Panama  Canal 
rules  of  measurement,  and  invites  attention  to  the  necessity  of  adopt- 
ing some  one  rule  for  levying  tolls  on  vessels  passing  through  the 
canal.  He  states  that  as  time  goes  on  and  traffic  increases,  with  a 
resulting  increase  in  the  number  and  classes  of  vessels  using  the 
canal,  experience  has  shown  beyond  a  doubt  that  the  fairest  rules  for 
determining  the  tonnage  of  a  vessel  on  a  just  basis  are  the  Panama 
Canal  rules  of  measurement ;  in  short,  on  the  earning  capacity  of  the 
ship.  Furthermore,  the  application  of  the  United  States  rules  for 
measurement  has  resulted  in  exempting  practically  all  sheltered 
spaces  and  deck  loads  of  vessels  transiting  the  canal,  which,  in  turn, 
has  resulted  in  discrimination  against  most  of  the  United  States 
vessels  utilizing  the  waterway,  due  to  the  fact  that  almost  all  of  the 
United  States  vessels  are  so  constructed  that  they  are  unable  to  take 
advantage  of  shelter-deck  space.  On  the  other  hand,  the  United 
States  rules  provide  for  the  exemption  of  certain  cabin  space  above 
the  upper  deck  that  is  not  a  deck  attached  to  the  hull,  which  would, 
in  most  cases,  result  in  discrimination  against  foreign  vessels  and  in 
favor  of  United  States  passenger  steamers,  if  the  national  register 
of  the  vessel  were  recognized  as  a  factor  in  the  levying  of  tolls.  Had 
the  Panama  Canal  rules  for  measurement  been  in  force,  the  revenue 
from  this  source  would  have  been  $2,790,544.47,  instead  of  $2,399,- 
830.42  as  stated  above,  showing  a  direct  loss  of  revenue  on  this  ac- 
count of  $390,714.05. 

Out  velatioTiB  with  Panama. — Gen.  Goethals  also  again  calls  atten- 
tion to  the  necessity  of  an  agreement  between  the  Governments  of  the 
United  States  and  Panama  for  modifying  the  so-called  Taft  agree- 
ment, which  is,  in  many  respects,  disadvantageous  to  both  Govern- 
ments, and  should  be  substituted  by  an  agreement  made  in  accord- 
ance with  our  present  mutual  needs  and  with  our  rights  under  the 
treaty. 

THE  PANAMA  BAILBOAD. 

The  result  of  the  company's  business  of  every  character  for  the 
fiscal  year  ending  June  30, 1916,  after  meeting  the  cost  of  operation, 
together  with  fixed  charges  aggregating  $79,023.30  and  charges  for 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SEGRETABY  OF  WAB.  65 

depreciation    on   rolling   stock,  floating   and    plant  equipment  of 
$461,244.48,  shows- 
Net  Income  of $2, 453, 5d2. 84 

As  against : 914, 800. 58 

For  the  previous  year,  or  an  increase  of 1, 538, 731. 76 

During  that  period  $2,148,542.89  was  applied  to  additions  and  bet- 

« 

terments  of  plant  and  equipment. 

The  increase  in  revenue  derived  from  the  railroad  from  its  local 
and  through  business  as  compared  with  the  previous  year  amounts 
to  $704,709.37  and  is  due  entirely  to  the  closing  of  the  canal  to  traffic 
for  a  large  portion  of  the  year,  which  resulted  in  the  railroad's 
transporting  306,057  tons  of  freight  in  excess  of  prior  period. 

The  steamship  line  contributed  to  the  net  revenue  $1,004,373.05 — 
an  increase  over  the  previous  fiscal  year  of  $504,519.63,  due  to  an 
increase  in  rates  and  in  tonnage  carried. 

At  the  end  of  this  fiscal  year  the  company  had  $2,960,868.55  of 
available  funds  in  the  hands  of  designated  depositories  and,  in  addi- 
tion, securities  purchased  at  a  cost  of  $2,040,168.75  in  a  reserve  fund 
established  September  12,  1911. 

WATERWAYS  AND  WATEB  POWER. 

The  War  Department  is  constantly  dealing  with  the  important 
question  of  waterways  and  water  power,  not  only  under  the  river  and 
harbor  legislation  passed  from  time  to  time  and  dealing  with  speci- 
fied waterway  improvements  but  also  under  the  General  Dam  Act  and 
other  legislation  dealing  with  the  diversion  of  streams  and  the 
establishment  of  water  powers.  Congress  is,  of  course,  actively  con- 
sidering this  latter  subject,  and  the  prospect  is  that  comprehensive 
provision  will  be  made  for  the  conservation  of  the  undeveloped  water 
power  of  the  United  States,  which  is  enormous  in  its  possibilities 
and  comprises  the  great  unexpended  natural  resource  of  the  Nation. 

Several  special  problems  in  this  connection  are  more  or  less  con- 
stantly before  the  department.  The  first  of  these  is  the  Chicago 
Drainage  Canal.  This  canal  was  built  under  the  authority  of  the 
State  of  Illinois  for  sanitary  purposes,  but  has  never  had  the 
approval  of  Congress.  It  was  completed  in  1899,  and  application 
was  then  made  to  the  War  Department  for  permission  to  connect 
the  canal  with  the  south  branch  of  the  Chicago  River,  thus  reversing 

69176'— WAR  191^— VOL  1 5 


66  REPOBT  OP  THE  SECBBTABY  OP  WAB. 

the  flow  of  that  stream  and  diverting  its  waters  from  Lake  Michigan 
into  the  drainage  canal  and  thence  into  the  Mississippi  River.  A  con- 
ditional permit  was  granted  in  1901,  authorizing  the  diversion  of 
4,167  cubic  feet  seconds,  and  this  amount  has  continued  to  be  the 
legal  limit.  The  drawing  of  water  from  the  Chicago  River  into  the 
canal  affects  the  general  navigation  interests  of  the  country  on  ac- 
count of  the  tendency  of  such  diversion  to  lower  the  level  of  the 
waters  of  the  Great  Lakes.  From  the  beginning  the  operations  of 
the  Sanitary  District  have  been  looked  upon  with  disfavor  by  navi- 
gation interests,  and  the  Secretary  of  War  has  not  only  declined  to 
increase  the  diversion  temporarily  authorized  but  has  adhered  to  the 
decision  that  the  permit  granted  was  of  a  temporary  character  and 
that  no  permanent  diversion  of  the  waters  of  Lake  Michigan  could 
be  made  without  express  authority  from  Congress.  Nevertheless  the 
Sanitary  District  has  for  many  years  been  withdrawing  a  much 
larger  amount  of  water  than  is  authorized  by  this  permit.  Upon  two 
different  occasions  the  Sanitary  District  has  refused  to  conform  to 
decisions  of  the  Secretary  of  War  declining  to  grant  authority  for 
larger  diversions  and  has  declared  its  intention  to  continue  excess 
diversions  imless  prevented  by  injunction.  Accordingly,  in  1908  and 
again  in  1910,  bills  in  equity  were  filed  at  the  instance  of  the  War 
Department  by  the  Attorney  General  seeking  to  enjoin  excess  diver- 
sion. The  two  suits  were  consolidated  and  tried  in  the  United  States 
District  Court  for  the  Northern  District  of  Illinois,  but  remain 
imdecided. 

It  seems  quite  clear  that  with  the  growth  of  population  in  Chicago 
the  authorities  of  the  Sanitary  District  contemplate  still  larger  diver- 
sions than  those  already  made,  perhaps  to  the  extent  of  10,000  cubic 
feet  seconds.  This,  it  is  estimated  by  the  United  States  Lake  Sur- 
vey, would  lower  the  waters  of  Lake  Michigan  and  Lake  Huron 
nearly  7  inches.  Lake  Erie  about  5 J  inches,  and  Lake  Ontario  about 
4J  inches,  mean  lake  levels,  the  reduction  being  much  greater  at  low- 
water  periods.  The  effect  of  such  a  lowering  of  lake  levels  would 
obviously  be  enormous  losses  to  navigation  interests  and  would  neces- 
sitate large  expenditures  by  the  General  Government  for  the  restora- 
tion and  reorganization  of  river  and  harbor  improvements  on  the 
Great  Lakes  and  their  connecting  waters,  for  which  already  appro- 
priations aggregating  more  than  $90,000,000  have  been  made. 


KEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETABY  OF  WAR.  67 

A  related  project  to  the  Chicago  Drainage  Canal  is  the  canal  pro- 
posed to  be  constructed  for  commerce  from  Chicago  through  the  Des 
Plaines  River,  and  applications  for  permits  have  been  made  to  the 
War  Department  to  authorize  this  construction.  The  matter  has 
also  been  considered  in  Congress,  but  no  action  taken.  At  present 
the  authority  of  the  State  of  Illinois  to  issue  bonds  for  the  construc- 
tion of  this  canal  is  drawn  in  question  before  the  local  courts  of  the 
State,  and  a  temporary  injunction  has  been  issued  against  the  sale  of 
the  bonds.  No  action  has  therefore  been  considered  by  the  War 
Department  and  none  will  be  considered  so  long  as  these  legal  ob- 
stacles remain  in  the  way.  It  would  seem  that  this  subject  ought  to 
have  the  attention  of  Congi-ess,  for  while  it  is  asserted  in  behalf  of 
the  project  that  there  is  no  intention  of  making  further  withdrawals 
of  water  from  the  Great  Lakes  for  tlie  purposes  of  the  canal  than  are 
already  being  withdrawn  for  the  drainage  canal,  yet  it  seems  quite 
clear  that  should  this  commercial  waterway  be  established  and  con- 
structed, and  then  a  greater  volume  of  water  be  needed  for  its  opera- 
tion than  was  originally  estimated,  the  pressure  to  allow  additional 
lake  diversions  would  be  very  great;  and  if  it  le  true  in  fact  that  such 
diversions  are  prejudicial  to  the  navigation  interests  of  the  Great 
Lakes  and  the  eastward-flowing  waters,  the  relative  advantages  of  the 
two  uses  of  these  waters  ought  to  be  weighted  and  finally  determined 
by  the  legislative  body. 

Another  question  which  has  constantly  been  presented  to  the  War 
Department  for  consideration  is  the  withdrawal  of  additional  water 
for  power  purposes  at  Niagara  Falls.  Congress  has  allowed  the 
Burton  Act  to  expire  without  renewal  or  substitution.  There  is 
therefore  no  express  donation  of  power  from  Congress  to  the  War 
Department  to  deal  with  this  subject,  and  I  have  such  grave  doubt  as 
to  the  power  of  the  department  under  the  General  Dam  Act,  or  any 
other  general  legislation,  that  I  have  hesitated  to  grant  any  of  the 
permits  so  urgently  requested.  Under  the  international  agreement 
between  Canada  and  the  United  States  a  maximum  of  20,000  cubic 
feet  seconds  is  authorized  to  be  diverted  on  the  American  side  of 
the  river.  At  present  under  permits  granted  either  prior  to  or  under 
the  Burton  Act  about  15,000  cubic  feet  seconds  are  being  so  with- 
drawn. Plainly  the  subject  is  one  which  Congress  ought  to  deal 
with,  involving  not  only  the  most  efficient  use  and  just  distribution 
of  this  great  power  but  also  affecting  the  preservation  of  the  great 


68  EEPORT  OP  THE  SECRETABY  OP  WAB. 

natural  spectacle  presented  by  Niagara  Falls.  The  present  position 
of  the  department  on  the  subject  is  that  it  ought  not  to  complicate 
the  consideration  of  the  whole  subject  by  Congress,  and  that  in  the 
absence  of  further  enabling  legislation  the  present  situation  must  be 
maintained. 

FINANCIAL  STATEMENTS. 

Annexed  hereto  as  Appendix  B,  Table  1,  is  a  tabulated  statement 
showing  expenditures  for  the  last  fiscal  year  (1916),  estimates  and 
appropriations  for  the  present  fiscal  year  (1917),  and  the  estimates 
for  the  next  fiscal  year  (1918).  This  statement  shows  only  expendi- 
tures from  appropriations  made  by  Congress  in  pursuance  of  esti- 
mates submitted  by  the  War  Department.  It  does  not,  therefore, 
include  expenditures  from  appropriations  made  by  Congress  without 
estimates  from  the  War  Department,  known  as  "Indefinite  annual 
appropriations  "  and  "  Permanent  annual  appropriations."  Expend- 
itures from  appropriations  of  these  two  classes  are  included  in  the 
statements  annexed  hereto  as  Tables  2,  3,  4,  and  5,  which  are  complete 
and  detailed  statements  of  the  financial  transactions  of  the  depart- 
ment during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  covering  every  ap- 
propriation made  for  the  service  of  the  fiscal  years  1916,  1915,  1914, 
and  1913,  and  prior  years,  showing  all  balances  from  appropriations, 
the  amounts  appropriated  under  each  title  of  appropriation,  the 
amounts  drawn  from  the  Treasury,  and  the  unexpended  balance  of 
each  appropriation  remaining  in  the  Treasury  June  30,  1916,  subject 
to  requisition.  These  statements  show  also  the  amounts  covered  into 
the  surplus  fund  of  the  Treasury  from  all  appropriations  under  the 
control  of  the  War  Department  which  are  no  longer  available  or 
required  for  expenditure. 

BETIBEMENT  OF  GOVEBNHENT  EMPLOYEES. 

An  examination  of  the  reports  of  my  predecessors  for  a  number 
of  years  shows  that  they  have  continuously  recommended  considera- 
tion of  the  subject  of  an  equitable  retirement  law  providing  for  the 
retirement  of  superannuated  and  disabled  employees  of  the  civil 
service.  I  am  very  happy  to  renew  the  recommendation.  From  time 
to  time  bills  have  been  introduced  into  Congress  providing  for  such 
retirement,  but  as  yet  none  has  been  enacted  into  law.  In  the  mean- 
time, various  industrial  and  transportation  companies  have  found  it 
to  their  interest  to  retire  and  pension  superannuated  employees.    The 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  69 

Federal  Government  is  and  should  be  a  model  employer.  The  pro- 
visions now  made  by  the  Government  in  the  matter  of  compensation, 
hours  of  labor,  vacations,  sick  leave,  and  holidays,  are  all  wisely 
generous  both  as  an  example  and  as  establishing  a  harmonious  and 
helpful  relation  between  employer  and  employee,  which  both  con- 
serves the  spirit  and  health  of  the  employee  and  secures  for  the  em- 
ployer that  willingness  and  good  will  out  of  which  service  of  maxi- 
mum eflSciency  naturally  arises.  There  seems  to  remain  as  the  chief 
thing  yet  to  be  done  this  provision  for  retirement  upon  superannua- 
tion. The  law  ought  not,  in  my  judgment,  to  provide  a  mere  service 
pension  as  has  sometimes  been  done  in  municipal  and  State  services 
in  this  country,  under  which  employees  who  have  served  a  stipu- 
lated number  of  years  are  authorized  to  retire  irrespective  of  their 
ability  still  to  render  competent  service.  The  law  ought  rather, 
upon  a  minimum  service  required,  to  authorize  retirement  either  for 
disability  arising  in  the  course  of  the  service  or  occasioned  by  the 
service  itself,  and  this  retirement  should  be  in  the  hands  of  a  com- 
petent authority  which  would  determine  the  inability  of  the  particu- 
lar employee  further  to  render  adequate  service  in  his  place  of  em- 
ployment. The  effect  of  such  a  law  would  be  to  give  an  assurance  of 
a  competent  and  comfortable  old  age.  It  would  relieve  the  employee 
from  the  fear  of  loss  of  occupation  and  of  livelihood,  would  further 
inspire  him  to  loyalty  to  the  Government  as  an  employer,  thus  im- 
proving the  general  quality  of  the  service  rendered  by  Government 
employees,  although  that  is  already  high,  and  would  permit  the 
replacement  of  some  employees  in  the  various  departments  who  have 
long  and  faithfully  served  the  Government  and  reached  venerable 
but  enfeebled  years  without  having  had  an  opportunity  to  accumu- 
late any  competence  upon  which  their  retirement  can  rest, 

ENUMEBATION  OF  BEFOBTS  SUBMITTED. 

I  submit  herewith  the  report  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  and  the  re- 
port made  to  him  by  the  Chief  of  Coast  Artillery ;  the  reports  of  the 
heads  of  bureaus  of  the  War  Department;  and  the  reports  of  the 
commissioners  of  the  four  military  parks,  the  Superintendent  of  the 
United  States  Military  Academy,  the  governor  of  Porto  Rico,  and 

the  Philippine  Commission. 

Newton  D.  Baker, 

Secretary  of  War. 


Appendix  A. 

DECISION    OF    THE    SECRETARY    OF    WAR    ON    THE    EFFECT    OF 
SECTION  5  OF  THE  NATIONAL  DEFENSE  ACT. 

War  Department, 
Washington^  September  ISj  1916. 

The  provisions  of  section  5  of  "An  act  for  making  further  and 
more  effectual  provision  for  the  national  defense,  and  for  other 
purposes,"  approved  June  3,  1916,  relating  to  the  General  Staff 
Corps,  call  for  an  opinion  from  the  Secretary  of  War  as  to  their 
effect  upon  the  transaction  of  the  business  of  the  department  and 
the  relations  to  exist  in  the  future  between  the  Chief  of  the  General 
Staff  and  the  heads  of  various  bureaus  of  the  War  Department. 

Section  5  provides  that  the  General  Staff  Corps  shall  consist  of 
one  Chief  of  Staff,  detailed  in  time  of  peace  from  major  generals 
of  the  line,  and  various  other  officers,  for  some  of  whom  specific 
duties  are  provided,  as,  for  instance,  that  one  of  them  is  required 
to  be  president  of  the  Army  War  College.  The  General  Staff  Corps 
is  made  a  detailed  corps,  with  the  result  that  upon  being  relieved 
from  duty  in  that  corps  officers  return  to  the  branch  of  the  Army 
in  which  they  were  permanently  conmiissioned,  and  no  officer  de- 
tailed to  the  General  Staff  Corps  is  eligible  to  a  further  detail  therein 
until  he  shall  have  served  two  years  with  the  branch  of  the  Army 
in  which  commissioned,  except  in  time  of  actual  or  threatened  hostili- 
ties. Thus  the  Greneral  Staff  Corps  is  made  to  consist  of  a  constantly 
changing  detail  of  officers  brought  from  the  line  of  the  Army  and 
returned  thereto,  with  the  apparent  purpose  of  having  this  corps 
represent  and  embody  the  opinion  of  the  Army  upon  technical  mili- 
tary subjects,  as  that  opinion  is  matured  and  developed  from  time 
to  time  by  actual  experience,  and  careful  provision  is  made  against 
the  General  Staff  Corps  becoming  a  permanent  body  disassociated 
from  the  actual  military  forces  of  the  Nation,  and  therefore,  to  a 
greater  or  less  extent,  out  of  touch  with  the  opinion  of  the  active 
Army. 

So  far  as  the  duties  assigned  to  the  General  Staff  Corps  by  section 

6  of  the  National  Defense  Act  are  concerned,  they  are  covered  by  the 

following  language: 

AU  officers  detailed  In  said  corps  shaU  be  exclusively  employed  In  the  study 
of  military  problems,  the  preparation  of  plans  for  the  national  defense,  and 
the  utilization  of  the  military  forces  in  time  of  war,  in  investigating  and  re* 

70 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETABY  OF  WAB.  71 

porting  upon  the  efficiency  and  state  of  preparedness  of  such  forces  for  service 
in  peace  or  war,  or  on  appropriate  general-staff  duties  in  connection  with 
troops,  including  the  National  Guard,  or  as  military  attaches  in  foreign  coun- 
tries, or  on  other  duties,  not  of  an  administrative  nature,  on  which  they  can 
be  lawfully  and  properly  employed. 

Certain  redistribution  of  functions  are  made  by  the  act,  the  most 
notable  being  the  abolition  of  the  Mobile  Army  Division  and  Coast 
Artillery  Division,  the  latter  of  which  is  created  into  a  bureau  of 
the  War  Department,  and  the  business  of  the  former  is  committed 
to  the  office  of  The  Adjutant  General.  But  scattered  through  this 
section  there  are  statements  of  this  import : 

That  the  War  College  shall  remain  fully  subject  to  the  supervising,  coordi- 
nating, and  informing  powers  conferred  by  law  upon  members  of  the  Gteneral 
Staff  Corps. 

That  the  bureau  of  The  Adjutant  General  shall,  "  subject  to  the 
exercise  of  the  supervising,  coordinating,  and  informing  powers 
conferred  upon  members  of  the  General  Staff  Corps  by  act  of  Con- 
gress last  hereinbefore  cited,"  perform  the  business  theretofore  per- 
formed by  the  Mobile  Army  Division,  and  that  "  the  Chief  of  Coast 
Artillery  shall  be  an  additional  member  of  the  General  Staff  Corps 
and  shall  also  be  adviser  to  and  informant  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  in 
respect  to  the  business  under  his  charge." 

And  then  follows  certain  restrictive  language  which  calls  for  this 
opinion.    The  language  is  as  follows: 

Provided  further.  That  hereafter  members  of  the  General  Staff  Corps  shall 
be  confined  strictly  to  the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  the  general  nature  of  those 
specified  for  them  in  this  section  and  in  the  organic  act  of  Congress  last  here- 
inbefore cited,  and  they  shall  not  be  permitted  to  assume  or  engage  in  work 
of  an  administrative  nature  that  pertains  to  established  bureaus  or  offices 
of  the  War  Department,  or  that,  being  assumed  or  engaged  In  by  members  of 
the  General  Staff  Corps,  would  involve  impairment  of  the  responslbUity  or 
initiative  of  such  bureaus  or  offices,  or  would  cause  Injurious  or  unnecessary 
duplication  of  or  delay  in  the  work  thereof. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  section  under  review  does  not  negative 
the  survival  of  the  "supervising,  coordinating,  and  informing 
powers  "  conferred  by  law  upon  members  of  the  General  Staff  Corps, 
but,  on  the  contrary,  reiterates  those  powers,  and  in  the  transfer  of 
certain  business  in  the  War  Department  from  divisions  abolished  by 
the  act  expressly  subjects  those  powers  in  the  hands  of  the  new  donees 
to  the  General  Staff  powers  either  enumerated  in  this  section  or  in- 
corporated into  it  by  reference  to  the  act  approved  February  14, 1903, 
which  created  the  General  Staff  Corps,  no  part  of  which  act  is  in 
express  terms  repealed.  It  seems  clear,  therefore,  that  the  new  part 
of  this  legislation,  namely,  that  restricting  the  work  to  be  done  by 
members  of  the  General  Staff  Corps  to  work  of  a  nonadministrative 
nature  is  the  only  phase  of  it  calling  for  interpretation,  and  it  is 


72  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

equally  clear  that  this  interpretation  must  proceed  upon  the  founda- 
tion established  by  an  understanding  of  the  intention  of  Congress,  as 
expressed  in  the  act  of  February  14,  1903,  which  is  not  only  the  act 
by  which  the  General  Staff  was  established,  but  is  plainly  the  act 
assumed  by  Congress  as  the  fundamental  and  organic  basis  of  what- 
ever modifications  are  intended  by  section  5  of  the  act  of  June  3, 1916. 
The  development  of  a  general  scheme  of  systematic  instruction  in 
the  Army,  leading  to  the  original  War  College  Board,  undoubtedly 
directed  the  attention  of  the  Secretary  of  War  to  the  general  subject 
of  Army  organization.    In  the  Report  for  1901,  Secretary  Root  said: 

The  creation  of  the  War  CJoUege  Board  and  the  duties  which  wiU  be  imposed 
upon  it,  as  indicated  in  my  report  for  1899,  is  probably  as  near  an  approach  to 
the  establishment  of  a  General  Staff  as  is  practicable  under  existing  law.    ♦    •    ♦ 

No  one  can  doubt  that  the  general  and  field  officers  of  our  Army  have  been  too 
exclusively  occupied  in  details  of  administration,  with  inadequate  opportunity 
and  provision  for  the  study  of  great  questions,  and  consideration  and  formation 
of  plans,  comprehensive  forethought  against  future  contingencies,  and  coordi- 
nation of  the  various  branches  of  the  service  with  a  view  to  harmonious  action. 
A  body  of  competent  military  experts  should  be  charged  with  these  matters 
of  the  highest  Importance,  and  to  that  end  I  strongly  urge  the  establishment  by 
law  of  a  General  Staff,  of  which  the  War  CJoUege  Board  shall  form  a  part. 

In  the  Annual  Report  for  1902  Secretary  Root  returns  to  this 
subject  and  argues  it  at  considerable  length,  showing  continuous 
improvement  in  Army  organization,  but  saying: 

Our  military  system  is,  however,  still  exceedingly  defective  at  the  top.  We 
have  a  personnel  unsurpassed  anywhere,  •  ♦  ♦  We  have  the  different 
branches  of  the  military  service  well  organized,  each  within  itself,  for  the  per- 
formance of  its  duties.  Our  administrative  staff  and  supply  departments,  as  a 
rule,  have  at  their  heads  good  and  competent  men,  faithful  to  their  duties,  each 
attending  assiduously  to  the  business  of  his  department. 

But  when  we  come  to  the  coordination  and  direction  of  all  these  means  and 
agencies  of  warfare,  so  that  all  parts  of  the  machine  shall  work  true  together, 
we  are  weak.  Our  system  makes  no  adequate  provision  for  the  directing  brain 
which  every  army  must  have,  to  work  successfully.  Common  experience  has 
shown  that  this  can  not  be  furnished  by  any  single  man  without  assistants, 
and  that  it  requires  a  body  of  officers  working  together  under  the  direction  of 
a  chief  and  entirely  separate  from  and  independent  of  the  administrative  staff 
of  an  army.  *  *  •  This  body  of  officers,  in  distinction  from  the  administra- 
tive staff,  has  come  to  be  called  a  general  staff. 

The  whole  discussion  of  this  subject  by  Secretary  Root  is  inform- 
ing, and  in  order  to  get  an  understanding  of  the  full  weight  of  the 
argument  made  all  that  is  said  on  that  subject  in  his  report  should 
be  examined.  The  following  sentences,  however,  are  indicative  of  the 
thought  in  his  mind : 

Such  a  body  of  men  doing  general  staff  duty  is  just  as  necessary  to  prepare 
an  army  properly  for  war  in  time  of  peace  as  it  is  in  time  of  war.  It  is  not  an 
executive  body;  it  is  not  an  administrative  body;  It  acts  only  through  the 
aathority  of  others.    It  makes  Intelligent  command  possible  by  procuring  and 


REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR,  73 

arranging  information  and  working  out  plans  in  detail,  and  it  maliLes  intelligent 
and  effective  execution  of  commands  possible  by  keeping  all  the  separate  agents 
advised  of  the  parts  they  are  to  play  In  the  general  scheme.    ♦    •    • 

The  title  of  Chief  of  Staff,  on  the  other  hand,  denotes  a  duty  to  advise, 
inform,  and  assist  a  superior  officer  who  has  command  and  to  represent  him, 
acting  in  his  name  and  by  his  authority  In  carrying  out  his  policies  and  secur- 
ing the  execution  of  his  commands.  The  officer  who  accepts  the  position 
assumes  the  highest  obligation  to  be  perfectly  loyal  to  his  commander,  to 
exclude  all  personal  interest  from  his  advice  and  representation,  and  to  try, 
in  the  most  whole-hearted  way,  to  help  him  to  right  conclusions,  and  to  suc- 
cessful execution  of  his  policies,  even  though  his  conclusions  may  not  agree 
with  the  advice  given.  For  the  successful  performance  of  his  duties  the  Chief 
of  Staff  must  have  the  entire  confidence  of  his  commander.    ♦    ♦    ♦ 

The  Constitution  requires  the  President  to  be  the  commander  of  the  Army, 
and  a  great  variety  of  laws  require  the  Secretary  of  War,  who  directly  repre- 
sents the  President,  to  supervise  and  direct  the  expenditure  of  the  vast  sums  of 
money  appropriated  annually  by  Congress  for  the  support  of  the  Army.  As 
every  important  movement  requires  the  use  of  money,  so  long  as  the  Secretary 
of  War  performs  this  duty  faithfully  he  must  practically  control  the  operations 
of  the  Army  in  time  of  peace,  and  there  can  not  be  any  independent  command 
of  the  Army,  except  that  which  the  President  himself  exercises  over  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  and  everybody  else  in  the  military  establishment.  It  is  because 
Congress  has  always  looked  to  the  civilian  Secretary  at  the  head  of  the  War 
Department  to  hold  the  purse  strings,  that  the  laws  require  all  the  great 
departments  which  build  the  fortifications  and  furnish  the  arms,  supplies,  and 
munitions  of  war,  and  actually  expend  the  money  for  those  purposes,  such  as 
the  Engineer,  Ordnance,  Quartermaster's,  and  Subsistence  Departments,  to  act 
under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary,  and  withhold  from  the  officer  who  Is 
called  "  Commanding  (General  of  the  Army  "  all  control  over  those  departments. 

Continuing  the  argument  thus  made  Secretary  Root  shows  that 
the  office  of  Commanding  General  of  the  Army  and  the  powers  con- 
ferred upon  that  officer  were  entirely  inconsistent  with  and  inade- 
quate for  the  duty  contemplated  for  the  Chief  of  Staff,  which  office 
he  sought  to  have  established.  For  the  latter  office  he  desired  powers 
of  coordination,  supervision,  and  control,  in  the  name  of  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  and  under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  wholly 
different  from  and  greater  than  those  previously  intrusted  to  the 
Commanding  General  of  the  Army. 

In  his  report  for  1903,  after  the  passage  of  the  Act  of  February 
14, 1903,  Secretary  Root  says : 

The  important  military  event  of  the  year  affecting  the  Regular  Army  has  been 
the  reorganization  of  the  system  of  military  control  under  the  general  stalff  act 
approved  February  14, 1903.  ♦  ♦  ♦  This  act  abolished  the  separate  office  of 
Commanding  General  of  the  Army,  provided  for  a  military  Chief  of  Staff  to  the 
President,  who,  acting  under  the  directions  of  the  President,  or  of  the  Secretary 
of  War  representing  him,  should  have  supervlson  not  only  of  all  troops  of  the 
line  but  of  the  special  staff  and  supply  departments  which  had  theretofore  re- 
ported directly  to  the  Secretary  of  War ;  and  it  created  for  the  assistance  of  the 
Chief  of  Staff  a  corps  of  44  officers,  who  were  relieved  from  all  other  duties. 


74  REPOBT  OP  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAE. 

After  describing  the  mode  of  organization  of  the  first  General  Staff 
Corps,  Secretary  Root  says : 

The  tenth  article  of  the  regulations  relating  to  the  Chief  of  Staff  states  ex- 
plicitly the  new  theory  of  control  inaugurated  by  the  General  Staff  act. 

That  new  theory  he  quotes  from  the  regulations  to  be  as  follows: 

10.  Under  the  act  of  February  14,  1903,  the  command  of  the  Army  of  the 
United  States  rests  with  the  constitutional  CJommander  In  Chief,  the  President. 
The  President  will  place  parts  of  the  Army,  and  separate  armies  whenever  con- 
stituted, under  commanders  subordinate  to  his  general  command;  and,  in  case 
of  exigency  seeming  to  him  to  require  It,  he  may  place  the  whole  Army  under  a 
single  commander  subordinate  to  him ;  but  In  time  of  peace  and  under  ordinary 
conditions  the  administration  and  control  of  the  Army  are  effected  without  any 
second  in  command. 

The  President's  command  Is  exercised  through  the  Secretary  of  War  and  the 
Chief  of  Staff.  The  Secretary  of  War  is  charged  with  carrying  out  the  policies 
of  the  President  In  military  aiTuirs.  He  directly  represents  the  President  and  is 
bound  always  to  act  In  conformity  to  the  President's  Instructions.  Under  the 
law  and  the  decisions  of  the  Supreme  Court  his  acts  are  the  President's  acts, 
and  his  directions  and  orders  are  the  President's  directions  and  orders. 

The  Chief  of  Staff  reports  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  acts  as  his  military  ad- 
viser, receives  from  him  the  directions  and  orders  given  In  behalf  of  the  Presi- 
dent, and  gives  effect  thereto  In  tlie  manner  hereinafter  provided. 

Secretary  Root  then  says,  with  his  customary  clarity  and  decision 
of  expression : 

It  will  be  perceived  that  we  are  here  providing  for  civilian  control  over  the 
military  arm,  but  for  civilian  control  to  be  exercised  through  a  single  military 
expert  of  high  rank,  who  Is  provided  with  an  adequate  corps  of  professional  as- 
sistants to  aid  him  In  the  performance  of  his  duties,  and  who  Is  bound  to  use 
all  his  professional  skill  and  knowledge  in  giving  effect  to  the  purposes  and  gen- 
eral directions  of  his  civilian  superior,  or  make  way  for  another  expert  who  will 
do  so. 

Commenting  upon  the  effect  of  the  inauguration  of  the  system, 
Secietary  Root  says: 

In  some  cases  the  Intervention  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  and  his  assistants  has  re- 
sulted In  an  apparent  diminution  of  the  independent  authority  of  other  officers. 
This  has  been  received  almost  universally  with  a  cheerful  readiness  to  subordi- 
nate personal  considerations  to  the  good  of  the  service. 

The  act  of  February  14,  1903,  is  universally  regarded  as  the  most 
important  piece  of  Army  legislation  adopted  in  recent  years.  It  was 
recognized  at  the  time  as  a  thoroughgoing  and  radical  change  in  the 
theory  of  Army  control.  Not  unnaturally  this  act  received  very 
earnest  consideration  in  Congress  prior  to  its  passage.  The  hear- 
ings on  it  were  extensive,  and  Secretary  Root,  one  of  the  foremost 
lawyers  of  the  country,  and  one  of  the  great  Secretaries  of  War  of 
modem  times,  in  his  appearance  before  committees  illustrated  and 
reiterated  the  purpose  and  meaning  of  the  measure  advocated  by  him. 
I  have  examined  these  hearings  with  some  care,  and  I  find  that,  with- 


BEPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR.  75 

out  exception,  witnesses  and  members  of  both  House  and  Senate 
understood  the  purpose  of  the  act  to  be  as  gathered  from  the  previous 
quotations  from  the  annual  reports  of  Mr.  Eoot,  as  Secretary  of  War. 
Thus,  in  his  hearing  before  the  Senate  Committee  on  Military  Affairs, 
Secretary  Root  says: 

You  have  imposed  by  law  upon  the  Secretary  of  War  the  responsibUity  for  the 
expenditure  of  great  sums  of  money  which  you  appropriate  every  year,  and  you 
have  established  a  great  number  of  corps,  bureaus  and  departments  which  the 
Secretary  is  bound  to  supervise.  Now,  I  have  doubt  whether  it  is  competent 
for  the  Secretary  of  War  to  do  that  through  the  intermediation  of  a  Chief  of 
Staff  or  a  General  Staff  unless  there  is  some  statutory  authority.  I  do  not 
know  whether  in  the  face  of  the  statute  which  makes  the  Quartermaster  General 
and  tlie  Commissary  General  and  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  directly  responsible  to 
the  Secretary  of  War  I  can  order  them  to  report  to  a  Chief  of  Staff. 

I  do  not  want  you  to  relieve  the  Secretary  of  War  of  responsibility,  but  I 
want  you  to  enable  him  to  discharge  this  responsibility  through  a  military  officer 
who  will  gather  together  in  the  performance  of  staff  duties  all  the  considerations 
affecting  the  decision  that  the  Secretary  has  to  make,  and  do  it  with  military 
knowledge,  instead  of  the  Secretary  having  to  dig  around  and  gather  them  him- 
self and  coUate  the  advice  and  requests  that  come  from  the  heads  of  these  differ- 
ent departments  that  are  all  overlapping  and  interwoven  in  their  action. 

In  short,  I  think  nothing  can  be  clearer  from  the  written  opinions 
of  the  Secretary  of  War,  whose  suggestions  are  responsible  for  the 
creation  of  the  General  Staff,  and  from  the  hearings  before  the  com- 
mittees of  Congress  and  the  debates  in  the  Congress  upon  the  pas- 
sage of  the  General  Staff  bill,  than  that  it  was  intended  to  supply  to 
the  Secretary  of  War  a  lawfully  authorized  military  adviser  to  whom 
all  other  heads  of  departments  and  bureaus  should  report,  and 
through  whom  the  Secretary  of  War  should  be  constantly  kept 
advised  and  informed ;  that  it  should  be  the  duty  of  this  officer,  aided 
by  the  General  Staff  Corps  created  by  the  act,  so  to  advise  himself 
of  all  operations  of  the  military  departments  and  bureaus  of  the  War 
Department  as  to  inform  the  judgment  of  the  Secretary  upon  any 
question  submitted  for  his  decision,  and  by  correlating,  coordinating, 
and  supervising  the  judgments  of  the  various  heads  of  bureaus  and 
subdepartments  be  able  to  prevent  a  civilian  Secretary  of  War  from 
inadvertent  error,  due  either  to  a  lack  of  familiarity  with  military 
matters  or  to  the  vast  pressure  of  business  of  many  and  diverse 
characters  which  too  far  absorb  the  time  of  the  Secretary  of  War 
to  permit  him,  personally,  to  undertake  the  detailed  study  necessary 
in  each  case. 

It  was  out  of  this  atmosphere  and  with  this  intention  that  the  act 

of  February,  1903,  was  passed,  and  the  language  adopted  to  meet 

this   situation  seems  most  apt  and  adequate.    I   quote  from   the 

statute : 

There  is  hereby  established  a  General  Staff  CJorps,  to  be  composed  of  officers 
detailed  from  the  Army  at  large  under  such  rules  as  may  be  prescribed  by  the 
President. 


76  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR. 

Sec.  2.  That  the  dutie?  of  the  General  Staff  CJorps  shall  be  to  prepare  plans 
for  the  national  defense  and  for  the  mobilization  of  the  military  forces  In  time 
of  war;  to  investigate  and  report  upon  all  questions  affecting  the  efficiency  of 
the  Army  and  Its  state  of  preparation  for  military  operations;  to  render  pro- 
fessional aid  and  assistance  to  the  Secretary  of  War  and  to  general  officers  and 
other  superior  commanders,  and  to  act  as  their  agents  In  informing  and  coor- 
dinating the  action  of  all  the  different  officers  who  are  subject  under  the  terms 
of  this  act  to  the  supervision  of  the  Chief  of  Staff;  and  to  perform  such  other 
military  duties  not  otherwise  assignel  by  law  as  may  be  from  time  to  time 

prescribed  by  the  President. 

*  •  4*  *  «  *  • 

Sec.  4.  That  the  Chief  of  Staff,  under  the  direction  of  the  President  or  of 
the  Secretary  of  War,  under  the  direction  of  the  President,  shall  have  super- 
vision of  all  troops  of  the  line  and  of  The  Adjutant  General's,  Inspector  Gen- 
eral's, Judge  Advocate's,  Quartermaster's,  Subsistence,  Medical,  Pay,  and  Ord- 
nance Departments,  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  and  the  Signal  Corps,  and  shall 
perform  such  other  military  duties  not  otherwise  assigned  by  law  as  may  be 
assigned  to  him  by  the  President.  Duties  now  prescribed  by  statute  for  the 
Commanding  General  of  the  Army  as  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Ordnance  and 
Fortification  and  of  the  Board  of  Commissioners  of  the  Soldiers'  Home  shall 
be  performed  by  the  Chief  of  Staff  or  other  officer  designated  by  the  President 

If  this  act  means  anything,  it  means  that  in  large  and  general 
terms  the  Chief  of  Staff  thereby  authorized  has  supervision  of  the 
corps,  bureaus,  and  departments  therein  enumerated,  and  the  large 
and  generous  terms  employed  indicate  the  plain  intention  of  Con- 
gress to  empower  the  Chief  of  Staff  to  stand  in  the  relation  of  mili- 
tary aide  and  adviser  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  and,  acting  in  his 
name,  so  to  direct  the  activities  of  the  heads  of  bureaus  and  sub- 
departments  as  to  coordinate  and  harmonize  their  activities. 

If  the  large  and  general  purpose  outlined  in  the  foregoing  para- 
graph has  been  changed  by  the  language  of  section  5  of  the  National 
Defense  Act,  that  change  must  result  from  these  words : 

All  officers  detailed  in  said  corps  shall  be  exclusively  employed  *  •  •  on 
other  duties,  not  of  ah  administrative  nature, 

or  from  these  words  in  the  proviso: 

and  they  shall  not  be  permitted  to  assume  or  engage  in  work  of  an  adralala- 
tratlve  nature  that  pertains  to  established  bureaus  or  offices  of  the  War  De- 
partment, or  that,  being  assumed  or  engaged  In  by  members  of  the  General 
Staff  Corps,  would  Involve  impairment  of  the  responsibility  or  initiative  of 
such  bureaus  or  offices  or  would  cause  injurious  or  unnecessary  duplication 
of  or  delay  in  the  work  thereof. 

The  weighty  part  of  this  language  apparently  is  the  prohibition 
upon  members  of  the  General  Staff  from  performing  duties  of  an 
administrative  nature,  and  we  are  called  upon,  therefore,  to  deter- 
mine what  was  meant  by  the  words  "  administrative  duties  '^  in  this 
act. 

At  the  outset  it  would  seem  obvious  that  no  such  glancing  blow 
as  this  could  have  been  intended  as  an  implied  repeal  of  the  whole 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  77 

fundamental  theory  of  the  reorganization  act  whereby  the  General 
Staff  was  created.  It  is  fair  to  assume  that  Congress  did  not  intend 
to  inaugurate  a  race  for  power  among  bureau  chiefs  or  to  erect  the 
bureaus  of  the  War  Department  into  a  system  of  coordinated  impedi- 
ments to  one  another.  It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  the  Armv  is  a 
whole— divided,  for  the  purposes  of  administration,  into  many  parts— 
but  each  action  by  any  of  the  parts  must  be  consistent  with  the 
healthy  action  of  the  whole.  A  realization  of  this  was  the  moving 
cause  to  the  creation  of  the  General  Staff;  and  if  the  Congress  had 
come  to  believe  that  its  effort  to  correct  the  evils  sought  to  be  re- 
dressed by  the  creation  of  the  General  Staff  was  a  failure  and  that 
no  such  supervision  and  coordination  as  was  then  aimed  at  had 
resulted  from  the  General  Staff  when  created,  and  so  believing  had 
desired  to  abandon  that  experiment,  it  would  not  have  been  done  by 
this  tentative,  obscure,  and  admonitory  sentence.  In  other  words,  an 
evil  of  large  proportions  and  menacing  character  had  presented  itself 
in  1903.  Congress  erected  a  new  system  to  deal  with  that  evil.  If 
the  system  has  failed  and  Congress  is  disillusioned  with  it  as  an 
experiment,  the  whole  structure  will  be  swept  aside  and  some  new 
corrective  of  the  old  evils  attempted.  But  it  is  quite  inconceivable 
that  the  Congress  in  any  such  frame  of  mind  would  merely  paralyze 
without  removing  the  corrective  agency  it  had  created  and  provide 
no  substitute  for  it — restoring  the  old  system  with  all  of  its  evils  and 
the  added  encumbrance  of  a  paralyzed  and  inoperative  machine 
originally  designed  as  a  corrective. 

I  have  read  the  extremely  able  arguments  which  have  been  pre- 
pared for  my  consideration  on  this  subject  by  the  Judge  Advocate 
General  and  others.  To  the  extent  that  I  am  now  disagreeing  with 
the  view  therein  expressed,  it  seems  to  me  that  my  disagreement  is 
rather  one  of  assumptions  than  of  logic.  If  it  be  assumed  that  a  lot 
of  promiscuous  interferences,  duplications,  and  losses  of  time  had 
grown  up  in  the  operation  of  the  General  Staff  system,  then  the 
language  adopted  by  Congress  would  seem  to  be  an  admonition  to 
the  Secretary  of  War  to  correct  those  difficulties;  and,  to  the  Chief 
of  the  General  Staff,  recalling  to  his  attention  the  primary  purposes 
for  which  the  (Jeneral  Staff  was  created,  in  order  to  prevent  a  prac- 
tice growing  up  which  woidd  involve  the  operations  of  the  General 
Staff  in  masses  of  detail,  and  so  far  absorb  its  mind  as  to  leave  no 
leisure  for  the  consideration  of  general-policy  questions,  which  are, 
of  course,  of  great  moment  to  be  considered.  It  seems  to  me  that  the 
Judge  Advocate  General  does  assume  that  the  Congress  had  in  mind 
the  existence  of  those  duplications,  interferences,  and  losses  of  time, 
and  that  therefore  the  Congress  by  the  use  of  the  word  "  administra- 
tive "  must  have  intended  to  provide  a  rule  which  would  exclude  the 
General  Staff  practically  from  every  other  concern  except  the  con- 


78  REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

sidenition  of  large-policy  questions.  I  admit  that  where  an  evil 
exists  and  a  legislative  enactment  is  addressed  to  it,  the  rule  of  in- 
terpretation seeks  to  expand  the  proposed  remedy  to  accomplish  the 
purpose  for  which  it  was  designed.  But  the  Congress  had  before  it 
no  catalogue  of  evils.  No  complaints  were  made  to  the  Congress  by 
the  Secretary  of  War — who  ?[>eaks  with  authority  for  the  War  De- 
partment— that  he  found  himself  unable  to  secure  an  adequate  con- 
sideration of  major  policy  problems  from  the  General  Staff  because 
Congress  had  imposed  conflicting  duties  upon  the  General  Staff. 
Individual  officers  of  the  Army  may  have  undertaken  to  express  their 
opinions  to  Members  of  the  Congress  about  the  exercise  of  the  coordi- 
nating functions  of  the  General  Staff.  But  all  such  opinions  are  nec- 
essarily partisan  and  partial,  so  that  we  must  limit  our  assumption 
to  the  facts,  and  in  so  doing  we  find  no  system  of  facts  adequate  as 
a  predicate  for  action  by  Congress  which  would  destroy  the  power  of 
the  General  Staff,  bind  the  Secretary  of  War  to  rely  upon  the  uncoor- 
dinated advice  of  individual  bureau  chiefs,  and  while  giving  the  Chief 
of  the  General  Staff  the  duty  of  coordinating  the  functions  of  the 
military  bureaus  of  the  department  at  the  same  time  prohibit  that 
degree  of  supervision  over  the  affairs  of  those  bureaus  which  in  his 
judgment  is  necessary  to  equip  him  with  qualifying  information: 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  word  "  administrative"  is  one  of  extremely 
doubtful  import.  Legally  it  perhaps  means,  when  applied  to  duties, 
such  duties  as  involve  no  exercise  of  discretion.  That  is  to  say,  if 
an  officer  is  directed  by  statute  to  pay  a  dollar  a  day  to  each  of  10 
persons,  no  discretion  is  involved  in  his  payments — his  duty  is  adminis- 
trative. If  such  an  officer  is  authorized  to  pay  a  dollar  a  day  to  so  many 
of  a  group  of  10  persons  as  shall  have  lived  up  to  a  certain  standard 
of  performance  in  duties  assigned  them  day  by  day,  then  the  dis- 
cretion of  determining  the  merit  of  applicants  for  the  pay  is  non- 
administrative,  because  a  discretionary  duty.  I  doubt  very  much, 
however,  whether  this  word  was  used  in  any  such  technical  sense. 
The  rule  of  construction  in  such  cases  is  that  unless  there  is  some- 
thing in  the  context  to  determine  that  a  technical  meaning  is  attached 
to  a  term,  it  will  be  assumed  to  be  used  in  the  plain,  ordinary,  and 
popular  meaning  of  the  word.  Now,  the  plain,  ordinary,  and  popu- 
lar meaning  of  this  tenn  in  this  context  obviously  is  that  the  Chief 
of  the  General  Staff  and  the  members  of  the  General  Staff  Corps 
shall  not  administer  the  offices  of  the  bureau  chiefs.  That  is  to  say, 
that  the  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  shall  give  no  order  to  a  subordinate 
of  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  or  The  Adjutant  General,  for  that  would 
be  the  administration  of  that  department,  and  such  administration 
must  proceed  from  the  head  of  the  department.  Indeed,  it  seems  to 
me  entirely  likely  that  the  statute  under  examination  provides  its 
own  definition  of  the  meaning  of  the  word  "  administrative,"  for  it 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  8ECRETABY  OP  WAB.  79 

says,  in  effect,  that  these  administrative  duties  are  such  as  those  which 
pertain — 

to  established  bureaus  or  offices  of  the  War  Department,  or  that,  being  assumed 
or  engaged  In  by  members  of  the  General  Staff  Corps,  would  Involve  Impairment 
of  the  responsibility  or  Initiative  of  such  bureaus  or  offices,  or  would  cause 
injurious  or  unnecessary  duplicntion  of  or  delay  In  the  work  thereof. 

These  words  last  quoted  supply  all  the  guide  necessary  for  a  work- 
ing definition  of  the  word  "  administrative,"  and  they  enumerate  the 
kind  of  acts  which  the  Congress  does  not  intend  the  General  Staff 
to  undertake.  They  are  exactly  the  kind  of  acts  which  the  original 
act  creating  the  General  Staff  did  not  intend  to  assign  to  the  General 
Staff.  Secretary  Root  said  the  proposed  duties  are  not  administra- 
tive, are  not  executive,  but  are  correlating,  informing,  supervising. 
So  that  we  in  effect  have  in  this  latest  legislative  expression  a  reitera- 
tion of  the  intentions  of  the  Congress  in  the  earlier  act  as  defined  and 
explained  by  the  authority  of  the  act  and  the  policy  which  it  em- 
bodied. 

It  seems  to  me,  therefore,  entirely  clear  that  the  structure  erected 
by  the  act  of  1903  remains  as  then  created,  except  for  the  explicit 
modifications  provided  in  the  act  of  1916  and  not  affecting  the  cur- 
rent of  this  argument ;  that  the  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  is  charged 
with  the  supervision  of  the  various  departments,  bureaus,  and  offices 
of  the  War  Department  for  the  purpose  of  coordinating  their  activi- 
ties and  for  the  purpose  of  so  informing  the  judgment  of  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  that  he  may  not,  by  inadvertence  or  unfamiliarity  with 
military  practice,  take  action  which  would  be  prejudicial  to  har- 
monious results  in  the  military  service.  Finding  the  intention  of  the 
act  to  be  as  here  set  forth,  it  is  my  opinion  that  the  Chief  of  the 
General  Staff  is  the  primary  adviser  of  the  Secretary  of  War  in  all 
matters  having  to  do  with  the  Military  Establishment;  that  in  order 
properly  to  inform  himself,  the  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  must  know 
of  the  proceedings  in  the  various  bureaus,  departments,  and  offices; 
that,  to  as  large  an  extent  as  possible,  the  action  of  these  bureaus, 
departments,  and  offices  should  be  regulated  by  large  policies  laid 
down  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  carrying  out  of  which  would 
involve  merely  administrative  activity;  but  that  in  order  to  make 
sure  that  these  policies  are  not  being  departed  from  or  ought  not  to 
be  changed,  in  order  properly  to  harmonize  the  relations  of  several 
bureaus,  it  is  not  only  appropriate  but  necessary  for  the  Chief  of  the 
General  Staff  to  pursue,  with  as  great  detail  as  his  judgment  dictates, 
the  execution  of  these  policies  through  the  several  bureaus. 

It  is  easy  to  imagine  a  case  in  which  the  chief  of  a  bureau  or 
an  officer  would  feel  that  some  policy  provided  by  the  Chief  of 
Staff  in  an  effort  to  coordinate  the  work  of  several  bureaus  un- 
duly restrained  his  activities,  and  that  such  a  bureau  chief  would 


80  REPORT  OP  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

desire  to  argue  personally  for  his  point  of  view  before  the  Sec- 
retary of  War.  In  any  such  cases  the  Chief  of  Staff  should  se- 
cure a  hearing  for  the  bureau  chief  before  the  Secretary,  and  I 
have  no  doubt  that  any  Chief  of  Staff  or  any  Secretary  of  War 
would  be  very  zealous  to  see  that  opinions  earnestly  entertained  by 
officers  were  considered  thoroughly,  for,  after  all,  we  are  all  of  us 
common  servants  with  a  common  purpose  in  a  common  cause,  and 
our  zeal  for  particular  branches  of  that  service  is  merely  a  speciali- 
zation of  our  zeal  for  the  welfare  and  success  of  the  larger  whole 
which  includes  it.  A  recognition  of  this  fact  produced  the  spirit 
which  Secretary  Root  referred  to  with  so  much  pleasure  immedi- 
ately after  the  creation  of  the  General  Staff,  in  which  slight  irri- 
tations, due  to  the  unaccustomed  machinery,  easily  gave  way  and 
harmonious  relations  arose.  This  fine  spirit  for  the  public  service 
is  no  less  present  now  and  will  work  as  excellent  results. 

The  policy  of  the  War  Department,  therefore,  will  remain  as 
heretofore;  the  Chief  of  Staff,  speaking  in  the  name  of  the  Sec- 
retary of  War,  will  coordinate  and  supervise  the  various  bureaus, 
offices,  and  departments  of  the  War  Department;  he  will  advise 
the  Secretary  of  War;  he  will  inform  himself  in  as  great  detail  as 
in  his  judgment  seems  necessary  to  qualify  him  adequately  to 
advise  the  Secretary  of  War.  Should  any  regulations  or  orders 
be  necessary  to  place  the  determination  herein  made  in  proper 
form,  the  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  will  prepare  them  for  my 

signature. 

Newton  D.  Baker. 


July  24,  1916. 
From :  The  Office  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General. 

I'o :  The  Chief  of  Staff. 

Subject :  The  lawful  duties  of  the  General  Staff  Corps. 

1.  The  question  of  the  duties  of  this  corps  with  reference  to  their 
relation  to  the  duties  of  the  several  bureaus  of  the  department 
iloubtless  presents  perhaps  less  difficulty  in  its  legal  than  in  its  prac- 
tical solution.  Practical  delimination  of  adjacent  jurisdiction  lying 
within  a  single  field  of  executive  authority,  definition  of  the  jurisdic- 
tional boundary  between  the  functions  of  the  General  Staff  upon 
the  one  hand  and  each  of  the  several  established  administrative 
bureaus  of  the  War  Department  upon  the  other,  must,  from  the 
very  nature  of  the  subject,  involve  some  doubt  and  difficulty.  Fortu- 
nately, at  the  threshold  the  statute  establishes  a  guiding  rule,  which, 


BEPOBT  OP  THE  8FCBETABY  OF  WAB.  81 

though  a  rule  of  legal  construction,  is  at  the  same  time  a  practical 
guide  for  the  government  of  superior  authority,  who  should  be 
mindful  to  apply  it  in  every  doubtful  case.  The  recent  statute  estab- 
lishing and  defining  for  the  second  time  the  duties  of  the  Greneral 
Staff  Corps  is,  like  the  antecedent  and  original  act  of  1903,  organic 
in  nature,  and,  in  addition,  is  remedial  and  corrective  in  its  purpose. 
It  gives  clearest  evidence  of  the  conviction  of  Congress  that  the 
General  Staff  has  heretofore  been  employed  not  altogether  on  its  own 
proper  duties,  but  has  been  diverted  from  them,  leaving  them  to 
some  extent  unperformed,  and  has  invaded  and  interfered  with  the 
long-established  jurisdiction  of  the  several  bureaus  of  the  depart- 
ment, to  the  consequent  impairment  of  such  bureau  administration 
and  to  the  detriment  of  general  military  eflSciency.  The  primary 
purpose  of  the  legislation  was  clearly  to  correct  what  was  deemed  to 
be  a  departure  from  established  organic  functions,  to  reestablish 
such  functions,  and  to  prevent  future  encroachments.  Being  correc- 
tive primarily,  the  statute  must  be  construed  so  as  fully  to  effect  its 
remedial  purpose.  In  so  far  as  the  statute  invests  officers  of  the 
(jeneral  Staff  with  powers  and  duties  in  an  independent  field  of  mili- 
tary activity,  it  should  be  liberally  construed;  but  whenever  their 
powers  and  duties  lie  close  to,  or  become  such  as  may  impinge  upon, 
or  affect  those  of  an  established  bureau,  the  opposite  rule  of  inter- 
pretation must  be  the  one  to  govern.  The  statute  must  be  so  con- 
strued, and  it  ought  to  be  so  executed. 

2.  The  duties  must  be  found  in  the  meaning  of  the  language  of  the 
statute  measured  by  that  rule.  The  recent  statute  (section  5,National- 
Defense  Act)  has  to  be  read  in  comparison  with  section  2  of  the 
original  act  of  1903  (32  Stat.,  831).  Both  sections  contain  an  enu- 
meration of  General  Staff  duties,  and  the  later  organic  expression  is 
connected  with  the  former  by  a  general  reference  to  some  of  the 
general  duties  prescribed  in  the  former  act.  The  enumeration  of 
duties  in  the  recent  act  is  impressively  qualified  by  limitations  and 
prohibitions  contained  in  the  same  section,  which  serve  to  give  an 
accuracy  of  definition  to  the  enumeration  which  the  old  act  never  had. 
Said  section  5  provides  that — 

All  officers  detaUed  in  said  corps  shall  be  exclusively  employed  [serializatioii 
mine] — 

(a)  In  the  study  of  mUitary  problems. 

(&)  The  preparation  of  plans  for  the  national  defense  and  the  utilization  of 
military  forces  in  time  of  war. 

(c)  In  investigating  and  reporting  upon  the  efficiency  and  state  of  prepared- 
ness of  such  forces  for  service  in  peace  or  war. 

(d)  Or  on  appropriate  General  Staff  duties  in  connection  with  troops,  includ- 
ing the  National  Guard. 

(e)  Or  as  military  attach^  In  foreign  countries. 

(/)  Or  on  other  duties,  not  of  an  administrative  nature,  on  which  they  can 
be  lawfully  and  properly  employed. 

e0176*— WAB 1916— VOL  1 6 


82  EEPOET   OF   THE  SEOBETABY  OF  WAIL 

All  the  above  classes  of  duties  are  described  with  sufficient  definite- 
ness  except  the  concluding  one.  What  are  the  other  duties  "  on  which 
they  can  be  lawfully  and  properly  employed"?  Omitting  for  the 
moment  all  consideration  of  the  limitations  upon  the  quality  and 
character  of  the  duties  thus  enumerated,  these  other  unspecified  duties 
are  to  be  found  by  reference  to  the  enumeration  of  duties  in  section  2 
of  the  original  act.  The  duties  enumerated  in  said  section  2  and  not 
brought  forward  and  specifically  enumerated  in  the  recent  section  5 
and  to  which  therefore  the  general  provision  of  the  later  section 
makes  reference,  will  be  found  to  be  these : 

iff)  To  render  professional  aid  and  assistance  to  the  Secretary  of  War  and 
to  general  officers  and  other  superior  commanders,  and  to  act  as  their  agents  in 
Informing  and  coordinating  the  action  of  all  the  dllTerent  officers  who  are  subject 
under  the  terms  of  this  act  to  the  supervision  of  the  Chief  of  Staff ; 

(///)  And  to  perform  such  other  military  duties  not  otherwise  assigned  by 
law  as  may  be  from  time  to  time  prescril)ed  by  the  President. 

This  enumeration,  then,  completed  by  expressing  what  section  5 
adopts  by  relation  out  of  the  original  act,  is  a  full  enumeration  of 
General  Staff  duties  except  as  to  a  few  detached  instances  not  affect- 
ing this  question  and  therefore  not  here  considered.  But  the  duties 
thus  enumerated  are  substantially  modified  and  qualified  by  the  ex- 
press limitation  and  prohibition  found  in  the  section  prescribing  the 
General  Staff  duties.   Those  qualifications  are  to  the  effect — 

(1)  That  General  Staff  duties  must  not  be  of  an  administrative 
character. 

(2)  Specifically,  they  must  not  consist  of  work  of  an  administra- 
tive nature  pertaining  to  established  bureaus  or  offices  of  the 
department. 

(3)  They  must  be  general  in  character. 

(4)  If  they  are  not  specifically  enumerated,  they  must  be  of  the 
same  general  nature  of  those  that  are  enumerated. 

(5)  They  must  be  such  as  are  not  assigned  by  law,  custom,  or 
regulation  to  other  bureaus  and  officers. 

(6)  They  must  not  be  such  as  would,  if  performed  by  the  General 
Staff,  involve  impairment  of  responsibility  or  initiative  of  such 
bureaus  or  offices  or  cause  injurious  or  unnecessary  duplication  or 
delay  in  the  work  itself. 

Bestating,  then,  the  duties  of  the  General  Staff,  for  the  purpose  of 
clarity,  they  may  be  said  to  consist  specifically — 

(1)  In  the  study  of  military  problems. 

(2)  In  the  preparation  of  plans  for  the  national  defense  and  the 
utilization  of  the  military  forces  in  time  of  war. 

(8)  In  the  investigating  and  reporting  upon  the  efficiency  and 
state  of  preparedness  of  such  forces  for  service  in  peace  or  war. 

(4)  Appropriate  General  Staff  duties  in  connection  with  troops^ 
including  the  National  Guard. 


BEPOBT  OF   THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR.  83 

(5)  Duty  as  military  attache  in  foreign  countries. 

The  duties  thus  far  specifically  enumerated  seem  to  me  to  be  essen- 
tially such  as  lie  beyond  the  domain  of  bureau  administration,  and, 
therefore,  as  to  them,  there  would  seem  to  be  little  field  of  applica- 
tion of  the  qualifications  mentioned.  If,  however,  those  executing 
this  act  should  have  a  different  view,  they  will  be  restrained  in  the 
assignment  and  performance  of  those  duties  by  these  same  limita- 
tion; and  if  these  specific  duties  can  be  conceived  to  come  into  con- 
tact with  bureau  administration,  then  the  qualifications  will  mark 
the  delimiting  line. 

Proceeding  now,  by  continuing  the  enumeration,  to  those  duties 
which  by  nature  are  such  that,  if  not  restrained  by  the  limitations, 
might  in  the  future,  as  they  have  done  in  the  past,  encroach  upou 
and  invade  the  field  of  bureau  administration,  they  are  seen  to  be — 

(6)  Rendering  professional  aid  and  assistance  to  the  Secretary 
of  War  and  to  general  officers  and  other  superior  commanders  and 
to  act  as  their  agents  in  supervising,  coordinating,  and  informing 
the  action  of  the  different  officers  who  are  subject  under  the  terms 
of  this  act  to  the  supervision  of  the  Chief  of  Staff. 

(7)  And  to  perform  such  other  military  duties  not  otherwise 
assigned  by  law  as  may  be  from  time  to  time  prescribed  by  the 
President. 

Applying  to  these  last  two  general  classes  the  qualifications  just 
mentioned,  the  rule  is  deduced  that  the  General  Staff  may  not  render 
professional  aid  and  assistance  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  to  general 
officers,  and  other  superior  commanders,  nor  act  as  their  agents  in 
supervising,  coordinating,  and  informing  the  action  of  the  different 
bureaus,  nor  perform  any  other  duty  by  special  assignment  unless 
these  duties  be  of  a  nonadministrative  character,  not  pertaining  to 
any  established  bureau  or  office  of  the  War  Department,  general  in 
their  nature,  of  the  same  general  kind  as  those  duties  which  have 
been  specifically  enumerated,  and  such  as  if  performed  by  the  Gen- 
eral Staff  would  not  involve  any  impairment  of  the  initiative  or 
responsibility  of  bureaus. 

3.  The  meaning  of  these  limitations  and  qualifications  is  not  diffi- 
cult to  determine.  The  Gteneral  Staff  must  not  perform  administra- 
tive duties.  The  term  "  administrative  "  is  not  one  always  having  a 
fixed  significance,  but  its  meaning  when  used  with  reference  to  War 
Department  affairs  is  one  which  those  conversant  with  such  affairs  well 
understand.  Those  duties  which  by  law,  regulation,  and  established 
custom  are,  or  heretofore  were,  habitually  performed  in  the  several 
bureaus  or  offices  of  the  department,  commonly  known  as  adminis- 
trative bureaus  or  offices,  or  at  the  various  subordinate  headquarters 
in  the  same  administrative  field  under  the  general  direction  and 
supervision  of,  and  with  accountability  to,  the  head  of  the  bureau, 


84  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETAEY  OP  WAB. 

are  duties  of  an  administrative  nature  to  which  the  statute  refers, 
administrative  duties  as  distinguished  from  those  which  are  essen- 
tially and  more  intimately  connected  with  military  power  of  com- 
mand. It  may  be  remembered  in  passing  that  in  addition  to  what 
is  commonly  imderstood  by  the  term  "administrative  duties"  the 
several  administrative  bureaus  may  have  duties  conferred  upon  them 
by  statute  which  by  reason  thereof  pertain  to  said  bureau,  and  these 
duties  may  not  be  performed  or  interfered  with  by  the  General  Staff 
by  virtue  of  the  express  provision  of  the  statute  to  that  effect.  Of 
course,  the  General  Staff  Corps  is  in  a  very  real  sense  a  superior 
bureau  of  the  War  Department.  It  has  duties  of  the  utmost  impor- 
tance prescribed  for  it  by  statute.  The  performance  of  those  duties 
will  render  necessary  considerable  intrabureau  administration.  Such 
administrative  duties  are  a  necessary  incident  of  the  exercise  of  their 
own  power.  But  beyond  such  administrative  duties  I  perceive  none 
that  that  corps  can  perform. 

Duties  performed  by  the  General  Staff  of  whatever  nature  must 
be  general  in  character.  So  the  statute  expressly  provides.  If  the 
matter  be  of  special  rather  than  of  general  interest  and  concern ;  if 
it  be  limited  rather  than  general  in  its  effect ;  if  it  be  a  matter  falling 
within  and  confined  to  the  special  jurisdiction  of  a  bureau  and  not 
reaching  directly  other  bureaus  or  the  Army  as  a  whole;  if  it  be 
routine  rather  than  of  far-reaching  consequence  and  importance;  if 
it  deal  with  details  and  specifics  rather  than  generalities,  with  par- 
ticular performance  rather  than  general  policy,  then  it  is  entirely 
clear  that  it  is  not  a  subject  for  General  Staff  consideration  and 
functions. 

All  duties  performed  by  special  assignment  or  otherwise  must  be 
of  the  same  general  nature  as  those  that  are  specifically  enumerated. 
New  jurisdictions  and  new  activities  may  not  be  created  for  General 
Staff  functions  except  in  the  field  of  general  duties  of  the  same 
nature  as  those  by  the  statute  specified,  not  of  an  administrative 
character,  not  pertaining  to  established  bureaus  or  offices,  not  descend- 
ing into  detail,  and  not  such  as  by  their  nature  could  be  beneficially 
or  more  expeditiously  performed  by  established  bureaus  or  offices. 

Unmistakably,  whether  wisely  or  not,  Congress  has  sought  to  pre- 
jserve  untouched  the  special  jurisdiction  of  each  of  the  several  bureaus 
of  the  War  Department.  It  has  spared  no  pains  in  limiting  the 
powers  and  duties  of  the  Greneral  Staff  to  matters  of  policy,  of 
general  concern,  not  falling  within  or  directly  affecting  bureau 
jurisdiction.  This  it  does  by  a  reiteration  which  could  be  justified 
only  by  the  apprehension  that  with  less  insistence  the  purpose  of 
Congress  would  not  be  heeded,  and  that  purpose  is  sealed  with  n 
drastic  penalty.  If,  however,  notwithstanding  the  effort  of  Congress 
to  delimit  clearly  the  boundaries  of  adjacent  jurisdiction,  there  should 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SEORETABY  OP  WAR.  85 

be  by  reason  of  the  nature  of  the  subject  zones  of  uncertainty  in  which 
the  dividing  line  is  obscure — a  twilight  zone  in  which,  unaided,  it 
could  not  be  clearly  said  whether  the  duties  fall  upon  one  side  or  the 
other — then  in  such  cases,  as  heretofore  said,  the  statute  establishes 
for  us  a  guiding  rule,  which  is  in  effect  that  in  case  of  doubt  the 
presumption  is  conclusive  against  (jeneral  Staff  jurisdiction. 

4.  It  may  be  well  to  look  on  the  affirmative  side  of  those  General 
Staff  duties  lying  adjacent  to  bureau  administration.  The  General 
Staff  relation  of  rendering  professional  aid  to  the  Secretary  of  War 
and  superior  military  commanders,  and  of  acting  as  their  agents  in 
supervising,  coordinating,  and  informing  the  action  of  the  different 
officers  subject  to  the  supervision  of  the  General  Staff,  becomes 
limited,  if  not  by  the  original  act  certainly  by  the  express  require- 
ment of  the  recent  statute,  to  matters  of  a  nonadministrative  char- 
acter, not  pertaining  to  a  particular  bureau,  and  involving  only 
general  policies.  Such  a  relation  or  capacity  does  not  confer  the 
right  to  command  or  to  administer  an  established  bureau  or  office, 
or  to  control  its  details  or  its  methods  of  administration.  The  power 
may  be  only  generally  exercised. 

It  is  pertinent  at  this  point  to  note  the  opinion  of  the  committee 
of  the  War  College  Division,  as  expressed  in  an  accompanying  memo- 
randum, as  follows: 

It  is  the  opinion  of  tlie  committee  tliat  the  organic  act  giving  to  the  General 
Staff  "  supervising,  coordinating,  and  informing  powers,"  vests  in  the  Chief  of 
Staff  the  responsibility,  povi^er,  and  authority  to  prescribe  and  dictate  the 
policy  that  will  govern  all  bureaus  of  the  War  Department  in  their  methods  of 
administration. 

The  General  Staff  passes  upon  such  questions  of  policy  as  are  referred  to 
It  by  proper  authority  for  investigation,  report,  and  recommendation. 

The  recommendation,  when  approved  by  the  Chief  of  Staff  and  the  Secretary 
of  War,  becomes  settled  policy  which  then  governs  all  bureaus  concerned. 

This  War  College  opinion  will  not  stand  analysis  when  tested  by 
the  law.  By  statute  General  Staff  officers,  including  the  chief,  are 
made  special  staff  agents  in  informing,  supervising,  and  coordinating 
the  action  of  the  different  bureaus,  within  the  limitations  flowing 
from  the  original  act  and  especially  within  those  expressed  in  the 
recent  corrective  legislation.  This  General  Staff  power  is  neverthe- 
less but  a  staff  power  of  duty,  and,  like  all  staff  duty,  has  no  inherent 
strength  of  its  own.  Neither  can  it  gather  aught  by  representation 
of  superior  authority  that  can  enlarge  its  functions  beyond  the  limi- 
tations of  the  statute,  but  must  remain  confined  in  scope  and  char- 
acter by  the  express  limitations  of  the  recent  act.  The  General  Staff 
is  not  and  can  not  be  a  source  of  military  command.  Its  duties  do 
not  involve  the  power  of  command,  but  they  rather  establish  a 
connection  between  commander  and  commanded,  a  power  conduit 
leading  from  and  to  the  source.    To  inform,  to  supervise,  to  coordi- 


86  REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OP  WAR. 

nate,  is  not  to  command,  not  to  "  dictate."  To  hold  otherwise  would 
deprive  commanders  of  their  inherent  functions.  Because  of  the 
generality  of  its  position,  the  General  Staff  is  generally  informed  of 
the  operations  that  may  be  of  general  effect  occurring  within  the 
special  and  limited  spheres  of  bureau  action;  from  its  general  van- 
tage point  it  oversees  all  such  operations,  and,  observing  any  lack  of 
harmony  in  the  general  action  of  such  limited  authority  which  may 
affect  general  military  efficiency,  may  devise  means  of  coordination, 
and,  in  their  capacity  as  professional  advisors  to  military  superiors, 
may  address  the  power  of  command  and  the  discretion  of  superior 
authority  to  secure  such  coordination.  Neither  the  General  Staff 
nor  any  officer  thereof,  including  its  chief,  can  lawfully  exercise 
the  power  to  dictate. 

Neither  can  General  Staff  power  be  used  to  govern  all  bureaus 
of  the  War  Department  in  their  methods  of  administration. 
The  power  is  concerned  not  with  intradepartmental  methods,  but 
rather  with  action,  the  result  of  activity — results,  and  what  is  more, 
results  of  a  general  effect.  General  policy  confined  within  its  proper 
purpose  can  not  be  concerned  with  mere  administrative  methods; 
and  to  adopt  the  view  announced  by  the  War  College  Division  would 
be  to  permit  the  General  Staff  to  control  bureau  administration  of 
every  character,  to  depart  from  and  neglect  their  own  general  func- 
tions, and  thus  nullify  the  law  and  postpone  the  reform  which  Con- 
gress intended  to  inaugurate.  It  is  the  effect  of  the  language,  and 
must  therefore  have  been  the  real  purpose  of  the  act,  to  reestablish 
the  relation  of  the  several  bureau  chiefs  as  special  aids  and  advisors 
to  the  Secretary  of  War  upon  matters  which  fall  within  their  special 
jurisdiction,  uninterfered  with  by  an  outside  agency.  As  a  matter 
of  organic  law  established  or  recognized  by  Congress,  such  from 
the  beginning  of  the  Government  has  been  the  special  purpose  and 
function  of  the  administrative  bureaus.  I  am  well  aware  that 
bureau  chiefs  have  in  times  past  gone  beyond  these  limited  func- 
tions, and  equally  aware  that  in  the  old  days  of  the  commanding 
general  and  in  the  hater  days  of  the  General  Staff  control  chiefs  of 
bureau  have  had  their  jurisdiction  unlawfully  restricted  and  par- 
tially absorbed  by  agencies  having  no  warrant  of  law  for  their  action. 
Whether  the  establishment  of  such  special  bureau  control  is  neces- 
sary or  wise  is  immaterial,  if  it  can  be  said  upon  a  fair  considera- 
tion of  the  statute  that  it  is  the  organic  system  which  Congress  has 
prescribed  and  which  it  has  so  recently  sought  to  preserve ;  but  both 
candor  and  intellectual  integrity  require  me  to  say  that  I  can  see 
nothing  helpful  to  be  achieved  by  subjecting  the  action  of  a  bureau 
chief  within  the  sphere  of  his  special  jurisdiction  to  the  review  of 
another  ©fficer  of  the  Army  whose  position  alone  upon  the  General 
Staff  is  that  which  serves  to  endow  him  with  a  special  knowledge 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAR.  87 

of  the  subject  which  Congress  has  exclusively  intrusted  to  a  bureau 
chief,  and  success  can  hardly  be  expected  from  such  incongruity. 
The  original  statute,  as  well  as  the  recent  one,  contemplated,  of 
course,  what  ordinary  intelligence  must  appreciate,  that  the  admin- 
istrative efforts  of  the  several  bureaus  must  be  coordinated,  and  must 
be  supervised  for  that  purpose.  Such  a  coordination  lies  of  neces- 
sity beyond  the  power  and  jurisdiction  of  any  particular  bureau,  and 
must  therefore  be  regulated  by  agencies  outside  of  those  bureaus. 
But  that  regulation  must  be  achieved  without  absorbing  any  of  the 
bureau  duties,  and  it  must  be  of  a  general  kind,  and  have  regard  to 
matters  involving  policies.  The  coordinating,  supervising,  and  in- 
forming powers  conferred  upon  the  General  Staff  must  be  exercised 
with  this  principle  in  view. 

5.  Coming  now  to  the  duties  of  the  Chief  of  Staff:  I  do  not  believe 
that  by  virtue  of  any  authority  he  has,  either  in  his  capacity  as  a 
member  of  the  General  Staff  Corps  or  as  chief  of  said  corps,  he  can 
lawfully  exercise  his  power  so  as  to  stand  between  a  bureau  head  and 
the  Secretary  of  War  himself  upon  matters  assigned  by  law,  regu- 
lation, and  custom  to  the  administrative  bureau  except  by  laying 
down  general  rules  of  policy  and  general  rules  designed  to  coordinate 
the  efforts  of  the  various  bureaus;  nor  is  he  ever  justified  in  substi- 
tuting in  such  matters  his  judgment  for  theirs.  I  know  that  the 
practice  under  the  law  as  it  existed  up  to  the  passage  of  the  National 
Defense  Act  did  not  accord  with  this  view.  Whatever  may  have  been 
said  in  justification  of  that  practice  heretofore,  in  view  of  the  unmis- 
takable purpose  of  Congress  to  reestablish  bureau  jurisdiction  ab- 
sorbed by  the  General  Staff  and  the  Chief  of  Staff,  as  is  so  clearly 
enunciated  in  the  recent  act,  the  practice  ought  not  to  be  continued. 
The  Chief  of  Staff  is  but  a  member  of  the  General  Staff  Corps,  whose 
duties  are  the  duties  of  that  corps,  except  in  so  far  as  they  may  be 
found  to  be  otherwise  by  section  4  of  the  original  act,  read  in  the  light 
of  the  recent  act,  which  establishes  for  him  a  special  relation  to  the 
President  and  to  the  Secretary  of  War.    That  section  is  as  follows : 

That  the  Chief  of  Staff,  under  the  direction  of  the  President,  or  of  the  Secretary 
of  War,  under  the  direction  of  the  President,  shall  have  supervision  of  all  troops 
of  the  line  and  of  the  Adjutant  GeneraVs,  Inspector  General's,  Judge  Advocate's, 
Quartermaster's,  Subsistence,  Medical,  Pay  and  Ordnance  Departments,  Corps  of 
Engineers,  and  the  Signal  Corps,  and  shall  perform  such  other  military  duties 
not  otherwise  assigned  by  law  as  may  be  assigned  to  him  by  the  President   ♦   ♦   ♦ 

He  is  here  given  supervision  of  the  line  and  of  the  staff  departments. 
Supervision  is  a  word  of  broad  meaning.  It  may  mean  a  direct 
control  or  it  may  mean  a  general  power  of  overseeing,  with  a  view  to 
regulation  through  a  power  drawn  from  some  other  source.  Super- 
vision does  not,  as  a  legal  concept,  when  applied  to  matters  military, 
carry  the  idea  of  command.    The  abolition  of  the  old  office  of  com- 


88  BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECRETABY  OF  WAB. 

manding  general  was  to  bring  departmental  organization  more  in 
harmony  with  the  constitutional  precept  that  the  Secretary  of  War, 
as  the  constitutional  mouthpiece  of  the  President,  was  himself  the 
conmiander  of  the  Army.  Operating  upon  the  same  subject  and  for 
the  same  purpose  as  does  the  supervisory  powers  of  that  corps,  the 
spervision  specially  conferred  upon  the  Chief  of  Staff  must  be  the 
kind  of  supervision  which  is  conferred  upon  other  members  of  the 
General  Staff,  who  are  in  a  sense  the  assistants  of  the  Chief  of  Staff 
in  the  performance  of  his  duties,  though,  of  course,  his  supervisory 
power  is  of  a  much  higher  degree. 

The  supervisory  power  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  to  be  exercised  under 
the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  War  is  of  a  general  kind,  does  not 
extend  to  the  invasion  or  absorption  of  duties  of  a  special  bureau, 
but  is  to  be  exercised  upon  general  subjects  in  a  general  manner, 
seeking  a  general  effect,  with  a  general  policy  in  view.  It  does  not 
relate  to  particular  and  routine  performance,  it  does  not  descend  to 
an  overseeing  of  minor  or  detailed  operations.  It  concerns  only  the 
higher  fimctions  of  command  and  administration  and  must  relate 
to  general  results  rather  than  to  particular  means  and  particular 
activities.  I  see  nothing  in  the  statute  which  substitutes  the  Chief 
of  Staff  for  the  several  bureau  chiefs  as  an  aid  and  advisor  to  the 
Secretary  of  War  concerning  those  matters  which  are  committed  by 
Congress  to  their  special  jurisdiction  and  control.  But,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  statute  expressly  provides  to  the  contrary.  Indeed, 
the  organic  act,  notwithstanding  the  practice  which  grew  up  under 
it,  in  the  very  section  devoted  to  the  duties  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  indi- 
cates clearly  that  it  was  never  the  intention  to  confer  upon  him 
powers  and  duties  already  assigned  to  the  administrative  bureaus, 
for,  as  one  of  several  reasons,  in  a  general  clause  following  an  enu- 
meration, it  is  prescribed  that  the  Chief  of  Staff  shall  "perform 
such  other  military  duties  not  otherwise  assigned  by  law  as  may  be 
assigned  to  him  by  the  President."  And  the  recent  National  Defense 
Act  represcribes  with  emphasis  and  particularity  the  same  relation 
and  enjoins  that  hereafter  it  shall  be  observed. 

I  think  the  true  view  is  this,  that  under  the  statute  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Chief  of  Staff  does  not  absorb  that  of  the  several  bureaus 
nor  subject  their  action  or  their  views  upon  particular  matters  fall- 
ing within  their  special  jurisdiction  to  his  review  and  modifying 
judgment,  but  that  his  function  is  limited  to  that  of  general  supervi- 
sion, going  no  farther  than  to  secure  by  the  exercise  of  general  power 
under  the  direction  of  the  Secretary  of  War  harmonious  cooperation 
and  successful  general  results.  Likewise  it  is  only  in  respect  of  such 
matters  and  for  such  purposes  that  he  is  the  special  superior  adviser 
of  the  Secretary  of  War. 


BEPOBT  OP  THE  8E0EETAEY  OF  WAE,  89 

I  am  well  aware  that  those  matters  which  are  within  the  exclusive 
jurisdiction  of  the  bureau  chiefs  must  usually,  in  their  finality, 
require  executive  action,  and  that  it  would  be  absurd  to  hold  that 
the  Secretary  of  War  or  the  Assistant  Secretary  must  personally 
dictate  or  prescribe  that  action  in  the  myriad  of  matters.  To  my 
mind,  this  gives  rise  to  no  difficulty.  Certainly  it  ought  not  to  be 
urged  to  enlarge  the  duties  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  by  requiring  him, 
unlawfully,  I  think,  to  act  ministerially  and  without  discretion  in 
numerous  matters  to  the  neglect  of  his  own  higher  functions.  If 
the  matters  are  minor  matters  of  routine  or  if  they  are  minor  matters 
subject  to  government  by  an  established  general  policy  which  has 
already  been  established  for  their  government,  it  would  be  unwise 
administration  to  require  the  discretion  of  the  Secretary  of  War  to 
be  addressed  in  the  execution  of  such  details,  and  in  such  matters  only 
his  order  evidenced  ministerially  by  the  signature  of  The  Adjutant 
General  or  other  appropriate  bureau  chief  is  needed  to  give  formal 
authenticity  to  his  action.  If  the  subject  be  of  more  than  routine 
importance  and  yet  not  of  general  effect  nor  involving  general  policy, 
such  an  exceptional  case  is  to  be  considered  by  the  head  of  the  de- 
partment upon  the  advice  of  the  bureau  chief.  In  all  matters  falling 
within  the  special  jurisdiction  of  the  several  bureaus,  Congress  has 
said  in  effect  that  the  views  of  the  particular  bureau  chiefs  shall 
govern  the  Secretary  so  far  as  his  own  judgment  is  to  be  advised; 
and  if  the  Secretary  of  War  respects  not  the  advice  of  his  lawful 
advisers  but  subjects  it  to  extra-legal  review,  he  to  that  extent  dis- 
penses with  the  statute  and  the  lawful  medium  of  control,  and  more- 
over destroys  the  distribution  of  departmental  organic  powers  or- 
dained by  law. 

E.  H.  Crowder, 

Judge  Advocate  General. 


Appendix  B  (Tables  1  to  5). 

Table  1. 

BXPBNDITUBBS,  APPBOPBIATIOITS,  AND  BSTIICATES. 

Expendilwres  for  the  hut  fiscal  year  (1916),  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fiscal  year  {1917),  and  the  estimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  (1918). 


Gooeral  object. 


Civil  Estabusoment. 
wab  depabthemt  pbopeb. 


Salftrios 

Ccmtingeiit  expenses.  War  Department 

Stationery,  war  Department 

Postage  to  postal -union  countries,  War 
Department 

Rent  of  buildings ,  War  Department 

salaries  and  contingent  expenses  imder 
superintendent  public  buildings  and 
grounds 


Total,  War  Department  proper. 


Civic  Pttbuc  Wobks  and  Miscellaneous 
(Exclusive  of  Rivers  and  Habbors). 

HIUTABT  parks,  ETC. 

Secretary's  ofRce: 

ChicVamanga  and  Chattanooga  National 

Park 

Shiloh  National  M  ilitary  Park 

Gettysburg  National  Park 

Vicksburg  National  Military  Park 

National   Memorial  Celebration   and 

Peace  Jubilee,  Vicksburg,  Miss 

Engineer  Department: 

improvement  Jf  Yellowstone  Naticnal 

Park 

Improvement  of  Crater  Lake  National 

Park 


Expenditures 

Cor  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


11,734.131.14 
44.326.98  j 
20,866.33  I 

150.00 
0,700.00 

82,62L72 


Appropria- 
tions for  the 

fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


Total 

I  repayment  of  funds  heretofore  re- 
ported as  e  xpcnded 


Total,  military  parks,  etc 


BUILDmCS  AND  GROUNDS  tN  AND  AROUND 
WASHINGTON. 

Engineer  Department: 

Improvement  and  care  of  public 
grounds,  Dlstri*^  of  Columbia 

Improvement  and  care  of  public  grounds 

Repairs, fuel, etc..  Executive  ^fansion. . 

Li^ting.ctc,  Executive  Mansion, etc.. 

Lighting  public  grounds,  Distri(t  of 
Columbia 

Telegraph  to  connect  the  (  apitol  with 
the  departments  and  Government 
Printing  OfS'^e 

Care  and  maintenance  of  Washington 
Monument 

Repairs  tu  building  where  Abraham 
Littf  oUi  died 

Improvemenu«<.  birthplace  of  Washing- 
ton, Wakefield,  Va 

Erection  of  monuments,  etc 


Total, buildings  and  grounds  in  and 
around  Wasidngton 


12,076.670.00    11.074.043.33 
59,700.00  I         45.000.00 


32,000.00 

25a  00 
39,700.00 


94,666.00 


20,000.00 

250.00 
24,700.00 


90.808.00 


Estimates  Cor 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1018. 


12, 168, 49a  00 
57,000.00 

86,ooaoo 

25a  00 
12,700.00 


07,173.00 


1,891.796.17      2.302,985.00      2,154,89L33        2,365,613.00 


64.092.76 
25.874.83 
39,113.66 
41,523.24 


55,260.00 
42,189.00 
42.500.00 
33,000.00 


194,  .147. 67 
4  (,916.00 


292.200.00 
100.000.00 


55,260.00 
25.800.00 
42.600.00 
33.000.00 

150.000.00 


107,200.00 
50,000.00 


399,868.16 
193.28 


565.149.00 


553, 76a  00 


399, 674. 88  i       565 ,  149. 00  i       553, 760. 00 


216.093.43 

14,374.63 

52,94-2.46 

6,509.G7 

22,218.10 


499.87 

13,353.21 

189.13 


45.475.00 


421,050.00 

19,400.00 

57.000.00 

8.  GOO.  00 

26, 12a  00 


600.00 

13, 82a  00 

200.00 

100.00 


371,654.39 


546,790.00 


279.660.00 

14.400.00 

53.000.00 

8,600.00 

26,120.00 


500.00 

13, 82a  00 

200.00 

100.00 


55,2eaoo 

38.834  00 
42,500  00 
83,000.00 


191,25a  00 

75,ooaoo 


435,844.00 


435,844.00 


440, 55a  00 
19,400.00 

117,000 -00 
8,600.00 

26,120.00 


500.00 

13,820.00 

200.00 

100.00 


396,290.00 


626,290.00 


91 


92 


BEFOBT  OF  THE  8ECBETABY  0?  WAB. 


Expenditures  for  the  last  fiscal  year  (1916)  ^  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fi,soal  year  {1917),  cmd  the  estimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  {1918) — Continued. 


Qeneral  object. 


Civic  Public  Works  and  Miscellaneous 

(EXCLUSIVB  OF  RiVEBS  AND  HaBBOHS)— 

Continaed. 

NATIONAL  CEMETBBIES. 

Qoartermaster  Corps: 

National  cemeteries 

Pay  of  superintendents  of  national  cem- 
eteries  

Headstones  for  graves  of  soldiers 

Repairing  roads  to  national  cemeteries. 

Burial  of  indigent  soldiers 

Antietam  battle  field  preservation 

Disposition  of  remains  of  officers,  sol- 
diers, and  civil  employees 

Confederate  mound,  Oakwood  Ceme- 
tery. Chicago,  III 

Burial  of  indigent  patients,  Army  and 
Navy  Hospital,  Hot  Springs,  Ark 

Monuments  or  tablets  in  Cuba  and 
China 

Marking  graves  of  Confederate  soldiers 
and  sailors  who  died  in  northern 
prisons 

Can.  etc.,  of  Confederate  burial  plats. 

Confederate  Stockade  Cemetery,  John- 
ston's Island,  Sandusky  Bay,  Ohio... 

Burial  sites,  ureen  Lawn  Cemetery, 
Columbus,  Ohio 

Reinterment  of  remains  of  Orman  K. 
Osborne  in  National  Cemetery,  San 
Francisco,  Cal , 

Lodge,  national  cemetery,  Salisbury, 
N.  C 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


Total  national  cemeteries. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 


Adjutant  General's  Department: 

Collecting  military  records  of  Revolu- 
tionary W  ar 

Quartermaster  Corps: 

Arrears  of  i)ay,  bounty,  etc.  (certified 
claims) 

Pay,  etc.,  of  the  Army,  War  with  Spain 
(certified  claims) 

Building  Government  exhibit.  Panama- 
Pacific  International  Exposition,  San 
Francisco,  Ca.1 

Transporting  and  caring  for  Interned 
Mexican  soldiers  and  militarv  refugees 

Transportation  for  refugee  American 

citizens  from  Mexico 

Medical  Department: 

Artificial  limbs 

Appliance  for  disabled  soldiers 

Trusses  for  disabled  soldiers 

Engineer  Department: 

Survey  of  northern  and  northwestern 
lakes 

Expenses,  California  Ddbris  C^ommis- 
slon 

Prevention  of  deposits,  harbor  of  New 
York : 

Raising  of  U.  S.  B.  Maine,  harbor  of 
Habana,  Cuba 

Permanent  International  Conunisslon 
of  Congresses  of  Navigation 

Bridge  across  Potomac  Kivor  at  George- 
town, D.  C 

MRlntenance  and  repairs  of  Aqueduct 
Bridge,  D.  C 

Bridge  across  Republican  River,  Fort 
Riley,  Kans 


|120,55L19 

62,401.17 

42,758.54 

11,275.06 

1,820.65 

4,37L91 

46,827.70 

260.00 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


699.46 


7,006.39 
645.38 

250.00 


5.46 


3,806.75 

2,065.88 

82,113.21 

450.85 

74,9?6.9:i 

8:9. 15 

1,391.33 

122,233.61 

14,987.05 

84,418.85 

1,55a  33 

1,791.30 

1,000.00 


$120,000.00 

63,120.00 

50,000.00 

12,000.00 

2,000.00 

4,500.00 

307,50a00 

500.00 

200.00 

1,000.00 


1,250.00 

250.  OG 

1,979.60 


297,857.45  664,299.60 


Appropria- 
tions for  the 

fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


25,907.15  I      •   50,000.00 


2,0C0.00 


65,r-cn.oo 

1,000.00 
2,500.00 


150,000.00 

15,000.00 

167.760.00 


$120,000.00 
63,120.00 

50,ooaoo 

12,000.00 
2,000.00 
4,500.00 

107,500.00 

600.00 

200.00 

1,000.00 


1,250.00 
250.00 


200.00 
l.-'iOO.OO 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

soTTois. 


364,OiX).O0 


50,000.00 
2,000.00 


65,000.00 
1,000.00 
2,500.00 


125,000.00 

15,000.00 

160,260.00 


250,00a00 
25,000.00 

so.ooaoo 


$150,000.00 

63,120.00 

5O,O00LOO 

12,000.00 

2,000.00 

4,500lOO 

67,500.00 

fiOOiQO 

200.00 

i,ooaoo 


1,25a  00 
2S0.00 


352,320.00 


25,ooaoo 
1.  oca  00 


210,000.00 
1,000.00 
2,000.00 


150,000.00 

i8,ooaoo 
100,  oca  00 


500,00a  00 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  8ECBETABY  OF  WAB. 


93 


Sxpenditures/or  the  last  fiscal  year  (1916),  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fiscal  year  (1917),  and  the  estimates /or  the  next  fiscal  year  (iPi^)— Continued. 


General  object. 


Omc  ruBuc  Works  and  Miscellaneous 
rExcLUsrv'E  or  Rtvx&s  and  Habbobs)— 
Continued. 

MiscsLLANBOua— contlnaed. 

Engineer  Dopartmont— Continued. 

Meeting  of  Permanent  International 
Association  of  Navigation  Congresses 

in  United  States 

Board  of  Managers,  National  Home  for  Di»> 
abled  Volunteer  Soldiers: 
National  Home  for  Disabled  Volunteer 

Sold  iers 

State  or  Territorial  homes  for  disabled 

soldiers  and  sailors 

Miscellaneous  relief  acts,  etc 


Total 

Less  repayment  of  funds  horetofioi«  reported 
as  expended 


Total  miscellaneous. 


Total  Civil  Establishment 

MaiTABT  E8TABLI8H1CSNT. 
8UPPOBT  Oy  THE  A&MT. 

Becretary's  office: 

Contingencies  of  the  Army 

Construction  and  maintenance  of  mili- 
tary and  post  roads,  tnldges,  and 

trails,  A  lasica 

OlBoe  of  the  Chief  of  Staff: 

Army  War  College 

Contingencies,    military    inliormation 
section.  General  Staff  Corps 

Expenses  of  military  observers  abroad. . 

Umted  States  service  schools 

Belief  of  Matthew  E.  Hanna,  late  cap> 
tain,  Tenth  Cavalry.  U.S.  Army 

Belief  of  Maj.  Powell  C.  Fauntleroy, 
Medical  CorpSi  U.S.Army 

Belief  of  Lieut.  CoL  Geo.  O.  Squire, 
Signal  Corps.  U.  S.  Army 

Belief  of  Lieut.  Sherman  Mfles,  Field 

Artillery,  U.  S.  Army 

The  Adjutant  General's  Department: 

Contingencies,  headquarters  of  military 

departments 

Chief  of  Coast  Artillery: 

Coast  Artillery  School,  Fort  Monroe,  Va. 
Chief  Signal  Officer: 

Signal  Service  of  the  Army 

Washington- Alaska  military  cable  aiul 
telegraph  system 

Annunciat<»'  buxser  systems  at  target 


Expcndltmvs 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1910. 


1154.87 


4,205,342l81 

1,100,000.00 
1,067,749.89 


6.880.763.42 
8.85 


6,880,759.67 


Estimates  lor 

the  fbral  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


13,901,900.00 
1,125,000.00 


5,480,160.00 


Approprla^ 

tions  for  the 

fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


13,820,900.00 

1,125,000.00 
548,940.28 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

3M918. 


$3,905,900.00 
1,070,000.00 


6,220,600.28 


5,991,960.00 


5,480,160.00      6,220,601)28        5,991,960.00 


9,841,742.46      9,460,383.60      9,689,561.61         9,772,007.00 


ranees. 
Signaling  equipment  for  coast-defense 

posts 

Comxncrcial  telephone  service  at   Coast 

Artillery  posts 

Expenses,  commission  on  selection  of 

srte  for  aviation  school 

Quartermaster  Corps: 
Pay,  etc.,  of  the  Army, 


Eztm-duty  pay  to  enlisted  men  as 
derlEs,  etc.  at  Army  division  and  de- 
partment neadquarters 

Oollecting,     drilling,    and    organising 
volunteers 


Supplies,  services,  and  transportation, 
Quartermaster  Corps 


Subsistence  of  the  Army. 

Begular  supplies 

Incidental  expenses... 


16,471.87 

166,000.00 

8,776.91 

14,838.81 
10,046.66 
35,348.23 


4,855.41 

28,707.72 

1,041,213.19 

82,518.48 

149.89 

1,979.84 

7,104.13 

974.10 

52,236,837.73 

4,629.17 

6.29 

48,918,376.01 


26,000.00 

660,000.00 

9,000.00 

11,000.00 
15,000.00 
36,850.00 


7,500.00 

28,000.00 

4,641,624.06 

50,000.00 


8,500.00 


103,425,067.35 


27,536,827.03 

13,196,422.09 

2,846,385.37 


60,000.00 

500,000.00 

9,00000 

11,00000 
15,000.00 
35,350.00 


7,500.00 

28,000.00 

14,281,766.00 

50,000.00 


8,500.00 


87,345,673.00 


20,000.000.00 

11,000.000.00 

2,000,000.00 


50,000.00 

600,000.00 

9,000.00 

11,000.00 
16,000.00 
85,850.00 

632.18 

60L40 

41.46 

57.05 

7,600.00 

28,000.00 

16,600,000.00 

60,000.00 


10,000.00 


97,704,995.66 


19,293,304.00 

13,453,905.19 

2,199,419.96 


94 


BEPOET  OP  THE  SEOBETABY  OP  WAB, 


Expenditures  for  the  last  fiscal  year  {1916)y  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  (he  present 
fiscal  year  (1917),  and  the  estimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  (1918) — Continued. 


Qeneral  object. 


MiLiTABY  Establishment— Continued. 
SX7PP0BT  or  THE  ABMT— Continued. 

Quartermaster  Corps— Continued. 

Supplies,  etc.— Continued. 

Transportation  of  tiie  Army  and 

Its  supplies 

Water  and  sewers  at  military  posts. 
Ciotliing  and  camp  and  garrison 
equipage 

Horses  for  Cavalry,  Artillery,  En- 
gineers, etc 

Barracks  and  quarters 

Military  post  exchanges 

Roads,  walks,  wliarves,  and  drainage. . 

Barracks  and  quarters,  Pliilippme 
Islands 

Construction  and  repair  of  hospitals.... 

Quarters  tor  liospital  stewards 

Shooting  galleries  and  ranges 

Maintenance,  Army  War  College 

Ofhcers'  quarters,  remount  depot, 
Front  Royal,  Va 

Claims  for  damages  to  and  loss  of 
private  property 

Army  storehouses,  Corregidor  Island, 
P.I 

Rent  of  buildinra.  Quartermaster  Corps. 

Supply  depots,  rort  Sam  Houston,  Tex. 

Repairs  to  Duildings,  etc.,  at  Uulf  ports. 

Target  range,  Vancouver  Barraclcs, 
Wash 

Target  range,  Fort  Bliss,  N.  Mex 

Purchase  of  land,  Coronado  Heights, 
Cal 

Sites  for  aviation  school,  Signal  Corps, 
Cal 

Land  for  aviation  purposes,  Army 

Transportation  of  rifle  teams  to  national 
matches 

Vocational  training 

Council  of  National  Defense 

Filing  equipment  for  the  Army 

Relief  of  Lieut.  H.  £.  Mhier. 

Relief  of  MaJ.  H.  E.  Ely 

Relief  of  Lieut.  Sloan  Doak 

Relief  of  Lieut.  J.  A.  Barry 

Relief  of  Lieut.  Waldo  C.  Potter 

Relief  of  St.  Francis  Hospital,  Newport 
News,  Va.  (medical  services  rendered 
George  Vay) 

Relief  of  Lieut.  J.  F.  Taulbee 

Relief  of  Acting  Dental  Surg.  Frank  C. 
Cady 

Relief  of  Lieut.  Joseidi  T.  Clement 

Relief  of  Leland  Stanford  Junior 
University 

Relief  of  Pay  Clerk  H.  O.  Foster 

Relief  of  Pay  Clerk  S.R.  Beard 

Relief  of  Pay  Clerk  Hastie  A.  Stewart 

Relief  of  Lieut.  Col.  Frederick  T. 
Reynolds,  Medical  Corps,  U.  S. 
Army 

Relief  of  Capt.  Leartus  J.  Owen,  Medi- 
cal Corps,  U.  S.  Army 

Relief  of^Capt.  Adam  E.  Schlaniser, 
Medical  Corps,  U.  8.  Army 

Relief  of  Capt.  Jay  D.  Whitman,  Medi- 
cal Corps,  U.  S.  Army 

Relief  of  Capt.  £.  D.  Kremers,  Medi- 
cal Corps,  U.  8.  Army 

Relief  of  Capt.  L.  B.  McAflee,  Me<ll;al 
C<»rps.  U.  8.  Array 

Relief  of  Lieut.  O.  D.  Graham,  Mixiioal 
Corpi,  U.  8.  Army y. 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


I 


132, 
2, 


$2,014,929.93 

1,987,030.61 

74,423.61 

550,473.64 

406,170.06 

390,629.62 

11,966.01 

41,140.58 

10,060.11 

3,444.10 

545.50 

86.65 
31,700.96 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


149,92L85 
607,987.05 


24,406,740.20 


1, 
3, 

1, 


636,465.00 

985,872.76 

40,000.00 

146,000.00 

513,98L00 

490,000.00 

13,750.00 

87,620.00 

10,700.00 


5,000.00 


42,740.10 


100,000.00 
300,000.00 


Appropria- 
tions for  th& 

fiscal  year 

ending  June 

20, 1917. 


$23,000,000.00 
4,000,000.00 

20,280,000.00 

2,500,000.00 

3,146,000.00 

48,592.00 

860,534.00 

790,000.00 

409,963.00 

14,043.00 

49,000.00 

10,700.00 


5,000.00 


42,039.10 

750,000.00 

50,000.00 

100,000.00 
35,120.00 


Estimates  lor 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30,1918. 


$16,373,780.00 
3,027,964.00 

17,393,233.00 

433, 4001 00 

7,416,767.57 

75,445.00 

748,33L76 

73o,ooaoo 

1,250,767.00 
70,560.00 

45,ooaoo 
io,7oaoo 


160.00 
200.00 
150.00 
135.00 
375.00 


103.90 
200.00 

127.61 
50.00 

450.01 
350.48 
108.  Sr» 
182.40 


323.90 
191.67 
278.00 
86.80 
340.00 
293.00 
301.20 


300,000.00 
300,000.00 

00,000.00  I. 

•J66,'uu6.6o"t 


I 


5,000.00 


42.225.10 


200.000.00 

200,()(».00 

45,000.00 


1 

i:::::::::::::*" 

******* 

"'••••••••••  ••*. 

REPORT  OF  THE  SECRETARY  OF  WAR, 


95 


Expenditures  for  the  last  fiscal  year  (1916),  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fiscal  year  (1917),  cmd  the  estirtxates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  (1918) — Continued. 


General  object. 


KnjTART  EsTABLiSHMKNT— Ckmtinued. 

SX7PP0RT  Oy  TBI  ABMT-HX>ntinued. 

Quartermaster  Corps— Omtiniied. 

Payment  for  rent  of  buildings,  Philip> 
pine  Islands 

Reimbursement  to  Actbig  Dental  Surg. 

Wm.  A.  Squlree 

Ifedical  Department: 

Medical  and  hospital  department 

Army  Medical  Museum  and  Library 

Hospital  care,  Canal  Zone  garrisons 

Replacing  medical  supplies 

Bureau  of  Insular  Affairs: 

t  are  of  insane  Filipino  soldiers , 

Care  of  insane  soldiers,  Porto  Hico  Reg- 
iment of  Infantry , 

Eoginoer  Department: 

Engineer  depots , 

Engineer  Scnool,  Washington,  D.  C... 

Engineer  equipment  of  troops 

Civilian  assistants  to  engineer  ofTicers... 

Contingencies,  engineer  department, 
Philippine  Islands , 

Building,  Engineer  School,  Washing- 
ton, D.C 

Engineer  operations  in  the  field 

Military  surveys  and  maps , 

Ordnance  Department: 

Ordnance  service , 

Ordnance  stwes,  ammunition 

Small-arms  target  practice 

Manufocture  of  arms 

Ordnance  stores  and  supplies 

National  trophy  and  medals  for  rifle 
contests 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


Automatic  rifles  (machine) 

Replacing  ordnance  and  ordnonco^ores. 

Armored  motor  cars 

Board  to  investigate  Government  man- 
ufacture of  arms 


Total , 

Less  repajrment  of  funds  heretofore  reported 
as  expended 


Total  suppOTt  of  the  Army  (including 
pay  of  reserve  corps  and  National 
Guard) 


RESEBYE  CORPS. 

Quartermaster  supplies,  equipment,  etc., 
for  reserve  officers  training  corps , 

Ordnance  stores,  equipment,  etc.,  for  re- 
serve oflBcers  training  corps , 

Quartermaster  supplies,  equipment,  etc., 
for  the  enlisted  reserve  corps 

fill^ial  equipment  for  the  enlisted  reserve 
corps , 


Total  reserve  ocHrps 

IflUTART  ACADKMT. 


Pay  of  Military  Academy , 

Current  and  ordinary  expenses , 

MisceUaneous  items  and  incidental  expenses . 
Buildings  and  grounds 


Total  Military  Academy 


$745,450.10 

12,582.59 

60,028.«7 

3,948.73 

804.60 


25,025.88 
25,029.04 
56,803.36 
39,994.36 

4,600.00 


330,668.64 
112,096.26 
608,295.70 
272,806.14 
981,890.48 

10,223.65 

35,336.54 

124,7&4.26 

46,491.28 


106,597,266.10 
39,096.88 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


11,722.42 

290.79 

8,164,105.95 
15,000.00 
45,000.00 


1,500.00 

300.00 

27,500.00 

25, 000.  no 

660,000.00 

75,000.00 

4,000.00 


375,000.00 
3,383,000.00 
1,515,000.00 
1,012,560.46 
4,757,500.00 

10,000.00 
1,400,000.00 


150,000.00 
12,000.00 


Appropria- 
tions for  the 

fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1017. 


$4,500,000.00 
15,000.00 
45,000.00 


1,500.00 

300.00 

27,500.00 

31,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

75,000.00 

4,000.00 

9,000.00 
100,000.00 


475,000.00 

10,000,000.00 

3,000,000.00 

5,000,000.00 

9,500,000.00 

10,000.00 
6,000,000.00 


500,000.00 


241,651,409.25  232,586,080.10 


106,558,169.22  241,651,409.25  232,580,080.10 


758,315.60 

136,872.79 

50,612.81 

80,017.99 


1,034,819.10 


887,902.62 

156,029.20 

56,590.00 

364,266.65 


1,464,788.47 


880,369.62 

150,330.00 

67,740.00 

118,603.95 


1,225,043.57 


Estimates  Cor 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

3M918. 


$l,494,00a00 
15,000.00 
45,000.00 


1,500.00 

300.00 

35,000.00 

30,000.00 

1,174,000.00 

75,000.00 

4,000.00 

202,50a00 
300,000.00 
200,000.00 

425,000.00 

12,970,000.00 

2,500,000.00 

6,805,000.00 

14,315,000.00 

10,000.00 
2,085,00a00 


1,508,000.00 


242,421,361.22 


242,421,361.23 


4,385,  OOa  00 
550,000.00 
267,650.00 
500,000.00 


5,702,650.00 


1,024,304.70 

172,745.00 

97,250.00 

764,373.60 


2,058,673.30 


96 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  SECBETABY  OF  WAB. 


Expenditures  for  the  last  fiscal  year  (1916),  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fiscal  year  (1917),  and  the  atimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  (iPi*)— Continued. 


General  object. 


MajTART  Establishment— Continued. 

MIUTIA. 

Encampment  and  maneuvers,  Organized 
MUitia 

Equipment  of  Coast  Artillery  armories, 
Organized  MiUtia 

Field  Artillery  for  Organized  Militia 

Ammunition  for  Field  Artillery,  Organized 
Militia 

Exchanging  at  Issuing  new  pistols,  ammu- 
nition, etc..  Organized  Miutia 

Care  of  horses  and  material,  Field  Artillery, 
Organized  Militia 

Ranges  for  Field  Artillery  target  practice... 

Subsistence,  etc.,  oflflcers  and  enlisted  men 
of  Organized  Militia  attending  service 
schools 


Total  militia 


NAUONAL  OUABD. 

Aiming,    egufppfaig,    and    training    the 
National  Guard-. 

Anns,  unifcHins,  equipment,  etc.,  tor  field 
service,  National  Qnard 

Ranges  for  Field  Artillery  target  practice. 
National  Guard 

Supplying  and  exchaziging  Inftmtry  equip- 
ment. National  Guard 

Automatic  rifles  for  National  Guard 

Field  Artillery  for  National  Guard 

Ammunition  for  Field  Artillery  for  National 
Guard 


Total  National  Guard. 


CrnUAN  MIUTAKT  TRADnNO. 


Cfyflian  military  tralniiig  camps 

Military  training  camp,  Fort  Douglas,  Utah. 
Rifle  ranges  for  civilian  instruction 


Quartermaster  supplies,  etc..  for  military 
equipment  of  schools  and  ouleges 


Ordnance  supplies,  etc..  for  military  equip- 
ment of  schools  and  ooUeges . 


Total  civilian  military  training. 


rOBTinCAlIONS    AND     OTHSB   WOSU     OF 
DKTENSK. 

Engineer  Department: 

Gun  and  mortar  batteries 

Electrical  installations  atseaooastforti- 

flcatloos 

Sites  for  forUflcatlons  and  seaooast  de- 

frases 

Bearohlights  for  harbor  defenses 

Preservati(Hi  and  repair  of  fortlflcaticms . 
Repair  and  protection  of  defenses  of 

Pensacola,  Via 

Plans  for  fortiftcations 

Supplies  for  seaooast  dcfienses 

Seawalls  and  embankments 

Preservation  and  repair  of  torpedo 

gtructures 

Casemates,  gaUeries,  etc.,  for  iobmarlna 

mines, 


Fortificatioos  in  Insular  possesskxB 

Sea  wall,  Sandy  Hook,  N.  J 

Repair  and  restoration  of  defenses  of 

Galveston,  Tex 

Roads,  trails,  water,  and  sewer  systems, 

ete 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


$389,481.31 

18, 197. 47 
1,702,674.88 

2,059,633.54 

6,408.25 

94,177.97 


4,269,573.42 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  Jime 

30, 1917. 


$1,390,000.00 


380,000.00 
200,000.00 


30,000.00 


5,000,000.00 


1,200,000.00 


1,200,000.00 


Appropria- 
tions for  the 
fiscal  year 
ending  June 
30, 1917. 


$200,000.00 


200,000.80 


1,985,450.00 

2,000,000.00 

300,000.00 

400,000.00 

6,000,000.00 

10,000,000.00 

10,000,000.00 


454,084.67 


454,084.67 


427,798.37 

87,982.24 

2.80 
140,005.49 
168,128.62 

1,300.00 
10,000.00 
47,587.52 
23.950.00 

4,026.74 

33,657.48 

660,537.70 

8,509.86 


2,611,500.00 

iio,ooaoo 

1,867,000.00 
226,700.00 
250,000.00 


25,000.00 
40,000.00 


254.060.00 
377,000.00 


303,600.00 


30,685,460.00 


2,000,000.00 

30,000.00 

300,000.00 


2,330,000.00 


2,378.500.00 


1,400,000.00 
226,700.00 
250,000.00 


25,000.00 
40,000.00 


200,000.00 
370,000.00 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  JoxM 

ao,  1918. 


>••••••• 


$12, 727,  oca  00 
4,576.00aOO 


800,OO0lOO 

6,868,000.00 

10,600,000.00 

10,200,000.00 


45,771,00&00 


8,601,000.00 

"*626.'666.'o6 

80,000.00 
660,000.00 


4,741.00a00 


8,777,00aOO 

uo.ooaoo 
ioo,ooaoo 

250,000.00 
300,000.00 


25.000.00 

4o.ooaoo 

98,000iOO 


903,600.00 


260,000.00 
1,414,600.00 


40.00QLOO 


BEPOET  OP  THE  SECBETABY  OP  WAE. 


97 


Expenditures  for  the  last  fiscal  year  {1916\  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fiscal  year  (1917),  and  the  estimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  (1918) — Continued. 


General  object. 


IffnjTABT  EsTABUSHMENT^Continaed. 

fOBTIFICATIONS    AND    OTHSB    WOBK8    OF 

DEFENSK— continued. 

Chief  Signal  Officer: 

Maintenanoe,  etc.,  fire-control  instal^- 
tions  at  seaooast  defenses 

Maintenance,  etc,  fire-control  Installa- 
tions at  seacoast  ^fenses,  insular  pos- 
sessions  

Relief  of  Lieut.  Col.  Frank  Greene,  re- 
tired  

Ordnance  Department: 

Armament  of  fortifications 

Proving  ground,  Sandy  Hook,  N.  J. . . 

Submarine  mines 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


Fortifications  in  insular  possessions 

Submarine  mines  in  insular  possessions. 

Radiodynamic  torpedoes 

Board  oi  Ordnance  and  Fortifications. . 
Special  aids  and  appliances  for  manu- 
facture of  arms,  ammunition,  etc . . . . 
Chief  of  Coast  Artillery: 

Fire  c(mtrol  at  fortifications 

Fire  control  in  insular  possessions 

Maintenance,  Coast  Artillery  war  tn- 
strdction , 


Total  fortifications  and  other  works  of 
defense , 


ABSEMALS. 

Ordnance  Department: 

Augusta  Arsenal,  Augusta,  Ga 

Benicia  Arsenal,  BenTcia,Cal 

Frankford  Arsenal,  Philadelphia,  Pa... 
Rock  Island  Arsenal.  Rock  Island,  111.. 
Rock  Island  power  plant.  Rock  Island, 

lU \^.... 

Rock  Island  bridge,  Rock  Island.  Ill . . . 
Springfield  Arsenal  ^Springfield,  Mass.. 

Picatfnnv  Arsenal, Dm er,N.  J 

Pro  ing  Ground,  Sandv  Hook,  N.  J 

Wat<>rtown  Arsenal,  Watcrtown,  Mass. 

Testing  machine 

Watervliet  Arsenal,  West  Troy,  N.  Y.. 

Ordnance  depot,  Manila,  P.  I 

Repairs  of  arsenals 

San  Antonio  Arsenal 

Ordnance  depot.  Honolulu,  ^wali 

Army  powder  factory 

Sodium  nitrate  storage 


$132,375.58 

9,378.54 

138.90 

2,127.230.91 

67,496.96 

92,131.12 

467,454.37 

47,371.06 


52,672.02 


60,666.49 
38,706.10 

4,074.51 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


$130,000.00 


;o,ooo.oo 


14,628,500.00 
110,000.00 
690,231.00 
2  019,000.00 
148,850.00 
947,000.00 
300,000.00 


4,662,184.38 


Total 

Jjtes  repayment  of  funds  heretofore  reported 
as  expended , 


Total  arsenals. 


lOUTABT  POSTS  AND  MISCELLANEOUS. 

Qoartermaster  Corps: 

Military  posts 

Sewerage  system,  Port  Monroe,  Va 

Barracks  and  quarters  seacoast  defenses. 
Seacoast  defenses,  Philippine  Islands 

and  Hawaii 

Electric  power  plant,  Corregidor  Island, 

P.I 

Military   prison,   Fort   Leavenworth, 

Kans 

Military    post,    Schofield    Barracks, 

Hawaii 

Purchase  of  land,  Sdiofield  Barracks, 

Hawaii 

Enlargement  and  reclamation  of  Fort 

Taylor,  Key  West,  Fla 

69176*— WAB 1916— VOL  1— 


9,913.65 

115,257.41 

75,400.00 

12^411.64 

36.174.91 

22,611.41 

1,000.00 

22,867.33 

802.97 

12,653.15 

105,000.00 


318,751.06 


617,982.80 
112,050.00 

L  250. 00 


25,779,623.80 


Appropria- 
tlcois  fov- the 

fiscal  year 
ending  June 

^7wl7. 


$130,000.00 


10,000.00 


15,970,500.00 
110,000.00 
217,000.00 

2,000,000.00 
148,100.00 

1,167,000.00 
300,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

600,000.00 
100,000.00 

1,250.00 


26,947,550.00 


51,500.00 
722,970.00 
467,825.00 

12,500.00 
18,000.00 
25,500.00 
39,000.00 
48,000.00 

112,325.00 
15,000.00 

389,900.00 
31,900.00 

350,000.00 
97,200.00 

300,000.00 


360.000.00 


732,873.53 
1,331.50 


3,041,620.00 


Estimates  tor 

the  fiscal  jrear 

ending  June 

^jTois. 


$150,000.00 
15,000.00 


45,628,000.00 

125,000.00 

in,  637. 50 

3,202,510.00 

10, 75a  00 


150,000.00 

500,ooaoo 

608,796.21 
31,537.50 

750.00 


56,999,481.21 


51,500.00 
908,470.00 
982.200.00 

12,500.00 
18,000.00 
32,600.00 
85,500.00 
38,000.00 

799,725.00 
15  000.00 

803,700.00 


350,000.00 
92,200.00 
300,000.00 
500.000.00 
225,000.00 


5,000.00 

15,700.00 

708,800.00 

4,292,600.00 

12,500.00 
20,000.00 
190,000.00 
180,500.00 
125,000.00 
144,500.00 
15,000.00 
196,100.00 


400.000.00 
130,000.00 


5,214,395.00 


6,435,700.00 


731,542.03      3,041,620.00      5,214,395.00        6,435,700.00 


187,165.01 

9,045.40 

17,994.37 

519,259.15 

21.21 

24,873.83 


127,650.00 

14.461.00 

473,860.00 

139,  in.  40 


2,077,263.00 
10,000.00 


127,000.00 

9,359.99 

420,000.00 

69,000.00 


7,067,080.24 

9,359.99 

150,000.00 

178,450.00 


1,000,000.00 


1,077,000.00 


850,000.00 


98 


EEPOBT  OF  THE  SEOBETABY  OF  WAB. 


Expenditures  for  the  last  fiscal  year  (1916),  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fiscal  year  (1917),  and  the  estimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  {1918) — Continued. 


Qeneral  object. 


Hklitabt  Estabushhbnt— Continued. 

MILITABT  POSTS  AND  UISCBLLANEOUS— 

continued. 

Engineer  Department: 

Fort  Riley  Military  BeeervatioD.  Kans. 
Buildings,  Engineer  School  and  post, 
Washmgton.  D.  C. 


Military  struc^urej,  PhiUppine  Elands. 

Enlargement  of  Governors  Island,  N.  Y. 

Fort  Crockett  Reservation,  Galveston, 
Tex 

Sandy  Hook  Reservation,  N.  J 

Miscellaneous: 

Maps,  War  Department 

Topographic  maps.  War  Depfutment... 

Purchase  of  filing  equipment,  etc 

Support  of  dependent  families  of  en- 
listed men 


Total 

Lass  repayment  of  funds  heretofore  reported 
as  expended 


Total  military  posts  and  miscellane* 
ous 


Total  Military  Establishment. 

mVEBS  AMD  HABBOBS. 


Improvement  of  river  and  harbors  (gen- 
eral improvement) 

Improvement  of  rivers  and  harbors  (con- 
tinuing contracts) 

Relief  of  Lieut.  CoL  Mason  M.  Patrick,  U. 
8.  Army 

Relief  of  Washington  C.  Braydhouso 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


S38.22 


16,036.75 
7,900.00 

6,884.60 
7,750.90 


795,969.34 
2.64 


795,966.70 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


123,000.00 


60,000.00 

22,000.00 
97,000.00 
45,000.00 


3,089,411.40 


3,089,411.40 


118,052,254.94   281,680,937.59 


Appro]Mria- 
tlons  for  the 

fiscal  year 
ending  June 

30, 1917. 


160,000.00 

7,500.00 
35,000.00 


2,000,000.00 


3,727,859.99 


EstimateeCor 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  Jane 

30iT918. 


$10,000.00 


8,841,890.21 


3,727,859.99 


8,841,890.28 


.1 


Relief  of  certain  civilian  employees  of  En- 
rineer  Department  at  large,  U.  S.  Army 
(dredge  Comstock) 

Reliefof  Peter  C.Grimm 

Relief  of  crew  of  Government  dredge  C.  W. 
Howell 

Relief  of  Bouncer  Hebron  and  C^y  Cald- 
well  

Relief  of  Italian  bark  Fenice 

ReUef  of  Robert  G.  Lynn 

ReUef  of  C.  C.  O'Donnell 

Relief  of  Prank  Vumlwica 

Reliefof  crew  of  U.  8.  gasoline  tender  Perry. 

Relief  of  Col.  WUliam  W.  Harts,  U.  S. 
Army 

Relief  of  Oscar  Thomson  and  others 

Relief  of  the  M.  A.  Sweeney  Shipyards  & 
Foundry  Co 


Reliefofthos.  J.  Bye , 

Reliefer  Drs.  Blalr  &.  Blake,  Dr.  W.  J.  Max- 
well, Dr.  R.  C.  Evans,  and  J.  B.  Blalock. 
ReUef  of  Theodore  Ba^e  for  injuries 


Relief  of  Mrs.  Joseph  Oameron,  widow  of 

k,  for  injuries 

Relief  of  United  SUtes  Drainage  it  Irriga- 


Joseph  Cameron,  for : 


gationO) 

Reliefof  Douglas  J.  Hollow 

Relief  of  John  Simpson  and  Zorah  E.  Simp- 


son. 


Reliefof  Standard  American  Dredging  Co. 
Relief  of  Western  Union  Telegraph  Co 


Total  liws  and  harbors. 


31,837,13L90 


I": 


376,710.00 
462,800.00 

6.80 
22.00 


2,360.95 
12.00 

545.90 

25.00 
872.96 
154.75 

74.20 
419.00 
218.60 

76.00 
160.31 


302,916,378.66     372,971,755.96 


40,598,135.00 
1,482,800.00 


31,837,13L90 


45,844,458.47 


2,635.00 
500.00 

429.15 
221.91 

242.00 

9,498.43 


42,094,46L49 


31,123,000.00 
1, 005,00a  00 

6.80 
22.00 


645.90 

25.  GO 
872.90 
154.75 

74.20 
419.00 
218.60 


160.31 


20.00 

100.00 

3,020. 7a 

50.77 


32,136,063.90 


BBPOBT  OF  THE  SECBEIABT  OF  WAB. 


99 


Expenditures  for  the  kut  fiscal  year  (1916),  the  estimates  and  appropriations  for  the  present 
fiscal  year  (1917),  and  the  estimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  {1918) — Continued. 


Qeneral  object. 


Rbcapitxtlatton. 

CiTfl  Establishment    (War  Department 
proper;: 
Salaries,  conttngent  expenses,  etc.  (in- 
cluding Office  of  Public  Buildings 
and  Grounds). 


Expenditures 

for  the  fiscal 

year  ended 

June  30, 1916. 


CiTfl  public  works  and  miscellaneous  (ex- 
clusive of  rivers  and  harbors): 
Military  and  national  parks 


Buildings  and  grounds  in  and  around 
Washmf 


ington. 

National  cemeteries 

Miscellaneous  objects 

National  Home  for  Disabled  Volimteer 

Soldiers 

Miscellaneous  relief  acts,  etc 


Total  Civil  Establishment. 


Military  Establishment: 

Support  of  the  Armv  (including  pay  of 
Keso^e  Corps  and  National  Guard). . 

Reserve  Corps 

Military  Academy 

Militia 

National  Guard 

Civilian  military  training 

Fortifications 

Arsenals 

Military  posts  and  miscellaneous 


Total  Military  Establishment. 

Blvers  and  harbors , 

Grand  total 


$1,891,796.17 


399,674.88 

371,654.39 
297,857.45 
417,666.87 

5,395,342.81 
1,067,749.89 


9,841,742.46 


106,558,169.22 


1,034,819.19 
4,360,573.42 


4,662,184.38 
731,542.03 
795,966.70 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1917. 


12,302,985.00 


565,149.00 

546,790.00 
564,299.60 
453, 26a  00 

5,026,90a00 


9,459,383.60 


341,651,400.25 


Approjula- 
tlons  for  the 

fiscal  year 
ending  June 

30/1917. 


82,154,891.33 


553,760.00 

396,290.00 
364,030.00 
725,760.00 

4,945,900.00 
548,940.28 


Estimates  for 

the  fiscal  year 

ending  June 

30, 1918. 


9,689,561.61 


12,365,613.00 


435,844.00 

626,290.00 

352,320.00 

1,016,060.00 

4,975,900.00 


9,772,027.00 


1,464,788.47 
5,000,000.00 
1,200,000.00 
454,084.67 
25,779,623.80 
3,041,620.00 
3,089,411.40 


118,052,254.94  (281,680,937.59 


31,837,131.90  \  45,844,458.47 


159,731,129.30  336,984,779.66 


232,586,060.10 


1,22.%  043. 57 

200,000.00 

30,685,450.00 

2,330,000.00 
26,947,550.00 

5,214,395.00 

3,727,859.99 


302,916,378.66 


42,094,461.49 


354,700,401.76 


242,421,361.22 
5,702,650.00 
2,058,673.30 


45,771,000.00 
4,741,000.00 

56,999,481.21 
6,435,700.00 
8,841,890.23 


372,971,756.96 


32,136,063.96 


414,879,846.92 


100 


REPOBT   OF   THE    SECRETAKY    OF   WAB. 


Expenditures/or  the  last  fiscal  year  (1916)^  the  estimates  and  appropriatumsfor  (he  present 
fiscal  year  {1917),  and  the  estimates  for  the  next  fiscal  year  (1918) — Continued. 


RECAPITULATION. 


General  object. 


Civil   Establishment   (War   Department 
proper): 
Salaries,  contingent  expenses,  etc.  (in- 
cluding Office  of  Public  Buildings 

and  Grounds) 

Ctvll  public  works  and  miscellaneous  (ex- 
clusive of  rivers  and  harbors): 

Military  and  national  parks 

Buildings  and  grounds  in  and  around 

Washington 

National  cemeteries 

Miscellaneoa^  objects 

National  Home  for  Disabled  Volunteer 

Soldiers 

Miscellaneous  relief  acts,  etc 

Military  Establishment: 

Support  of  the  Army  (including  pay  of 
reserve  corps  and  National  Guard) . . . 

Reserve  corps 

Military  Academy 

Militia 

National  Guard 

Civilian  military  training 

Fortifications 

Arsenals 

Military  posts  and  miscellaneous 

Rivers  and  harbors 


Increase  of 
esthnates  for 
1918  as  com- 
pared with 
estimates  for 
1917. 


162,628.00 


79,500.00 
'562,'866.'66' 


Decrease  of 
estimates  for 
1918  as  com- 
pared with 
estimates  for 
1917. 


$129,305.00 

"'2ii,'979.'66" 

51,000.00 


7fifl,951.97 

6,702,&50.00 

593,884.83 


Total... 
Less  decrease. 


44,671,000.00 
4,286,915.33 

31,210,8o7.41 
3,3*'4,OS0.0O 
5,7.2,478.83 


5,000,000.00 


13,708,394.51 


Net  increase  of  estimates  for  1918  as 
compared  with  estimates  for  1917.. . 


96, 99  J,  7  48. 37     19, 100, 689. 1 1 
10,100,089.11  I 


77,895,067.26 


Less  decrease. 


Net  increase  of  estimates  fOT  1918  as 
compared  with  appropriations  for 
1917 


Increase  of 
esthnates  for 
1918  as  com- 
pared with  ap- 
propriations 
for  1917. 


1210, 721. 67 


230,000.00 


290,300.00 
30,000.00 


9, 83.%  281. 12 

5,702,6^0.00 

833, 029. 73 


1.5,085,,V:0.00 
2,411,000  00 

30,0"1,931  21 
1,22I,.'W>.00 
6,114,030.24 


71,016,308.97 


10,836,953.81 


60,179,445.16 


Decrease  of 

estimates  for 

1918  as  oom- 

pared  with  ftp- 

propriatkms 

for  1917. 


$117,916.00 


11,700.00 
'548*946.'38 


2oo,ooaoo 


9,9.i8,.3P7..« 
10,836,953.81 


HEPOBT  OF  THE  SECKETABY-OF   WAS. 


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EEPOBT  OF   THE  BECBETAEY  OP  WAB. 


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REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


153 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


War  Depabtment, 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Staff, 
Washington,  September  SO,  1916. 

Sir  :  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  my  aimual  report. 

MILTTARr  POLICY. 

In  compliance  with  instructions  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  the  War 
CoUege  Division  of  the  General  Staff  Corps  prepared  a  Statement 
of  a  Proper  Military  Policy  for  the  United  States,  which  was  sub- 
mitted to  the  Secretary  of  War,  September,  1915.  This  Statement 
of  Policy  was  published  as  a  separate  appendix  to  the  last  annual 
report  or  the  Secretary  of  War,  and  as,  m  a  very  large  measure,  it 
furnished  the  basis  for  discussion  of  as  well  as  the  basis  for  the  legis- 
lation passed  during  the  past  session  of  Congress,  I  have  included 
it  for  convenience  of  reference  as  an  appendix  to  this  report. 

The  General  Staff  in  this  policy  report  stated  the  military  problem 
before  the  country  in  the  following  language : 

From  what  has  been  stated,  we  are  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  we  must 
be  prepared  to  resist  a  combined  land  and  sea  operation  of  formidable  streuj^h. 
Our  principal  coast  cities  and  Important  harbors  have  already  been  protected 
by  harbor  defenses,  which,  by  passive  method  alone,  can  deny  to  an  enemy 
the  use  of  these  localities  as  bases  for  such  exi)edition8. 

The  enemy  l)eing  unable  to  gain  a  foothold  in  any  of  these  fortified  areas 
by  direct  naval  attack  will  therefore  be  forced  to  find  some  suitable  place  on 
the  coast  from  which  land  operations  can  be  conducted  both  against  the  im- 
portant coast  cities  and  the  rich  commercial  centers  in  the  Interior.  Long 
stretches  of  coast  line  between  the  fortified  places  lie  open  to  the  enemy.  The 
only  reasonable  way  In  which  these  localities  can  be  defended  Is  by  providing 
a  mobile  land  force  of  sufficient  strength,  so  located  that  it  may  be  thrown  in 
at  threatened  points  at  the  proper  time. 

It  has  Just  been  shown  what  the  strength  of  these  expeditions  might  be,  as 
well  as  the  time  required  for  any  one  of  them  to  develop  its  whole  effective 
force.  Hence,  it  can  be  seen,  when  we  take  into  consideration  the  possible  two 
months'  delay  provided  by  the  Navy,  that  our  system  should  be  able  to  furnish 
600,000  trained  and  organized  mobile  troops  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  and 
to  have  at  least  500,000  more  available  within  90  days  thereafter.  Here,  how- 
ever, it  must  be  pointed  out  that  two  expeditions  alone  will  provide  a  force 
large  enough  to  cope  with  our  1,000,000  mobile  troops,  and  consequently  we 
must,  at  the  outbreak  of  hostilities,  provide  the  system  to  raise  and  train,  in 
addition,  at  least  500,000  troops  to  replace  the  losses  and  wastage  In  personnel 
incident  to  war.  To  provide  this  organized  land  force  is  the  military  problem 
before  us  for  solution. 

This  report  was  based  upon  the  actual  needs  of  the  country,  as 
they  existed  at  that  time,  leaving  to  Congress  the  ways  and  means 
to  provide  the  men.  The  first  500,000  mentioned  was  to  be  composed 
of  the  Regular  Army  and  its  reserve,  the  reserve  to  be  produced  by  a 
term  of  enlistment  oi  eight  years,  twt)  with  the  colors  and  six  with  the 

155 


156  REPORT  OF  THE  OHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

reserve.  The  second  500,000  mentioned  above  was  to  be  composed  of 
citizen  soldiers,  to  be  ^iven  nine  months'  military  training  in  time  of 
peace  and  three  months'  additional  training  on  or  before  the  out- 
break of  war  before  they  would  be  prepared  for  war  service. 

The  General  Staff  prepared  a  plan  of  organization  for  the  first 
500,000  which  called  for  7  infantry  divisions  of  9  regiments  each^ 
and  2  cavalry  divisions  of  9  regiments  each,  with  necessary  field 
artillery,  engineer  and. signal  troops  to  complete  the  divisions.  In 
addition,  there  was  to  be  provided  a  total  of  263  companies  of  coast 
artillery.  The  total  number  of  units  recommended  by  the  Greneral 
Staff  for  the  active  army  being: 

65  regiments  of  Infantry, 

25  regiments  of  cavalry, 

21  regiments  of  field  artillery, 

263  companies  of  coast  artillery, 

7  regiments  of  engineers, 

2  mounted  battalions  of  engineers, 
11}  signal  corps  battalions, 

8  aero  squadrons, 

being  an  increase  in  the  Regular  Army  of 

84  regiments  of  infantry, 
10  regiments  of  cavalry, 
15  regiments  of  field  artillery, 
d8  companies  of  coast  artillery, 
5  regiments  of  engineers, 
2  battalions  of  mounted  engineers, 

169  ofiicers  and  2«115  men  in  the  Signal  Oorps,  and  necessary  increase  In 
the  staff  corps. 

Congress  accepted  the  recommendation  of  the  General  Staff  in 
regard  to  the  number  of  organizations,  but  at  practically  two-thirds 
of  the  strength  recommended. 

The  peace  strength  of  the  Regular  Army  after  July  1, 1920,  includ- 
ing 45,177  noncombatant  troops,  will  be  11,827  officers  and  208,338 
men,  and  a  war  stren^h  of  11,942  officers  and  287,846  men.  The 
increase,  as  recommended  by  the  General  Staff,  is  to  take  place  in 
5  annual  increments.  When  the  increase  is  completed  and  the  neces- 
sary oversea  garrisons  provided,  there  will  be  left  in  the  United 
States  just  sufficient  troops  to  organize  4  infantry  divisions  and  2 
cavalry  divisions,  with  necessarv  auxiliary  troops. 

The*  recommendation  of  the  (jeneral  Staff  that  a  citizen  volunteer 
army  of  500,000  men,  with  a  minimum  of  nine  months'  training  in 
time  of  peace,  be  created  was  not  accepted  by  Congress.  This  recom- 
mendation was  attacked  on  various  grounds  as  being  radical,  unneces- 
sary, and  impracticable,  and  as  being  particularly  aimed  at  the 
Organized  Militia,  which  the  General  Staff  recommended  be  main- 
tained as  it  existed  at  the  date  of  the  report.  In  the  policy  report^ 
the  General  Staff  summarized  the  limitations  of  the  Organized 
Militia  in  the  following  language : 

It  is  stated  later  in  this  report  that  12  months,  at  150  hours  per  month,  **  Is 
considered  the  minimum  length  of  time  of  actual  training  considered  necessary 
to  prepare  troops  for  war  service.*'  Due  to  constitutional  Umitatlons,  Congress 
has  not  the  power  to  fix  and  require  such  an  amount  of  training  tor  tbe 
Organized  Militia.  No  force  can  be  considered  a  portion  of  our  first  line  whoee 
control  and  training  is  so  little  subject  to  Federal  authority  in  peace.  No  force 
should  be  considered  a  portion  of  our^  first  line  in  war  unless  it  be  maintained 
fnUy  organized  and  equipped  in  peace' at  practically  war  strength*    This  would 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  157 

ezdude.  the  Organized  Militia  from  consideration  for  senrlce  in  the  first  line 
mainly  because  of  the  imposHbility  of  yiving  it  in  peace  the  training  required 
for  auch  function. 

In  the  consideration  of  this  question,  the  constitutional  limitations 
regarding  the  militia  occupied  most  of  the  attention  of  Congress  to 
the  exclusion  of  the  standard  of  training  necessary  to  prepare  troops 
for  service  in  the  first  line.  Congress  believed,  as  shown  by  the 
national  defense  act,  that  the  constitutional  questions  that  were 
raised  were  not  serious  enough  to  interfere  to  any  extent  with  the 
transformation  of  the  Organized  Militia  into  a  citizen  force  sub- 
stantially in  number  as  recommended  by  the  General  Staff,  and  the 
bill,  as  passed,  provides  that  at  the  end  of  five  years  the  National 
Guard  will  consist  of  about  17,000  officers  and  440,000  men,  the 
period  of  enlistment  in  the  National  Guard  being  six  years,  three 
with  the  colors  and  three  with  the  reserve  of  the  National  Guard. 
A  liberal  provision  is  made  in  the  bill  for  the  payment. 

The  period  of  training  prescribed  for  the  National  Guard  is  16 
days'  field  service,  including  target  practice,  and  48  armory  drills 
of  not  less  than  1^  hours,  or  an  annual  training  of  approximately  25 
days,  or  75  days  in  three  years.  This  period  of  training  is  six  months 
less  than  the  peace  training  recommended  by  the  General  Staff  for 
the  citizen  armv,  and  nine  months  less  training  than  necessary  for 
war  service,  and,  in  my  judgment,  precludes  this  force  from  being  fit 
for  war  service  until  it  has  received  at  least  six  months'  additional 
training  in  time  of  war.  I  am  entirely  in  accord  with  the  opinion 
of  the  General  Staff  that  troops  with  less  than  12  months'  intensive 
peace  training  can  not  be  considered  dependable  troops  for  war 
service. 

The  debate  in  Congress  and  the  discussion  in  the  press  of  the 
country  indicated  that  there  is  a  very  widespread,  serious  and  vital 
misconception  in  this  country  in  regard  to  the  time  it  takes  to  train 
the  individual  soldier  and  the  organization  of  which  he  is  an  element. 

In  the  belief  that  soldiers  can  be  very  quickly  trained  and  armies 
improvised,  we  not  only  run  counter  to  the  military  opinion  and 
practice  of  practically  all  the  other  great  nations  of  the  world,  but  we 
run  counter  as  well  to  our  own  experience  as  a  nation  in  war.  The 
time  required  for  the  training  of  armies  depends  largely  on  the 

fresence  or  absence  of  trained  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers, 
f  there  be  a  corps  of  trained  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers 
and  a  tested  organization  of  higher  units  with  trained  leaders  and 
staff  officers,  the  problem  of  training  is  largely  limited  to  the  training 
of  the  private  soldier.  This  has  been  satisfactorily  accomplish^  in 
Europe  as  is  beine  demonstrated  in  the  present  war  by  giving  the 
soldiers  in  time  ox  peace  two  years  of  intensive  training  with  the 
colors  and  additional  training  in  the  reserve. 

It  should  be  obvious  to  any  unprejudiced  mind  that  if  we  are  to 
defeat  highly  trained  and  splendidly  disciplined  armies  of  our  possi- 
ble enemies,  our  own  forces  when  called  upon  for  battle  should  have 
training  and  discipline  at  least  equal  to  that  of  our  opponent.  While 
we  have  splendid  material  for  soldiers,  for  us  seriously  to  claim  that 
the  average  American  youth  can  be  trained  and  disciplined  in  less 
time  than  the  average  English,  French,  German,  or  Japanese  youth 


158  REPORT   OF   THE   CHIEF   OF  STAFF. 

argues  a  decided  lack  of  understanding  on  the  part  of  our  people  of 
the  progress  and  character  of  the  English,  French,  German,  or  Japa- 
nese people.  All  that  we  can  hope  for  and  confidently  claim  is  that^ 
given  equal  intensive  training  as  to  time,  under  equally  favorable 
conditions  as  to  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  for  instructors 
and  leaders,  our  soldiers  will  be  prepared  to  assure  in  war  the  success 
of  our  armies. 

Under  their  systems  of  intensive  training  other  nations  reauire 
approximately  6  hours'  daily  work  in  theoretical  and  practical  in- 
struction of  each  soldier,  or  approximately  4,000  hours  during  the 
2-year  period  of  training.  In  our  Eegular  service,  due  to  the  necessity 
of  depending  on  volunteer  enlistment,  we  require  in  3  years  approxi- 
mately the  same  number  of  hours  that  the  army  in  which  universal 
and  compulsory  service  exist  obtains  in  2  years. 

If  we  continue  to  accept  approximately  4,000  hours  as  our  stand- 
ards of  training  and  discipline,  we  will  meet  our  opponents  on  prac- 
tically equal  terms,  proviaing  that  the  quality  of  our  instructors  and 
leaders  is  up  to  their  standard.  If  we  adopt  a  lower  standard  of 
training,  we  lessen  directly  the  fighting  efficiency  of  our  troops. 

It  should  be  clear  that  troops  trained  for  1  year  of  intensive  train- 
ing, or  approximately  for  2,000  hours,  are  only  one-half  as  well 
trained  and  less  than  one-half  as  well  disciplined  as  they  would  be  if 
they  had  4,000  hours  of  trainmg  in  2  years.  It  is  obvious  that  troops 
trained  for  only  1  year  in  time  of  peace  will  have  to  be  given  addi- 
tional training  in  time  of  war  before  they  can  successfully  oppose 
troops  with  the  high  standard  of  training  and  discipline  that  is  given 
in  2  years  in  time  of  peace,  and  that  we  will  have  to  make  up  for  any 
deficiency  in  training  and  discipline  by  decided  superiority  in  nuni- 
bers. 

If  we  can  not  increase  the  period  of  training  for  the  National 
Guard  to  the  minimum  laid  down  as  essential  by  the  General  Staff, 
and  it  is  very  doubtful  if  we  will  be  able  to  do  so  and  keep  the  force 
recruited  to  the  maximum  authorized  by  Congress,  we  are  confronted 
by  a  serious  situation.  The  difficulty  that  is  being  now  experienced 
in  obtaining  recruits  for  the  Re^lar  Army  and  for  the  National 
Guard  in  service  on  the  border  and  at  their  mobilization  camps  raises 
sharply  the  question  of  whether  we  will  be  able  to  recruit  the  troops 
authorized  by  Congress  in  the  national-defense  act,  both  Regular 
Army  and  National  Guard. 

It  is,  in  my  judgment,  a  cause  for  very  sober  consideration  on  the 
part  of  every  citizen  of  the  country  when  the  fact  is  fully  understood 
that  the  units  of  the  National  Guard  and  the  Regular  Armj  have  not 
been  recruited  to  war  strength  in  the  crisis  which  we  have  just  passed 
through.  The  number  of  units  in  both  organizations  are  relatively 
small  and  the  total  number  of  men  needed  to  recruit  them  to  war 
strength  certainly  not  great — almost  negligible,  in  fact,  when  consid* 
ered  in  relation  to  the  total  male  population  in  the  United  States  of 
military  rige;  that  is,  men  between  18  and  45  years.  Many  of  the 
elements  which  favor  recruiting  under  a  volunteer  system  in  this 
country  existed  at  the  time  of  the  call  for  mobilization  ior  the  militia. 
Among  others  may  be  enumerated : 

a.  The  agitation  for  preparedness  that  has  swept  over  the  country, 
due  largely  to  the  lessons  of  the  European  war. 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  15^ 

b.  The  public  press  of  the  country  generally,  regardless  of 
partj^  had  given  liberal  space  in  the  news  and  editorial  columns  in 
favor  of  mifitary  preparation  for  months  previous  to  the  call. 

c.  Preparedness  parades  in  which  thousands  had  participated 
had  recently  been  held  in  many  of  the  principal  cities  of  the  country. 

d.  Congress  had  but  recently,  in  response  to  public  sentiment,, 
passed  a  new  national-defense  act,  which  will  ultimately  almost 
double  the  size  of  our  small  Eegular  Army  and  almost  quadruple  the 
size  of  the  Organized  Militia. 

e.  In  response  to  the  same  national  sentiment,  Confess  has  passed^ 
since  the  National  Guard  was  called  to  active  service,  a  naval  bill 
giving  the  largest  naval  increase  in  the  history  of  the  country. 

These  facts  are  mentioned  to  show  that  public  interest  in  the  Army 
and  Navy,  and  the  national  defense  generally,  had  been  aroused  to  a 
comparatively  high  degree;  yet,  in  what  is  c<msidered  by  the  Gov- 
ernment a  grave  emergency  the  National  Guard  is  mobilized  for 
service  on  the  southern  frontier  to  protect  the  lives  of  American  men, 
women,  and  children,  recruiting  is  found  so  difficult  that  many  of  its 
organizations  have  not  yet,  over  three  months  after  the  call,  been 
raised  to  even  minimum  peace  strength,  and  likewise  the  units  of  the 
Eegular  Army  have  not  been  recruited  to  the  minimum  peace 
strength  authorized  in  the  new  national-defense  act.  Anyone  at  all 
familiar  with  the  effort  made  and  now  being  made  to  recruit  the 
units  of  both  the  Begular  Army  and  the  Organized  Militia  will  un- 
derstand that  the  failure  to  obtain  recruits  is  not  due  to  defective 
methods  of  recruiting.  In  fact,  every  effort  has  been  made,  in  many 
cases  an  actual  house-to-house  canvass  being  undertaken  to  obtain  re- 
cruits for  the  militia.  It  can  be  stated,  I  think,  without  fear  of  con- 
tradiction, that  there  are  very  few  young  men  in  the  country  to-day 
who  do  not  know  that  there  is  a  demand  for  their  services  both  in 
the  Organized  Militia  now  on  the  border  or  shortly  to  go  there  and 
in  the  units  of  the  Begular  Army  now  on  the  border  or  in  Mexico. 

In  view  of  the  above  facts,  it  would  be,  indeed,  an  exceedingly 
shallow  thinker  who  could  attach  much  blame  to  the  personnel  of 
either  the  Regular  Army  or  the  Organized  Militia  for  failure  to 
recruit  to  war  strength.  The  failure  should  make  the  whole  people 
to  realize  that  the  volunteer  system  does  not  and  probably  will  not 
give  us  either  the  men  we  need  for  training  in  peace  or  for  service 
in  war. 

In  my  judgment,  the  country  will  never  be  prepared  for  defense 
until  we  do  as  other  great  nations  do  that  have  large  interests  to 
guard,  like  Germany,  Japan,  and  France,  where  everybody  is  ready 
and  does  perform  military  service  in  time  of  peace  as  he  would  pay 
every  other  tax  and  is  willing  to  make  sacrinces  for  the  protection 
he  gets  and  the  country  gets  in  return'.  The  volunteer  system  in  this 
country,  in  view  of  tne  highly  organized,  trained,  and  disciplined 
armies  that  our  possible  opponents  possess,  should  be  relegated  to  the 
past.  There  is  no  reason  why  one  woman's  son  should  go  out  and 
defend  or  be  trained  to  defend  another  woman  and  her  son  who 
refuses  to  take  training  or  give  service.  The  only  democratic  method 
is  for  every  man  in  his  youth  to  become  trained  in  order  that  he  may 
render  efficient  service  if  called  upon  in  war. 


162  BEPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

measure  to  a  realization  that  we  must  believe  in  ourselves,  and  as  the 
exponents  of  a  democracy  that  should  regenerate  the  political  systems 
of  the  world,  we  must  be  ready  to  hold  our  place  in  the  councils  of 
the  world,  and  to  do  this  we  must  be  physically  fit,  or  we  shall  be 
brushed  aside  by  the  vigorous  manhood  of  other  races  who  sacrifice 
self  that  the  nation  may  live. 

During  the  months  of  May  and  June  hundreds  of  thousands 
marched  in  so-called  preparedness  parades  to  the  plaudits  of  on- 
lookers. But  when  the  militia  was  called  out  in  June  to  protect 
our  border,  it  was  with  the  utmost  difficulty  that  its  units  were 
recruited  to  the  small  number  required,  and  some  were  never  filled. 
The  spirit  was  rife  to  let  somebody  else  do  it  Not  only  is  there 
evidence  of  the  volunteer  spirit  being  moribund,  but  the  States 
have  for  years  been  unable  to  make  an  efficient  showing  with  the 
militia,  even  with  the  generous  assistance  of  the  General  Govern- 
ment in  qualified  instructors  and  supplies.  It  would  seem  that  the 
self-reliance  of  the  individual,  like  that  of  the  States,  had  given  way 
to  dependence  upon  others.  The  fine  volunteer  spirit  of  the  Stat^ 
militia  was  injured  in  the  demand  for  Federal  pay  in  time  of  peace. 
It  sounded  the  knell  of  patriotic  military  training  for  individuals 
and  commercialized  the  highest  duty  that  a  State  can  demand  from 
its  people.  We  have  fallen  away  from  the  teaching  of  the  Fathers, 
for  there  is  no  longer  instilled  into  our  people  the  ftmdamental  doc- 
trine that  every  man  owes  a  military  as  well  as  a  civil  obligation  to 
his  Government. 

A  young  man  between  18  and  21  is  at  the  least  earning  capacity 
of  his  career.    It  is  a  time  of  anxiety  to  the  parent  and  uncer- 
tainty for  the  son.    During  these  years  few  settle  into  their  life's 
vocation.    They  are  an  expense  to  their  parents;   their  averaj 
earnings  will  not  pay  for  their  board  and  clothes.    They  can 
given  military  training  without  the  slightest  disruption  of  business. 
The  stabilizing  effect  of  military  discipline  and  intensive  training 
upon  such  young  men  would  be  or  utmost  value  in  forming  character 
and  thereb}^  a  foundation  for  their  life's  work.    The^  would  become 
an  asset  of  incalculable  value  to  the  nation,  not  only  m  time  of  emer- 
gency, but  in  the  recruitment  to  industrial  life  of  the  thousands  re- 
turned from  military  pursuits  improved  mentally,  morally,  and  physi- 
cally by  the  training.    The  hundreds  of  military  schools  in  the  coun- 
try are  evidence  of  the  faith  of  thousands  of  parents  that  their  boys 
are  better  fitted  for  the  responsibilities  of  life  by  the  elementary  dis- 
cipline and  drills  therein  received.    The  most  important  function  of 
our  regular  establishment  should  be  to  make  it  a  real  training  school 
for  our  young  men,  and  thereby  inspire  them  with  the  spirit  of  patri- 
otism and  sense  of  duty  and  responsibility  with  which  each  generation 
must  be  imbued  if  we  are  to  continue  our  high  mission  as  a  nation. 

I  shall  not  attempt  in  this  report  to  evolve  a  system  to  carry  out 
so  important  a  work.  It  is  believed  that  the  average  parent  would 
gladly  welcome  the  opportunity  for  military  training  for  their  boys 
between  the  ages  of  18  and  21.  As  the  training  would  be  educational, 
there  should  he  no  remuneration  for  service,  but  the  Government 
should  stand  all  the  expense. 

If  we  are  to  continue  to  compete  with  the  wage  of  labor  for  our 
soldiers  the  cost  will  be  enormous  if  we  are  to  get  the  men.  We  hi^ 
police,  we  hire  firemen,  but  there  is  a  repugnance  to  the  idea  that 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  163 

we  must  continue  to  commit  ourselves  to  no  military  resource  other 
than  that  of  hiring  citizens  to  accept  military  training  and  to  commit 
our  future  to  such  inadequate  defense. 

The  justice  of,  as  well  as  the  necessity  for,  universal  training  is  rec- 
ognized in  section  79  of  the  national  defense  act,  which  prescribes 
that  in  time  of  war^  "if  for  any  reason  there  shall  not  be  enough 
voluntary  enlistments  to  keep  the  reserve  battalions  at  the  prescribed 
strength^  a  sufficient  number  of  the  unorganized  militia  shall  be 
drafted  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  to  maintain  each  such 
battalion  at  the  proper  strength."  This  provision  is  intended  to  keep 
the  National  Guard  units  that  have  been  sent  into  the  field  at  war 
strength  and  is  one  of  the  best  provisions  regarding  the  National 
Guard  in  the  bill.  What  I  am  contending  for  is  that  the  principle 
recognized  as  applying  to  time  of  war  should  applv  equally  to  time 
of  peace,  so  that  all  oi  the  youth  of  the  country  who  are  physically 
qualified  for  military  service  should  be  given  thorough  military 
training  and  disciplme  under  competent  officers  and  noncommis- 
sioned officers,  so  that  on  the  outbreak  of  war  they  will  be  able  with- 
out much  additional  training  to  render  efficient  service.  To  send  men 
into  battle  who  have  not  been  given  this  thorough  training  and  disci- 
pline is  not  only  a  useless  waste  of  our  resources  in  men  but,  to  anyone 
who  understands  anjrthing  of  the  realities  of  modem  war,  convicts  the 
]{)eople  of  the  country  who  are  responsible  for  such  proceeding  of 
criminal  neglect. 

THE  NATIONAL  DEFENSE  ACT. 

In  general  terms  it  may  be  said  that  this  is  the  first  comprehensive 
legislation  for  national  defense.  It  provides  for  four  classes  of  sol- 
diers in  the  United  States:  First,  the  Regular  Army:  second,  the 
National  Guard ;  third,  the  enlisted  reserve  force,  all  or  which  shall 
exist  in  time  of  peace;  and,  fourth,  the  Volunteer  Army,  which  will  be 
raised  only  in  time  of  war.  The  peace  strength  of  the  Regular  Army 
in  1920  is  fixed  at  figures  previously  stated.  The  National  Guard 
should  consist  of  about  17,000  officers  and  440,000  men.  Volunteers 
can  be  called  in  time  of  war  in  such  numbers  as  Congress  shall 
authorize. 

The  increase  in  the  Regular  Army  is  to  be  made  in  five  annual 
increments,  beginning  July  1,  1916,  and  running  to  July  1,  1920, 
although  the  President  is  authorized  to  make  the  increase  more 
rapidly  in  case  of  emergency. 

The  organizations  provided  for  the  Re^lar  Army  will  be  divided 
into  two  classes — over-sea  and  home  garrisons.  The  composition  of 
each  of  the  garrisons  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  Hawaiian  Islands, 
Panama,  and  Alaska  will  be  as  stated  in  that  policy  report  and  the 
aggregate  will  be  about  three  Infantry  divisions.  This  will  leave  in 
the  United  States  four  Infantry  diviaons  and  two  Cavalry  divisions. 

Each  Infantry  division  will  consist  of  three  Infantry  brigades 
(nine  regiments),  one  regiment  of  Cavalry,  one  brigade  of  Field 
Artillery  (three  regiments),  one  regiment  of  Engineers,  one  Field 
Signal  battalion,  one  aero  squadron,  and  the  ammunition,  supply, 
engineer  and  sanitary  trains.  Each  Cavalry  division  will  consist  of 
three  Cavalry  brigades  (nine  regiments),  one  regiment  of  Horse 
Artillery,  one  battalion  of  Mounted  Engineers,  one  Field  Signal  bat- 


164  BBPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

talion,  one  aero  squadron,  and  ammunition,  supply,  en^neer,  and 
sanitary  trains.  Alter  deaucting  the  necessary  troops  for  the  over- 
sea garrisons,  the  troops  remaining  in  the  United  States  are  just 
sufficient  to  organize  the  divisions  mentioned,  giving  what  is  termed 
a  well-balanced  military  organization,  because  there  is  just  enough 
of  each  arm  to  make  a  good  fighting  machine,  and  there  are  no  extra 
organizations  left  over. 

The  number  of  general  officers  of  the  Army  has  been  increased  so 
as  to  provide  the  necessary  general  officers  to  command  the  divisions 
and  brigades  and  furnish  the  general  officers  of  the  General  Staff. 

The  Adjutant  General's  Department,  the  Inspector  General's  De- 
partment, the  Judge  Advocate  General's  Department,  the  Quarter- 
master Corps,  and  the  Medical  Department  have  all  been  materially 
increased  to  meet  the  increased  size  of  the  Be^lar  Armv. 

The  number  of  officers  in  the  Corps  of  Engineers  will  also  be  in- 
creased and  the  engineer  troops  for  mfantry  divisions  will  hereafter 
be  organized  into  regiments  instead  of  battalions  as  heretofore,  while 
the  mounted  engineer  troops  for  use  with  the  cavalry  divisions  will 
be  in  battalion  organizations. 

The  Ordnance  Department  and  the  Signal  Corps  both  received 
material  increases.  The  work  of  the  Ordnance  Department  in  the 
design  and  construction  of  new  armament  and  the  greatly  increased 
importance  of  aviation  work  necessitated  it. 

The  Medical  Department  was  increased  so  as  to  provide  7  officers 
and  50  enlisted  men  for  every  1,000  of  the  enlisted  strength  of  the 
Regular  Army  and  by  the  addition  thereto  of  a  new  corps  of 
veterinarians,  which  corps,  together  with  the  Dental  Corps,  have 
been  given  increased  rank,  with  the  accompanying  pay  and  allow- 
ances. 

The  organization  of  Infantry  and  Cavalry  regiments  has  been 
changed  by  the  introduction  of  three  new  companies,  i.  e.,  the  head- 
quarters, supply,  and  machine-gun  companies.  These  companies 
have  existed  as  provisional  experimental  organizations,  but  the  per- 
sonnel had  to  be  taken  from  other  companies  of  the  regiment  Each 
regiment  of  field  artillery  has  been  increased  by  a  headquarters  and 
a  supply  company.  The  organization  of  the  regimental  units  of  these 
three  arms  was  worked  out  with  ^eat  care  and  represents  the  very 
latest  improvements  known  to  military  experts. 

The  Coast  Artillery  has  been  increased  from  701  officers  and  19,321 
men  to  1,201  officers  and  29,469  enlisted  men,  exclusive  of  bands,  on 
July  1,  1920,  giving  that  corps  the  complement  that  it  requires  in 
regular  officers  and  men  for  the  harbor  defense  of  the  country.  The 
remaining  number  of  officers  and  men  will  be  supplied  from  the 
National  Guard. 

The  Porto  Rico  regiment  has  been  increased  from  two  battalions  to 
three  battalions,  and  will  be  organized  as  other  regiments  of  infantnir. 

Hereafter  officers  appointed  as  second  lieutenants  in  the  Armv  will 
be  ^ven  provisional  appointments  for  a  period  of  two  years,  (furing 
which  period  of  probation  they  must  demonstrate  their  abilitv  ana 
fitness.  All  new  officers  will  be  drawn  from  graduates  of  the  United 
States  Military  Academy,  from  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular  Army, 
from  members  of  the  OflScers'  Reserve  Corps,  or  the  National  Guard, 
or  from  honor  graduates  of  military  schools,  or,  lastly,  from  civil  life. 


BEPO&T  OF  THE  CHIEF   OF  STAFF.  165 

The  condition  of  retired  officers  is  improved,  in  that  the  time  which 
a  retired  officer  may  serve  on  active  dutv  brings  to  him  increased  pay 
and  rank  corresponding  to  his  period  of  active  service,  and  in  time  of 
war  retired  officers  may  be  used  as  the  President  shall  prescribe. 

To  provide  for  the  regular  officers  necessary  for  duty  with  the 
National  Guard,  duty  at  the  various  colleges  where  military  instruc- 
tion is  given,  for  recruiting  duty,  military  attaches,  etc.,  provision  is 
made  for  a  detached  officers'  list  which  provides  1,022  officers. 

Provision  has  been  made  for  the  retirement  of  officers  of  the  Phil- 
ippine Scouts. 

The  enlistment  contract  provides  for  three  ye«^rs  with  the  colors 
and  four  in  the  reserve,  but  an  important  addition  is  that  at  the  end 
of  one  year's  service  any  enlisted  man  within  the  continental  limits 
of  the  United  States  may  be  discharged  if  he  has  become  proficient , 
in  that  time.  Provision  is  made  for  paying  the  enlisted  men  in  the 
reserve  $24  a  year,  and  the  President  is  authorized  to  utilize  the  per- 
sonnel of  any  department  of  the  Government,  such  as  postmasters, 
mail  carriers,  etc.,  to  keep  track  of  reservists,  and  also  to  use  the 
postmasters  (except  first  class)  to  obtain  recruits  for  the  Army. 

Enlisted  men  are  prohibited  from  engaging  in  any  civil  occupa- 
tions, whether  for  pay  or  otherwise,  that  would  put  them  in  compe- 
tion  with  men  in  civil  life. 

An  officer's  reserve  corps  is  provided  which  authorizes  the  commis- 
sioning of  civilians  up  to  ana  including  the  grade  of  major  in  the 
various  branches  of  the  Army.  These  men  can  be  selected  and 
trained  in  time  of  peace,  and  the  officers  so  obtained  should  be  fairly 
prepared  for  their  duties.  In  order  to  assist  in  obtaining  these  re- 
serve  officers,  a  Reserve  Officers'  Training  Corps  is  authorized  which 
will  consist  of  units  at  the  various  colleges,  academies,  and  universi- 
ties throughout  the  country  where  military  education  and  training 
will  be  given  which  should  give  a  personnel  for  the  officers'  reserve 
corps  that  is  better  equipped  for  the  duties  of  an  officer  than  any 
heretofore  available. 

In  order  to  provide  the  enlisted  men  for  the  various  technical  staff 
corps  and  departments,  an  enlisted  reserve  corps  has  been  authorized 
which  will  consist  of  men  whose  daily  occupation  in  civil  life  spe- 
cially fits  them  for  duty  in  the  Engineer,  Signal,  and  Quartermaster 
Corps,  and  in  the  Ordnance  and  Medical  Departments.  This  enlisted 
reserve  corps  should  provide  the  railway  operatives,  bridge  builders, 
chauffeurs,  hospital  attendants,  nurses,  telegraphers,  etc.,  required 
for  the  departments  and  corps  mentioned.  It  is  impracticable  to 
keep  in  the  Regular  Army  the  number  of  men  of  these  classes  that 
will  be  necessary  in  time  of  war,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  enlisted 
reserve  corps  will  provide  the  deficiency. 

No  provision  is  made  for  a  volunteer  force  in  time  of  peace,  but 
in  place  thereof  the  ideas  heretofore  embodied  in  the  so-called  Dusi- 
ness  men's  camps  have  been  provided  for,  in  the  provisions  that  all 
expenses  in  connection  with  attendance  at  training  camps  shall  be 
borne  by  the  Federal  Government. 

The  National  Guard  is  within  the  limits  of  the  Constitution  fed* 
eralized.  The  maximum  number  authorized  is  800  for  each  Repre- 
sentative and  Senator  in  Congress,  and  such  number  from  the  Terri- 
tories as  the  President  shall  prescribe.  It  is  hoped  that  this  will 
give  a  total  of  about  17,000  officers  and  440,000  enlisted  men. 


166  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

The  President  is  authorized  to  organize  the  National  Guard  into 
brigades,  divisions,  and  other  tactical  uuits,  and  to  prescribe  the  kind 
of  oi^anizations  that  shall  be  maintained  in  the  various  States  to 
insure  that  these  brigades  and  divisions  will  be  complete  in  all  re- 
spects. Certain  qualifications  are  required  of  oflBcers  of  the  National 
Guard,  and  although  these  officers  will  be  commissioned  by  the  gov- 
ernors, they  can  not  be  recognized  by  the  Federal  Government  unless 
they  fulfill  the  prescribed  qualifications.  Regular  Army  officers  may 
be  commissioned  in  the  National  Guard  if  the  governors  so  desire. 
Enlistments  in  the  National  Guard  will  be  for  six  years,  three  years 
with  the  colors  and  three  years  with  the  reserves,  but  a  man  may 
serve  out  his  enlistment,  it  he  so  desires,  instead  of  going  into  the 
reserve.  Hereafter  the  enlistment  contract  for  the  National  Guard 
will  contain  an  oath  of  allegiance  both  to  the  United  States  and  to  the 
Btate,  and  not  only  enlisted  men  but  officers  must  subscribe  to  such 
an  oath.  The  President  is  not  only  authorized  to  call  out  the  Na- 
tional Guard  for  the  constitutional  purposes  but  is  also  authorized 
under  certain  conditions  to  draft  them  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States  whether  they  desire  to  come  or  not,  and  also  to  draft  the 
additional  men  that  may  be  needed  to  keep  such  National  Guard 
units  at  war  strength,  in  case  the  National  Guard  Reserve  is  not 
sufficient  for  that  purpose.  Provision  is  made  for  the  protection  of 
Federal  property  in  the  hands  of  the  National  Guard. 

Horses  can  be  supplied  to  the  mounted  organizations  of  the  Na- 
tional Guard,  and  provision  is  made  for  their  care  and  maintenance. 

The  National  Guard  will  be  required  to  have  48  periods  of  armory 
training  each  year  and  15  days'  field  training,  and  in  case  the  pre- 
scribed amount  of  training  is  not  undergone  the  President  may  with- 
hold the  funds  appropriated  for  the  National  Guard.  The  Secretary 
of  War  may  require  such  additional  study  on  the  part  of  the  officers 
as  he  deems  necessary.  During  periods  of  field  training  the  National 
Guard  will  be  paid  at  the  same  rate  as  the  Regular  Army,  and  for 
the  armory  training  a  generous  rate  of  pay  is  authorized.  National 
Guard  officers  and  men  may  be  sent  to  various  service  schools  and  will 
be  paid  during  such  periods.  The  National  Guard  will  be  subject 
to  tne  laws  and  regulations  governing  the  Arm.y  of  the  United  States 
from  the  time  that  they  are  recjuired  to  come  into  that  service,  and 
after  that  time  there  is  no  evadin/^  the  Federal  law.  A  uniform  sys- 
tem of  courts-martial  for  the  National  Guard  is  authorized,  the  limi- 
tations of  which  are  fixed  by  law.  When  the  National  Guard  is 
drafted  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  they  will  be  entitled 
to  all  the  rights  of  the  existing  pension  laws. 

To  encourage  target  practice  the  Secretary  of  War  is  authorized 
to  establish  ranges  and  to  supply  rifies,  ammunition,  and  instructors 
for  rifie  clubs  in  various  parts  of  the  country.  The  initial  step  in 
carrying  out  the  law  was  made  in  the  Army  appropriation  bill  for 
the  current  fiscal  year,  which  appropriated  $300,000  for  the  mainte- 
nance of  indoor  and  outdoor  rifie  ranges  for  the  use  of  all  able- 
bodicKl  males  capable  of  bearing  arms  under  reasonable  regulations 
to  be  prescribed  by  the  National  Board  for  the  Promotion  of  Rifle 
Practice,  and  provision  is  made  for  the  appointment  of  a  director 
of  civilian  marksmanship. 

The  President  is  authorized  in  time  of  war  to  exercise  a  sort  of 
eminent  domain  over  the  various  manufacturing  plants  in  the  country 


REPORT  OP  THE  CHIEF   OF  STAFF,  167 

and  Government  orders  are  given  right  of  way  over  all  private  orders. 
It  establishes  in  time  of  peace  a  board  of  mobilization  of  industries, 
which  is  authorized  to  investigate  all  privately  owned  plants  in  the 
country  suitable  for  the  manufacture  of  arms  and  ammunition,  and 
the  Ordnance  Department  is  authorized  to  prepare  in  time  of  peace 
the  necessary  tools  of  special  kinds  that  are  required  in  the  manu- 
facture of  arms,  ammunition,  etc. 

The  United  States  is  dependent  upon  Chile  as  a  source  of  supply 
for  nitrates  which  are  essential  to  the  manufacture  of  ammunition. 
The  President  is  authorized  to  investigate  the  best  means  for  the 
production  of  nitrates  and  to  establish  the  necessary  plants  to  manu- 
facture nitrates  for  the  Government's  use. 

The  uniform  of  the  United  States  Army,  Navy,  or  Marine  Corps 
is  given  protection  in  that  only  certain  authorized  individuals  and 
organizations  have  the  right  to  wear  the  uniform  or  any  uniform  so 
nearly  like  it  as  to  be  readily  mistaken  therefor. 

THE  GENERAL  STAFF  CORPS. 

Attention  is  invited  to  the  tendency  to  enact  laws  affecting  the 
personnel  of  the  Army  in  relation  to  its  stations  and  duties.  Fre- 
quently these  enactments  are  not  considered  at  the  hearings  or  de- 
bated on  the  floor  of  Congress,  nor  is  the  War  Department  given 
opportunity  to  show  how  the  military  service  will  be  affected  thereby, 
and  it  sometimes  happens  that  such  legislation  has  an  injurious  effect 
upon  the  service.  In  this  connection  attention  is  invited  to  the 
second  paragraph  of  section  5,  national  defense  act,  relating  to  the 
General  Staff  Corps.  The  formation  of  a  general  staff  had  its  incep- 
tion in  the  blunders  made  by  our  staff  departments  during  the  Spanish 
War,  and  it  was  to  form  a  supervising,  informing,  and  coordinating 
staff  department  of  the  War  Department.  It  was  carefully  con- 
sidered and  fuUy  debated  in  all  of  its  varied  aspects,  and  the  organic 
law  stated  fully  its  purpose.  The  number  of  officers  at  first  detailed 
for  the  Generid  Staff  was  fixed  at  45  as  the  proper  number  to  per- 
form this  new  but  most  important  and  varied  duty.  In  1912  the 
Greneral  Staff  was  reduced  by  one  general  officer  and  eight  captains. 
This  reduction  seriously  interfered  with  the  work  of  the  General 
Staff,  which  had  been  steadily  growing  in  importance,  as  officers 
grew  to  understand  its  important  functions. 

The  European  war  has  fully  demonstrated  to  the  world  the  im- 
portance of  a  general  staff  for  coordinating  in  time  of  peace  a  com- 
prehensive knowledge  of  the  resources  of  the  Nation — that  is,  its  war 
power — as  well  as  m  the  preparation  of  war  plans.  The  work  of 
preparing  the  Army,  the  National  Guard  and  volunteers  to  carry  out 
effectively  and  efficiently  these  plans  is  an  involved  and  complex 
study.  THie  collection  in  advance  of  all  the  information  necessary  for 
a  correct  understanding  of  every  problem  of  national  defense  is  an 
immense  work.  General  Staff  work  has  to  do  not  only  with  prepar- 
ing war  plans  but  consideration  of  every  policy  of  instruction,  equip- 
ment, and  supply,  so  as  to  obviate  waste  of  public  funds  and  secure 
the  best  possible  results.  .        -,  x-         j 

After  a  full  and  careful  consideration  of  its  various  duties  and  re- 
sponsibilities, the  General  Staff  recommended  94  officers  as  the  num- 


168  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF, 

ber  that  should  compose  that  body.  The  national-defense  act  was 
passed  by  the  Senate,  fixing  the  number  at  92.  But  as  this  measure 
came  from  conference  and  as  enacted  into  law  the  Oeneral  Staff,  aside 
from  its  general  officers,  was  increased  by  18  officers,  to  come  by  incre- 
ments for  the  next  five  years.  It  directed  not  more  than  one-half  of 
the  officers  detailed  in  said  corps  shall  at  any  time  be  stationed  or  as- 
signed to  or  employed  upon  any  duty  in  or  near  the  District  of  CJolum- 
bia,  and  directs  a  penalty  upon  an  officer  who  violates  this  or  any  other 
provisions  of  the  section.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  this  provision,  by  its 
reduction  of  the  available  officers  for  the  General  Staff  work  at  the 
War  College,  has  militated  seriously  against  the  work  of  preMrinjj 
the  coimtry  for  any  emergency  of  war.  The  law  limiting  the  JPresi- 
dent  in  the  number  of  General  Staff  officers  he  can  order  to  duty  in 
Washington  gives  us  fewer  officers  here  than  at  any  time  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  organization  and  at  the  most  important  time  of  our  mili- 
tary development.  Just  what  end  of  military  efficiency  it  was  pro- 
posed to  serve  thereby  it  is  impossible  to  conjecture.  In  the  interest 
of  progress  in  military  preparedness  it  is  recommended  that  all  the 
restriction  placed  in  the  national-defense  act  be  removed  and  the 
General  Staff  in  number  be  fixed  as  proposed  in  the  national-defense 
act  as  first  passed  by  the  Senate. 

DETACHED  SERVICE  LAW. 

Congress,  upon  its  own  initiative  and  without  the  recommendation 
of  the  War  Department,  in  the  appropriation  bill  for  the  Array, 
approved  August  24, 1912,  passed  a  law  which  required  that  commis- 
sioned officers  of  the  line  of  the  Army  below  the  rank  of  major  should 
not  be  detached  unless  they  have  been  actually  present  for  duty  for 
at  least  two  of  the  last  preceding  six  years  with  a  troop^  battery,  or 
company  of  that  branch  of  the  Army  in  which  the  omcer  is  com- 
missioned. 

Legislation  extending  the  provisions  of  the  detached-service  law 
for  field  officers  was  included  in  the  Array  appropriation  bill  ap- 
proved April  27,  1915.  The  laws  on  the  subject  are  raost  stringent, 
and  have  been  very  rigidly  construed  by  the  departraent.  The  law 
was  intended  to  remedy  by  legislation  the  keeping  of  certain  officers 
too  long  from  duty  with  troops.  Officers  who  were  selected  for  de- 
tached service  were  frequently  kept  on  such  duty  for  unduly  long 
periods.  Having  laid  down  a  principle  and  a  general  rule  for  the 
service,  with  a  penalty  to  enforce  its  operation,  Congress  made  ex- 
ceptions by  excluding  their  application  to  the  Ordnance  Departraent; 
for  officers  below  the  grade  of  major  detailed  for  aviation  duty ;  for 
aU  officers  detailed  for  duty  in  connection  with  the  construction  of 
the  Panama  Canal  until  alter  it  shall  have  been  formally  opened ; 
for  those  detailed  in  connection  with  the  Alaskan  Eoad  Comraission, 
the  Alaska  Railroad,  Bureau  of  Insular  Affairs;  oerraits  the  re- 
detail  of  officers  above  the  grade  of  major  in  the  iStaff  Corps  and 
departments.  The  excepting  of  certain  officers  from  the  restrictions 
of  the  law  has  been  largely  personal  legislation,  without  any  special 
benefit  to  the  service.  It  has,  in  fact,  created  a  distinction  in  de- 
tached service  which  has  not  made  a  favorable  impression  in  the 
service  generally.    The  detached-service  law  has  been  in  effect  now 


BEPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  169 

for  four  jrears,  which  has  given  time  to  consider  its  results.  In  so  far 
as  it  requires  service  with  troops,  the  effect  has  be(m  good,  although  it 
has  increased  ffreatly  the  expense  of  administration  with  the  frequent 
chan^  of  officers  to  meet  its  strin^nt  requirements.  It  likewise 
occasions  undue  expense  to  the  individual,  especially  so  if  the  officer 
has  a  family  to  take  with  him ;  and  the  majority  of  our  young  officers 
are  married  men,  with  the  responsibility  of  growing  children.  The 
provisions  of  the  national-defense  act,  constituting  the  detached 
officers'  list  of  1,022  officers,  will  enormously  increase  this  expense  to 
the  Government  and  to  the  individual  on  account  of  the  greater  num- 
ber of  officers  affected,  for  the  time  available  for  detached  service 
will  be  materially  shortened. 

The  War  Department  is  thoroughly  imbued  with  the  spirit  of  the 
laws  on  this  subject.  I  believe  it  would  promote  very  greatly  the 
efficiency  of  the  service,  and  at  the  same  time  make  a  material  re- 
duction in  the  cost  of  the  militarj^  establishment,  if  these  laws  were 
now  rescinded  and  the  matter  simplified  by  a  law  which  would 
authorize  an  officer  entering  upon  a  detail  to  serve  out  the  four  years 
of  the  detail  and  then  require  him  to  serve  two  years  with  troops 
before  he  becomes  eligible  for  another  detail.  A  law  to  this  effect, 
bearing  equally  upon  all  departments  and  upon  all  officers  below  the 
grade  of  general  officer,  would  materially  enhance  the  efficiency  of 
the  service  and  the  satisfaction  of  the  personnel. 

It  is  believed  that  some  such  measure  will  not  only  relieve  the  de- 
partment of  much  embarrassment  but  will  give  the  permanency  to 
detached  details  necessary  for  efficiency,  with  the  proper  safeguards 
to  insure  against  abuse,  and  at  the  same  time  reduce  the  cost  of  de- 
tached service  by  approximately  50  per  cent. 

THE  PERMANENT  STAFF  00RP8. 

Our  experience  in  the  War  with  Spain  brought  the  War  Depart- 
ment face  to  face  with  the  fact  that  few  officers  of  the  regular  service 
had  knowledge  of  the  problems  of  subsistence,  clothing,  equipment, 
transportation,  sanitation,  the  vast  and  complicated  business  of  sup- 
plying and  transporting  an  arm^,  caring  for  the  health  and  strength 
of  the  men — matters  which  reauire  previous  training  and  experience. 
The  policy  had  been  foUowea  that  the  country  relied  for  its  main 
stren^h  upon  volunteers  who,  when  called  into  the  service,  brought 
but  little  of  the  knowledge  and  experience  necessary  to  these  im- 
portant functions.  So,  having  in  view  the  sp.x:ial  duties  to  be  per- 
formed by  regular  oP^cers,  not  only  in  connection  with  their  own 
affairs  but  with  the  militia  and  volunteers,  the  then  Secretary  of  War 
(Mr.  Root)  urgently  recommended  the  substitution  of  a  system  of 
details  from  the  line  in  place  of  the,  at  that  time,  permanent  staff 
and  supply  departments  so  as  to  provide  for  the  training  of  as  many 
officers  as  possible  in  the  variety  of  experience  which  would  fit  them 
for  the  duties  of  the  staff  and  the  combined  service  of  regulars, 
militia,  and  volunteers. 

In  accordance  with  these  recommendations  the  act  to  increase  the 
efficiency  of  the  permanent  military  establishment  of  the  United 
States,  approved  February  2, 1901,  provided  for  the  details  from  the 


170  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

line  of  the  Army  to  be  made  in  the  staff  departments  and  corps  of 
the  War  Department  and  no  more  permanent  appointments  to  be 
made  in  those  departments.  Some  changes  have  since  been  made  so 
as  to  provide  examinations  and  give  officers  advanced  rank  for  de- 
tail in  the  Ordnance  Department,  but  details  continue  to  be  made  as 
grovided  by  the  original  law  in  the  Adjutant  General's,  Inspector 
[eneral's,  and  Quartermaster  General's  Departments  and  the  Signal 
Corps  except  for  the  Aviation  Section.  The  workings  of  the  law 
have  pro vedr  satisfactory  in  every  respect.  But  as  the  number  of 
permanent  staff  officers  is  steadily  decreasing  and  as  the  law  provides 
that  the  heads  of  these  corps  must  be  selected  from  the  permanent 
officers  as  long  as  any  such  remain  a  condition  will  soon  arise  when 
selections  must  be  made  from  a  small  number  and  thus  limit  the 
ranee  of  selection.     - 

Chiefs  of  bureau  can  not  be  removed  by  a  Secretary  of  War,  whereas 
in  the  interest  of  efficient  military  administration  they  should  be  as 
easily  removed  as  is  a  chief  of  staff.  The  association  of  the  perma- 
nent officei*s  of  the  staff  corps  with  the  line  is,  in  most  cases,  limited  to 
inspections,  reading  of  reports,  etc.,  whereas  every  officer  of  the  per- 
manent staff  should  be  in  close  touch  with  the  sentiments  and  needs 
of  the  line.  There  would  result  better  cooperation  and  increased 
efficiency. 

I  am  of  opinion  that  all  the  officers  of  the  staff  corps,  excepting 
judge  advocates,  engineers,  medical  officers,  and  chaplains,  should  be 
transferred  to  the  line.  A  number  of  officers  equal  to  those  trans- 
ferred would  have  to  be  detailed  to  perform  staff  duties.  But  the 
total  number  of  officers  of  the  Army  would  not  be  increased  and  all 
officers  would  belong  to  a  common  body  and  the  struggle  between  the 
line  and  staff  brought  to  an  end.  Thereafter  an  officer  detailed  as 
chief  of  a  bureau  or  corps  of  the  War  Department  should  be  detailed 
for  four  years,  unless  sooner  relieved,  and  upon  being  relieved  would 
return  to  that  grade  and  branch  in  which  commissioned  and  be  not 
eligible  to  redetail  except  in  time  of  war  or  other  national  emergency 
until  he  shall  have  served  therewith  for  two  years.  The  law  that 
applies  to  the  Chief  of  Staff  should  apply  to  the  chief  of  every  bureau 
and  corps  of  the  War  Department,  with  above  exceptions  only. 

RESERVE  officers'  TRAINING  CORPS. 

The  national  defense  act  authorizes  the  establishment  and  main- 
tenance at  civil  educational  institutions  of  a  Reserve  Officers'  Train- 
ing Corps.  The  system  contemplates  utilizing  to  their  fullest  extent 
the  facilities  of  public  and  private  educational  institutions  of  all 
types  at  which  officers  of  the  Arm^  are  or  may  be  detailed  as  pro- 
ressors  of  military  science  and  tactics. 

In  1915  5,200  students  who  had  completed  courses  of  military 
training  under  the  supervision  of  officers  graduate  from  the  college 
tjrpe  of  institution  in  the  United  States,  and  the  total  number  of  stu- 
dents who  received  military  instruction  that  year  under  officers  of 
the  Army  in  the  schools  and  colleges  of  all  types  was  32,000.  There 
are  567  colleges  in  this  country,  with  an  enrollment  of  170,000  male 
student&    If  all  these  institutions  comply  with  the  provision  author- 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  171 

izing  the  Reserve  Officers'  Training  Corps,  there  will  annually  gradu- 
ate a  large  number  of  men  trained  for  reserve  commissions.  The  en- 
thusiastic approval  accorded  this  provision  by  educators  warrants 
the  prediction  that  a  large  number  of  our  colleges  which  now  afford 
no  military  training  to  the  student  will  apply  to  participate  in  its 
provisions.  The  total  cost  to  the  United  States  of  the  military  train- 
mg  of  a  reserve  officer  should  not  be  over  $1,000  per  man.  This 
includes  service  of  training  in  the  Regular  Army  subsequent  to 
^aduation  for  at  least  six  months.  There  was  some  delay  in  receiv- 
mg  from  the  printing  office  the  regulations  for  the  Reserve  Officers' 
Training  Corps,  but  these  are  now  in  the  hands  of  all  educational 
institutions  interested. 

PLAN  FOR  MHJTARY  TRAINING  IN  PUBLIC  SCHOOLS  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

In  paragraph  6,  "  Statement  of  a  Proper  Military  Policy  for  the 
United  States,"  '^  was  shown  that  our  military  system  should  be  able 
to  furnish  at  tne  outbreak  of  war  600,000  trained  and  organized 
mobile  troops,  and  to  have  available  not  less  than  500,000  more  90 
days  thereafter.  In  addition,  to  supply  losses  and  wastage  in  war, 
it  was  considered  that,  after  the  outbreak  of  hostilities,  the  system 
should  provide  a  plan  for  raising  and  training  500,000  more. 

To  prepare  for  this  task  requires  us  to  use  every  available  means 
of  educatmg  the  young  as  to  their  future  duties  as  citizens. 

If  our  democracy  is  to  endure  it  must  "  recognize  as  its  primary 
standard  of  duty  the  obligation  of  the  individual  man  and  woman 
to  sacrifice  themselves  for  the  whole  community  in  time  of  need." 

The  necessary  elementary  instruction  that  every  young  American 
should  have  in  order  to  be  prepared  when  the  time  comes  to  play 
his  part  in  the  national  defense  can  be  partially  given  in  the  public 
schools.  Moreover,  this  can  be  done  m  such  a  way  as  to  enlist 
parental  approval,  because  of  the  manifest  improvement  of  the 
scholars  in  physique,  deportment,  and  obedience  to  authority  at  home 
as  well  as  at  school. 

The  object  of  the  prescribed  course  of  instruction  is  to  inculcate 
high  ideals  and  correct  views  on  the  duties  of  the  citizen  to  the  State. 
The  training  ^ven  is  along  military  lines,  but  is  so  conducted  as  to 
encourage  initiative  and  individuality,  to  correct  defects  and  develop 
natural  gifts,  and  to  teach  self-control  by  showing  the  value  of  obe- 
dience to  superior  authority.  The  old  method  of  "breaking  the  will '* 
by  insisting  on  blind,  unreasoning  obedience  to  arbitrary  rules  is 
replaced  by  one  showing  how  to  use  the  individual  will  in  attaining 
the  concerted  effort  known  as  "teamwork,"  which  is  the  secret  ot 
efficiency,  and  which  is  dependent  upon  a  conscious  and  willing  obe- 
dience to  a  superior  directing  authority.  Those  who  learn  how  to 
obey  fit  themselves  to  direct  and  bj  practicing  self-control  become 
imbued  with  the  fundamental  principle  underlying  good  citizenship. 
This  is  not  a  theoretical  scheme.  It  is  a  practical  system  carefully 
worked  out  by  Capt.  E.  Z.  Steever,  United  States  Army,  and  appliea 
with  marked  success  in  the  public  hi^h  schools  of  the  State  of  Wyo- 
ming. It  has  been  designated  the  "  Wyoming  plan,"  and  its  dis- 
tinctive features  are  outfined  in  what  follows. 


172  BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  8TAFF. 

The  Wyoming  plan. 

The  Wyoming  school  authorities  hold : 

1.  That  good  citizenship  involves  a  willingness  on  the  part  of 
each  able-bodied  youth  to  make  such  effort  and  sacrifice  as  will  pre- 
pare him  for  his  obligations  and  duties  as  a  citizen. 

2.  That  this  preparation  embraces  the  following:  (a)  Military 
preparation;  (6)  Moral  preparation;  {c)  Civic  preparation;  {d) 
Business  preparation;  and  {e)  Educational  preparation. 

(a)  Military  T^eparation. — It  is  unsound  to  assimie  that  any  sys- 
tem of  training  its  adolescent  youth  will  remove  from  the  nation  the 
further  responsibility  of  training  its  manhood. 

Trained  youth  can  not  take  the  place  of  trained  manhood.  Youths 
make  imitation,  but  not  real,  soldiers. 

A  thorough  preliminary  military  training  of  its  adolescent  youth 
has  been  recognized  in  primitive  as  well  as  modern  civilizations  as 
the  first  step  in  the  greater  training  of  the  tribe  or  nation. 

With  the  civilized  as  with  the  primitive  youth  the  "  game  "  is  the 
medium  of  all  successful  training.  "  Competition  "  is  to  youth  what 
"  security  "  is  to  old  age. 

According  to  the  Wyoming  plan  all  cadets  are  organized  into  com- 
petition units. 

Leaders  take  "turnabouts"  choosing  the  members  of  their  units^ 
so  that  each  unit  (squad,  platoon,  or  company)  is  made  up  of  an 
equal  number  of  strong,  medium,  and  weak  lads. 

After  final  choosing-up  these  units  are  fixed  and  can  not  be  added 
to  nor  subtracted  from. 

All  the  work  is  done  by  competition  units. 

There  are:  Wall-scaling  units,  infantry-drill  units,  troop-leader- 
ship units,  scholarship  units,  field-firing  units,  camp  and  field  units. 

Sponsors  are  elected  from  the  girls  in  the  mixed  school  and 
assigned  to  the  competition  units.  The  sponsors  are  in  every  sense 
members  of  the  cadet  organization.  They  attend  all  drills,  are  the 
leaders  in  all  social  functions,  and  while  they  do  not  actually  drill 
the  sponsors  are  entitled  to  and  receive  such  individual  rewards  as 
may  be  won  by  their  units. 

Medals,  ribbons,  and  distinctive  marks  on  the  uniform  are  given 
each  member  of  a  winning  unit,  the  sponsor,  of  course,  included. 

Each  cadet  organization  is  based  on  the  voluntary  enlistment  plan. 
The  cadet  classes  are  held  ffenerall]^  during  and  not  after  school 
hours,  and  credit  toward  graduation  is  awarded  therefor. 

Cadet  tournaments  are  held  during  the  school  year  between  the 
different  high  schools,  to  which  the  public  is  invited,  and  at  which 
are  held  infantry-drill,  wall-scaling,  field-firing,  and  camp  and  field, 
and  troop-leadership  competition  "games." 

From  the  Wyoming  experience  is  deduced  the  following  system  of 
training  adapted  to  the  adolescent  American  youth.  Local  conditions 
will  necessarily  modify  the  application  of  this  system,  but  the  general 
principles  on  which  it  is  basea  will  obtain  in  any  part  of  the  united 
States,  and  will  permit  the  evolution  of  a  practical  course  suited 
to  local  conditions: 


BKPORT  OF  THE  GHIES  OF  STAFF.  173 

^  1.  Cut  the  school  year  into  separate,  short,  intensive  training  pe- 
riods, working  up  through  preliminary  to  final  competition  £ttes, 
with  the  fixed  competition  units. 

2.  September  1  to  December  31,  wall-scaling  and  calisthenic 
events ;  minimum  of  drill,  maximiun  of  body  building. 

3.  January  1  to  February  28,  troop-leadership  competitions,  12- 
inch  Grettydburg  war-game  map.  Include  military  policy  of  the 
United  States. 

4.  January  1  to  February  28,  minimum  of  drill,  maximum  of  gal- 
lery practice,  group  competitions. 

^  5.  March  1  to  May  7,  minimimi  of  drill,  maximimi  of  range  prac- 
tice, and  field-firing  competition. 

6.  May  8  to  June  15,  minimum  of  drill,  maximum  of  camp  and 
field  pr<H)lems,  competitive  between  high  schools. 

7.  All  through  school  year,  commencing  in  the  spring  and  nmning 
through  the  following  fall  and  winter,  take  boys  into  camp  each 
week-^id  and  harden  them  to  the  rigors  of  camp  life.  Teach  them 
sanitation,  cooking,  woodcraft,  simple  field  engineering,  plains  craft, 
castrametation.  sketching,  scouting,  patrolling,  the  service  of  se- 
curity and  iniormation,  and  qualifv  them  as  guides  in  their  own 
immediate  surroundmg  territory. 

8.  Summer  camp  inimediately  after  closing  of  school.  14  days. 
The  organization  that  puts  into  effect  the  "game''  idea  differs 

fundamentally  from  the  modem  American  athletic  system.  The 
•cadet  leaders  choose  up  each  in  turn  so  that  each  fixed  competition 
unit  represents  a  certain  proportion  of  strong,  of  medium,  and  of 
weak  lads. 

In  football  and  basket  ball  and  track  events,  only  the  few  physi- 
cdLly  fit  take  part.  In  this  system  each  squad  represents  an  average 
and  every  boy  takes  part.  There  is  as  much  "  in  it "  for  the  weak  as 
for  the  strong,  and  the  survival  of  the  fittest  units,  whether  they  be 
squads,  platoons,  or  companies,  gives  the  competition  spirit. 

(6)  Moral  preparation, — ^A  nation  stands  or  falls,  succeeds  or 
fails,  just  in  proportion  to  the  high-mindedness,  cleanliness,  and 
manliness  of  each  suceeding  generation  of  men. 

In  the  Wyoming  system  the  fundamental  factor  is  the  competition 
between  equally  balanced  units.  The  individuals  are  forced  by  pub- 
lic opinion  amongst  their  fellows  to  go  into  training,  and  this  training 
means  clean,  moral  youths.  It  is  shown  conclusively  in  the  various 
competition  that  clean  men  morally  are  the  surest  kind  of  winners. 
Smoking  and  inunoral  practices  must  go.  Under  the  fiercest  kind  of 
competition^  and  a  new  and  fascinating  interest  in  life,  the  adoles- 
cent youth  is  better  enabled  to  negotiate  that  difficult  period  of  life. 

(c)  Civic  preparation. — It  is  almost  a  fundamental  principle  of 
correct  military  organization  that  the  leader  should  not  be  voted 
for.  The  Wyoming  system  is  not  intended  to  make  soldiers.  The 
Wyoming  schoolmasters  are  of  the  opinion  that  soldiers  can  only 
be  made  from  mature  manhood,  and  that  the  preparation  of  the 
adolescent  youth  should  be  such  that  when  he  reaches  manhood  he 
majr  then  l>e  made  into  the  highest  type  of  soldier.  Hence  the  ob- 
jection to  voting  for  leaders  does  not  obtain  in  the  cadet  organization, 
whereas  the  objection  is  perfectly  valid  in  a  military  organization. 


174  KEPOKT  OP»THB  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

The  cadet  leaders  are  chosen  at  the  beginning  of  each  year  by 
vote  of  the  older  cadets.  The  leaders  are  selected  on  merit,  very 
much  as  the  captain  of  the  football  team  is  selected  for  his  merit. 
It  has  been  noticeable  that  on  the  first  organization  boy  politics  elect 
a  certain  percentage  of  popular  but  inefficient  leaders,  whose  very 
inefficiency  is  later  a  terrible  punishment  to  the  members  of  their 
own  units.  The  stress  of  competition  soon  brings  out  the  real  lead- 
ers. The  cadets  never  repeat  their  mistake.  After  the  first  election 
they  take  steps  to  insure  a  very  wise  and  careful  selection  of  leaders. 

This  civic  lesson  can  not  be  wholly  lost  to  them  in  years  to  come, 
when  they  are  called  upon  as  citizens  to  elect  the  leaders  of  their  city, 
county,  State,  and  National  Governments. 

(d)  Business  preparation. — Teamwork  and  efficiency  are  prime 
reouisites  in  the  business  life  of  to-day. 

The  soldier  game  can  be  made  the  keenest,  as  well  as  the  most 
fascinating,  of  all  games,  and  efficiency  is  a  necessity  if  a  competition 
unit  is  to  win.  Not  only  must  each  man  be  worked  to  the  limit  of  his 
capacity,  but  each  competition  unit  leader  must  analyze  his  men  and 
fit  each  to  his  proper  place.  The  leaders  are  always  leading  and 
learning  efficiency. 

There  is  every  reason  why  the  "  Wyoming  plan  "  should  be  taken 
up  by  every  high  school  in  the  country. 

TRAINING  CAMPS. 

Over  three  years  ago  Maj.  Gen.  Leonard  Wood,  then  Chief  of 
Staff,  put  in  operation  the  plan  of  camps  of  instruction  for  regular 
troops  at  which  students  were  permitted  to  attend  for  training  with- 
out cost  to  the  United  States.  This  plan  was  later  enlarged  by  per- 
mitting the  attendance  of  business  men  at  certain  of  these  camps. 
The  plan  has  been  most  successful  as  carried  on  in  the  Eastern  De- 
partment, now  commanded  by  Gen.  Wood,  with  a  minimum  of  troops 
and  few  officers  to  call  upon  for  this  additional  instruction.  Camps 
have  been  maintained  in  the  Eastern  Department  as  follows: 

Plattshurg. — Five  camps  were  held  in  sequence  beginning  Jime 
5  and  ending  October  5. 

Oglethorpe, — ^Two  camps  were  held  beginning  May  3  and  ending 
June  30. 

Fort  Terry^  N.  Y. — One  camp  was  held  beginning  July  5  and 
ending  August  10. 

Fort  Wadstcorth^  N.  Y. — Six  camps  of  two  weeks'  duration  each 
were  held  beginning  May  28. 

There  was  a  total  attendance  at  the  various  camps  of  12,200  men 
and  boys,  who  came  from  all  parts  of  the  country. 

In  reporting  upon  these  camps.  Gen.  Wood  says: 

The  training  at  these  camps  is  intensive;  the  work  is  hard;  the  food  good; 
the  hours  regular ;  the  discipline  extraordinarily  good — ^there  were  practically 
no  infractions  of  discipline.  The  general  tone  of  the  camp  is  excellent  It  is 
difficult  for  one  to  appreciate  how  absolute  the  discipline  is  unless  one  has 
served  in  camp. 

FoUowingthe  Plattsburg  plan,  camps  were  also  established  this 
year  in  the  Western  Department  at  the  Presidio  of  San  Francisco- 
two  camps — and  one  at  American  Lake,  Wash.,  with  a  total  attend- 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  175 

ance  of  357  students  and  business  men.  A  satisfactory  camp  was 
also  held  at  San  Antonio,  Tex,  in  the  Southern  Department.  The 
plan  has  now  received  official  recognition  from  Congress,  and  ma- 
terially increased  attendance  should  ensue  at  the  camps  to  be  held 
next  year.  Congress  has  appropriated  money  for  transportation  to 
and  from  training  camps  and  tor  subsistence  in  kind  while  at  the 
camps.  Appropnation  ^ould  be  made  for  the  issue  of  a  proper 
uniform  while  m  camp  with  the  privilege  of  purchase  or  of  tummg 
it  back  at  the  expiration  of  the  training  period. 

RECRUrriNG  REGUIiAR  ARMY. 

Between  March  15,  1916  (the  date  active  recruiting  began  to  meet 
the  increase  in  the  Army  authorized  by  the  joint  resolution  of  Mar. 
17),  and  August  31, 1916,  the  losses  and  enlistments  were  as  follows: 

Enlistments.         Losses. 

March  15  to  31 1. 635  1. 079 

April ^ 2, 873  2, 136 

May 2, 275  2, 022 

June 3, 343  1. 4»5 

July ^ 4. 354  1, 105 

August 3, 054  1.  234 

Total - 17, 534  9, 071 

This  represents  a  gain  of  8,463  during  the  period  mentioned. 

On  June  30, 1916,  the  close  of  the  fiscalyear,  there  was  a  difference 
of  20,292  between  the  actual  and  authorized  strengths  of  the  Regular 
Army,  and  the  increase  authorized  for  the  fiscal  year  beginning 
July  1,  1916,  exceeded  that  authorized  by  the  joint  resolution  of 
March  17  by  13,909,  making  a  total  difference  oetween  the  actual 
and  authorized  strength  on  July  1,  1916,  of  approximately  34,200: 
Between  June  30  and  August  31  the  enlistments  exceeded  the  losses 
by  5,069,  leaving  a  difference  on  August  31  of  29,130  between  the 
actual  and  authorized  strengths. 

CAVALRY. 

All  regiments  of  Cavalry  having  permanent  stations  in  the  United 
States,  excepting  the  Second,  located  at  Fort  Ethan  Allen,  Fort  Myer, 
and  Fort  Oglethorpe,  have  been  engaged  in  arduous  patrol  duty 
along  the  southern  border  or  with  the  expeditionary  force  now  in 
Mexico.  The  sections  of  the  national  defense  act,  which  provide  for 
the  composition  of  the  various  units  of  the  several  arms,  followed 
the  recommendations  of  the  General  Staff,  except  in  so  far  as  these 
sections  provide  a  minimum  strength  for  these  units.  The  enlisted 
strength  of  the  Army  under  this  act  is  limited  to  175,000  combatant 
troops  after  all  increments  are  added.  In  fixing  the  authorized  en- 
listed strength  of  the  Army  to  include  the  first  increment,  it  was 
decided,  until  all  organizations  have  minimum  peace  strength,  there 
would  be  no  increase  for  any  unit  in  excess  of  the  minimum  pre- 
scribed in  the  national  defense  act,  and  no  unit  of  any  branch  of 
the  Army  would  be  increased  above  this  minimum  at  the  expense 
of  any  other  branch.    The  enlisted  strength  of  Cavalry  units  and 


176  BKPOBT  OF  THE  OHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

<especiallv  the  Cavalry  troop  in  the  squadron  is  now  less  than  that 
n^ded  for  proper  efficiency.  This  can  only  be  properly  remedied 
by  legislation,  which  is  recommended  to  provide  but  one  enlisted 
strength,  the  maximum,  at  all  times  for  all  Cavalry  imits.  The  over- 
head charges  for  a  Cavalrv  troop  of  70  enlisted  men  are  practically 
the  same  as  for  a  troop  oi  105,  lx)th  requiring  the  same  number  of 
officers  and  practically  the  same  noncommissioned  officers  and  bar- 
rack accommodation.  Some  provision  should  also  be  made  for  a 
training  and  remount  troop  in  time  of  active  service.  This  can  be 
done  by  adding  a  training  detachment  to  the  headquarters  troop 
as  now  authorized  and  organizing  the  training  and  remount  troop 
only  in  time  of  actual  field  service  by  assigning  thereto  the  training 
detachment  from  the  headquarters  troop  and  such  officers  and  enlisted 
men  for  other  troops  as  necessary  to  conduct  the  work.  In  main- 
taining Cavalry  organizations  on  the  border  it  has  recently  been  nec- 
essary to  send  both  untrained  men  and  untrained  horses  directly  to 
regiments  neither  at  all  fit  for  the  hard  work  required.  This  has 
been  necessary  on  account  of  the  reduced  strength  of  these  organiza- 
tions at  the  front.  No  trained  material  being  available,  it  was  neces- 
sary to  fill  up  the  organizations  with  the  best  obtainable.  Such  a 
pohcy  is,  however,  a-  makeshift  both  expensive  and  extremely  unsat- 
isfactory in  its  results. 

Cavalry'  equipment. — ^The  model  1912  Cavalry  equipment  was 
issued  by  the  Ordnance  Department  to  the  entire  First  Cavalry  and 
to  one  squadron  each  of  the  Third,  Fifth,  Eleventh,  Thirteenth, 
Fourteenth,  and  Fifteenth  (transferred  by  the  latter  to  the  Eighth 
Cavalry).  Owing  to  the  many  complaints  received  from  regimental 
and  otner  conunanders  with  reference  to  the  unsuitability  of  various 

fortions  of  this  equipment,  a  board  of  officers  was  convened  at  Rock 
sland  Arsenal  (under  the  provisions  of  par.  44,  Special  Orders  No. 
211,  War  Department,  1915)  for  the  purpose  of  examining  and  re- 

?orting  on  the  relative  merits  of  certain  military  saddles  for  the 
Javalry  service,  as  well  as  of  considering  reports  submitted  with  ref- 
erence to  the  Cavalry  equipment,  model  of  1912,  and  suggested 
changes  therein.  The  final  reconmiendations  of  this  board  have  not 
as  yet)  been  submitted,  and  when  received  will  require  some  months 
or  a  thorough  tryout  before  final  action.  In  the  meantime,  the  manu- 
facture and  issue  of  the  Cavalry  equipment,  model  of  1912,  has  been 
ordered  discontinued.  In  April  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  reported  the 
supply  of  Cavalry  equipment  available  for  issue,  including  both  the 
model  1912  and  earlier  models,  as  rapidly  reaching  a  point  where  it 
would  be  impossible  to  meet  requests  for  the  ordinary  maintenance  in 
the  service,  and  that  it  was  imperative  that  the  manufacture  of  a 
limited  amoimt  of  Cavalry  equipment  be  imdertaken  at  once.  The 
reports  received  from  commanders  having  the  model  1912  equipment 
emphasized  such  serious  defects  in  the  enlisted  men^s  saddle  as  to 
make  it  clearly  inadvisable  to  continue  the  manufacture  of  that  equip- 
ment unless  tne  Cavalry  Equipment  Board  at  Rock  Island  Arsenal 
could  find  a  remedy  for  the  defects  reported.  This  board  was  accord- 
ingly instructed  to  continue  the  tests  of  this  equipment  and  submit 
report  as  soon  as  practicable.  Reports  received  from  organization 
commanders  on  the  border  clearly  mdicated  that  the  McClellan  sad- 


i 


BEPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  177 

die  was  better  adapted  for  field  service  than  the  1912  model.  This 
question  was  also  submitted  to  the  Cavalry  Equipment  Board  at 
Rock  Island  Arsenal,  which  recommended  the  issue  of  the  McClellan 
equipment,  the  Ordnance  Department  having  all  appliances  on  hand 
for  that  purpose.  After  due  consideration  this  recommendation  was 
approved  and  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  was  instructed  to  renew  the 
manufacture  of  the  McClellan  equipment  in  such  quantities  as  neces- 
sary to  meet  current  and  reserve  needs  until  otherwise  ordered. 

Cavalry  Drill  and  Service  Regulations, — The  revision  and  bring- 
ing up  to  date  of  the  Cavalry  Drill  and  Service  Regulations  by  the 
board  of  officers  convened  by  paragraph  29,  Special  Orders  No.  210, 
War  Department,  1915,  has  been  completed,  and  it  is  hoped  to  have 
these  regulations  very  shortly  issued  to  the  service.  The  1914  regu- 
lations requiring  double  rank  as  the  normal  formation  and  assummg 
the  regiment  to  consist  of  six  squadrons  of  two  troops  each,  com- 
manded by  captains,  were  approved  and  issued  to  the  Cavalry  service 
October  22,  1914,  in  accordance  with  General  Orders  No.  79,  War 
Department,  which  instructed  each  officer  to  submit,  on  June  1,  1915, 
a  report  embodying  his  opinion  and  recommendations  in  connection 
therewith.  These  regulations  have  been  in  effect  since  that  daio. 
After  an  extensive  try  out  which  included  much  field  service  on  the 
southern  border,  these  reports  were  rendered,  and  upon  being  tabu- 
lated, it  was  found  that  about  90  per  cent  of  the  Cavalry  officers 
favored  return  to  single  rank  as  the  normal  formation  with  the 
statutory  organization  of  troop,  squadron,  and  regiment.  A  large 
percentage  oi  these  officers  likewise  favored  the  principle  of  "  lead- 
mg ''  upon  which  the  regulations  of  1914  were  based. 

The  revision  now  submitted  by  the  board  provides: 

1.  Single  rank  as  the  normal  formation  with  the  statutory  organ- 
ization of  the  various  units. 

2.  Retention  of  the  principle  of  the  1914  regulations,  that  mounted 
units  are  habitually  led  in  person  by  their  commanders. 

3.  Provision  for  double  rank  for  use  under  circumstances  requir- 
ing it. 

The  new  manual  treats  with  great  detail  and  thoroughness  the 
training  of  the  recruit  and  remount.  Detailed  explanations  practi- 
cally terminate  with  the  platoon,  after  which  drill  evolutions  and  the 
maneuvering  of  the  troop,  squadron,  and  regiment  are  but  the  appli- 
cation of  fixed  principles  and  methods  laid  down  for  the  smaller 
units. 

Mounted  Service  School, — This  school  graduated  during  the  last 
year  28  officers  in  the  first-year  class,  7  officers  in  the  second-year 
class,  and  12  officers  in  the  fall  class^  field  officers'  course.  No  spring 
class  was  held  for  field  officers  owmg  to  the  need  of  officers  with 
troops  on  the  southern  border.  Ten  noncommissioned  officers  were 
graduated.  Several  members  of  the  different  classes  failed  to  gradu- 
ate on  account  of  unsuitability  or  inaptitude.  Regimental  com- 
manders of  cavalry  and  field  artillery  have  been  instructed  to  give 
careful  attention  in  submitting  recommendations  for  details  at  the 
Mounted  Service  School,  having  in  mind  intelligence  and  character 
as  well  as  physical  skill  in  order  that  all  students  may  not  only  take 
the  various  courses  with  credit  but  with  a  view  of  their  afterwards 

69176"— WAR  1916— VOL  1 12 


178  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

being  advantageously  employed  as  experts  in  the  training  of  both 
men  and  remounts. 

^  Now  that  the  Mounted  Service  School  has  established  beyond  ques- 
tion its  function  in  our  scheme  of  military  education,  and  its  perma- 
nent location  at  Fort  Riley  determined,  it  is  believed  that  a  more 
definite  policy  of  building  construction  should  be  approved  by  the 
department  so  as  to  provide  adequately  for  the  needs  of  a  larger 
school  as  made  necessary  by  the  recent  increase  in  the  mounted 
branches  of  the  service  under  the  national-defense  act.  Heretofore 
the  school  has  been  more  or  less  dependent  for  quarters  normally 
required  for  the  garrison  of  two  regiments  that  are  permanently  sta- 
tioned at  Fort  Ruey,  but  which  have  during  the  past  few  years  been 
on  border  service.  With  the  return  of  these  regiments  additional 
quarters  will  be  required  for  the  school.  In  accordance  with  the 
reconmiendations  of  the  Quartermaster  General  and  the  commandant, 
the  1918  estimates  will  include  new  construction  work  covering  the 
more  pressing  needs  of  the  school. 

CAVALRY   HORSES. 

Some  fear  has  been  expressed  by  officers  of  the  mounted  service 
that  shipments  from  this  country  of  horses  and  mules  abroad  were 
reducing  the  available  stock  very  materially  within  the  country,  as 
during  the  period  August  1,  1914,  to  July  31,  1916,  over  620;000 
horses  were  exported.  In  addition  to  this,  176,000  mules  were  ex- 
ported. The  Department  of  Agriculture  has  kept  very  accurate  sta- 
tistix^  of  the  number  of  horses  exported  and  definite  information  con- 
cerning their  quality,  sex,  and  probable  usefulness.  Of  those  shipped 
about  30  per  cent  were  mares.  Many  of  these  were  old,  and  few  of 
the  young  ones  showed  evidence  of  having  produced  foals  and  would 
probably  add  nothing  to  the  breeding  value  of  the  horse  stock  ob- 
tained at  home.  The  loss  in  good  producing  mares  is  neglible,  as  the 
f arniers  prefer  to  keep  this  stock  at  the  prices  now  prevailing.  The 
foreign  purchases  encourage  the  type  of  horse  needed  for  cavalry 

furposes,  and  has  stimulated  rather  than  restricted  their  breeding, 
t  is  probable  that  the  suitable  horses  for  military  purposes  will  be 
increased  as  the  farmers  have  disposed  of  inferior  producers  and 
are  recruiting  the  remaining  stock  by  means  of  better  breeding 
methods. 

The  system  of  breeding  horses  for  the  military  service  conducted 
by  the  Bureau  of  Animal  Industrv,  Department  of  Agriculture, 
referred  to  in  my  last  report  shoulcf  oe  extended  and  the  necessary 
appropriations  made  for  that  purpose.  Some  of  the  advantages  of 
this  system  are : 

1.  The  War  Department  will  know  where  to  find  8-year-old  colts 
of  the  types  desired,  and  result  in  the  standardization  of  suitable 
military  types. 

2.  Resulting  foals  will  all  be  sired  by  sound  registered  stallions 
and  be  out  of  sound  mares  selected  for  their  fitness  to  produce  foals 
of  the  cavalry  or  artillery  type. 

3.  Unsouna  and  unregistered  stallions  will  eventually  be  elimi- 
nated. 


B£PORT  OP  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


179 


HORSES  AND   MULES  BOUGHT. 

As  no  appropriation  had  been  made  for  supplying  militia  troops 
with  animals  prior  to  calling  these  organizations  into  field  service 
on  June  18,  immediate  steps  were  taken  to  secure  the  animals  needed 
to  equip  these  troops.  Remount  stations  and  purchasing  officers  ad- 
vertisea  for  them  as  extensively  as  possible.  Bids  were  opened  June 
26,  and  contracts  awarded  June  27,  tor  42,408  horses  and  18,440  mules. 
Inspection  agents  at  the  points  of  delivery  inspected  and  shipped  the 
animals  to  the  auxiliary  remount  depots  at  El  Paso  and  Fort  Sam 
Houston,  Tex.,  where  they  were  held  until  free  from  shipping  fever, 
which  is  prevalent  among  animals  required  to  undergo  railway  jour- 
ney. This  quarantine  covers  a  period  of  about  two  weeks.  Animals 
issued  to  troops  before  they  fully  recover  from  this  ailment  would 
infect  the  other  animals.  Each  organization  was  given  a  partial 
supply  before  attempting  to  complete  the  allowance  to  any  one  organ- 
ization. This  enabled  each  unit  to  be  partially  equipped  until  other 
additional  remounts  were  received. 

The  following  table  shows  the  horses  arid  mules  received  and  issued 
from  the  auxiliary  remount  depots  and  other  points  on  the  Texas 
border: 


Auxninrv  rtmoant  depot,  El  Paso,  Tm.: 
Wwk  ended— 

JuIrS 

JulvlS 

JulyW 

July  29 

Aug.  6  

Aug.ia 

All«,W 

Total 

Auzfltanr  ramoimt  depot.  Port  Btaa  Hoofton,  Tex.: 
Wt«k  eoded— 

July  I 

July  16 

JnlyW 

July  30 

ADf.5 

Aiif.l3 

Aiig.l« 

Totol 

Shipped  to  ▼wloQi  pasta  on  the  border  ( Brownsrille,  Trarllnj^, 
Eflffle  Pan,  Laredo,  Me  Alien,  Calexioo)  and  teued  to  troops 
when  releaaad  tlom  ^Ibaran  tine 

Graad  total,  ablpped  and  hned 


Received. 


Ilorjws. 


S51 
1,093 
3,703 
2,833 
3.339 
l,n3 
1.399 


12,313 


1,653 
2,161 
1,093 
1,831 
1,588 
1,814 
503 


10,703 


2,787 


25,607 


Mules. 


33 

Ztfi 

703 

1,853 

1,087 

1,800 

448 


6,107 


1,630 
3,065 
3,137 
1,415 
1,431 
1,191 
630 


10,495 


633 


17,199 


Issned. 


Horses. 


68 

3(i5 

429 

1,160 

2,857 

703 

1,986 


7,657 


878 

479 

1,997 

1,069 

1.693 

766 

960 


7,851 


3,787 


18,295 


Mules. 


151 
331 
829 
1,340 
703 
857 


4,110 


235 

170 

1,096 

1,831 

1,433 

910 

895 


6,516 


63S 


11,250 


FIELD   ARTILIJSRT. 


The  report  of  a  board  of  officers  convened  to  make  recommenda- 
tions concerning  types  of  field  guns  and  ammunition  supply  there- 
foFi  as  finally  approved  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  was  based  on  the 
necessary  equipment  for  a  force  of  1,000,000  men  organized  into  15 
Anny  corps  and  4  Cavalry  divisions. 


180  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

Advantage  was  taken  of  knowledge  and  experience  gained  from 
reports  and  observations  abroad  and  in  the  light  of  most  recent  de- 
velopments in  the  manufacture  and  efficiency  of  the  different  types 
of  guns,  kind  of  ammunition,  means  of  transportation,  improved 
equipment  for  fire  control  in  making  its  study  and  report,  and  types 
OT  guns  have  been  adopted  which  conform  to  the  requirements  of 
modern  war. 

The  computation  as  to  the  number  of  guns  required  is  based  on  an 
allowance  of  4.9  guns  to  a  thousand  gross  Iniantry  and  Cavalry, 
instead  of  3.1  guns,  as  formerly. 

The  full  accumulated  ammunition  allowance  is  provided  for  over- 
sea stations  and  one-half  the  amount  for  home  stations. 

Motor  tractors  and  trucks  are  provided  for  the  heavier  types, 
and  provision  is  made  for  all  signal  equipment,  including  aeroplanes, 
necessary  to  render  effective  the  Field  Artillery  material. 

Under  the  national-defense  act  the  number  of  Field  Artillery  regi- 
ments will  be  increased  by  15 — 3  to  be  organized  each  year  for  five 
years.  The  new  regiments  for  this  year  were  organized  from  a 
nucleus  of  trained  personnel  drawn  from  old  regiments. 

The  unusual  demands  during  the  past  year  made  it  necessary  to 
abandon  the  regular  courses  of  instruction  at  the  School  of  Fire  for 
Field  Artillery.  It  is  contemplated  to  reopen  the  school  for  the 
regular  spring  courses  and  with  a  more  extended  program  of  instruc- 
tion. The  increased  ammunition  allowance  authorized  by  Congress 
this  year  for  target  practice  will  insure  increased  efficiency  in  fire 
for  effect. 

Modem  types  of  observation  balloons  and  heavier-than-air  flying 
machines  for  use  in  training  and  fire  control  at  the  School  of  Fire 
have  been  authorized. 

The  question  of  the  advisability  of  utilizing  motor  traction  and 
transport  for  heavy  field  artillery  has  been  under  trial  and  experi- 
ment for  sufficient  time  to  demonstrate  its  efficiency  and  economy 
with  the  heavier  material,  and  further  experience  and  test  will  en- 
able more  accurate  conclusions  to  be  drawn. 

It  is  a  matter  of  satisfaction  to  cite  the  interest  shown  by  the 
National  Guard  in  Field  Artillery  work  and  the  nunher  of  batteries 
that  have  been  organized.  A  complete  battalion  of  field  artillery 
was  enlisted  from  students  at  Yale  University,  and  their  progress 
and  interest  in  the  work  at  the  training  camp  at  Tobyhanna,  Pa.. 
under  a  corps  of  instructors  from  the  Regular  Army  is  worthy  oi 
special  praise  and  comment. 

The  lack  of  sufficient  regular  field  artillery  to  meet  the  demands 
made  on  this  arm  has  been  emphasized  during  the  past  year.  It  has 
been  impossible  to  provide  sufficient  officers  for  duty  as  inspector- 
instructors  of  the  National  Guard  and  for  other  purposes,  and  no 
regular  organizations  could  be  made  available  for  the  field  training 
of  the  militia.  As  a  result  of  the  mobilization  on  the  Mexican  bor- 
der it  became  necessary  to  discontinue  the  School  of  Fire  for  Field 
Artillery  and  thus  deprive,  not  only  the  regular  personnel  but  also  a 
large  class  of  officers  and  noncommissioned  officers  of  the  National 
Guard  of  the  advantages  afforded  by  this  school. 

The  armory  training  of  the  Field  Artillery  of  the  National  Guard 
has  shown  a  marked  improvement  over  previous  years.  While  only 
185  gunners  were  qualified  in  1915,  the  reports  for  1916  show  1.560 


BEPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  181 

qualified  gunners,  nearly  one-third  of  whom  were  in  the  expert  first- 
class  grade.  The  instruction  of  National  Guard  officers  has  not  pro- 
gressed as  satisfactorily  as  that  of  the  enlisted  men,  and  the  number 
who  qualified  for  certificates  of  proficiency  has  not  been  up  to 
expectations. 

Only  one  battery  of  the  National  Guard  Field  Artillery  was  able  to 
attend  a  camp  for  field  training  and  conduct  target  practice  before 
the  mobilization  in  1916,  and  this  was  made  possible  because  the 
State  defrayed  all  expenses.  An  effort  was  made  to  secure  sufficient 
appropriations  from  Congress  to  conduct  camps  prior  to  June  30,  but 
funds  could  not  be  obtained  in  time  for  use.  As  a  rule,  such  camps 
are  not  profitable  unless  Regular  organizations  can  attend  to  furnish 
instructors  and  trained  horses.  The  future  development  of  the  field 
artillery  of  the  National  Guard  must  depend  upon  the  degree  to 
which  file  Regular  regiments  can  assist  in  their  field  training.  For 
reasons  of  economy  in  transportation  it  will  be  desirable,  therefore, 
to  station  the  Regular  regiments  where  they  can  reach  the  field 
artillery  training  camps  by  marching. 

The  appropriation  of  $200,000  for  the  fiscal  jrear  1916  to  provide 
forage  for  horses  and  pay  for  helpers  for  the  Field  Artillery  of  the 
National  Guard  has  had  a  beneficial  effect.  At  the  time  of  the 
mobilization  the  National  Guard  batteries  had  on  hand  912  horses, 
568  of  which  were  purchased  from  Federal  funds  or  issued  by  the 
Federal  Government.  These  horses  were  distributed  among  74  of 
the  83  National  Guard  batteries,  thus  affording  a  general  opportunity 
for  mounted  instruction. 

MohUe-artUlery  target  practice, — The  increased  importance  of 
mobile-artillery  nre  developed  by  the  war  in  Europe  has  emphasized 
the  necessity  for  more  target  practice,  and  Congress  during  the 
last  session  provided  a  much-needed  increase  in  the  amounts  avail- 
able for  expenditure  for  this  purpose,  so  that  for  next  yeai-  it 
will  be  possible  to  provide  a  more  adequate  allowance  for  the  proper 
instrrction  of  the  personnel  of  the  Field  Artillery. 

COAST   ARTILLERT   HARBOR   DEFENSE. 

The  national  defense  act,  by  its  increments  of  increase,  will  give 
the  Coast  Artillery  Corps  a  complete  manning  body  for  the  guns 
and  mine  defenses  of  tne  over-sea  fortifications,  for  all  the  mine 
defenses  of  the  home  fortifications,  and  for  one-half  of  the  gun 
defense. 

It  has  been  the  policy  of  the  War  Department  to  look  to  the  States 
in  which  harbor  defenses  are  located  to  supply  one-half  of  the  per- 
sonnel required  for  a  complete  manning  for  the  gun  defenses.  Up 
to  the  present  time  the  coast  States  have  not  met  their  obligations  in 
supplymg  militia  artillerymen.  Up  to  the  present  time  they  have 
supplied  less  than  50  per  cent  of  their  quota.  Steps  will  be  taken  to 
try  and  arouse  great  interest  in  this  matter  in  the  militia  of  the 
States  concerned. 

The  increase  of  armament  of  recent  battleships,  by  which  they 
carry  more  powerful,  longer  range  guns  than  those  which  have  here- 
tofore been  installed,  has  exposed  certain  cities — harbors  of  anchor- 
age— to  a  fire  which  would  not  be  met  successfully  bv  existing  forti- 
fications.   This  led  the  Secretary  of  War  to  direct  the  War  Depart- 


182  BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

ment  Board  of  Review  to  revise  the  approved  projects.  This  board 
submitted  a  report  on  November  26, 1915,  covering  what  it  considered 
the  most  pressing  requirements  of  harbor  defense.  These  projects 
will  involve: 

(a)  The  emplacement  of  50-caliber  16-inch  guns  and  16- inch 
mortars. 

(b)  The  utilization  as  howitzers  of  the  surplus  12-inch  guns  now 
on  hand  by  mounting  them  on  barbette  carriages  of  a  special  design 
that  will  permit  of  the  attainment  of  a  range  of  30,000  yards. 

(c)  The  initiation  of  the  construction  oi  movable  howitzers  and 
an  experimental^  gun  on  railroad  car  mount,  for  defense  against 
hostile  landings  in  unfortified  harbors. 

(d)  The  provision  of  3-inch  antiaircraft  guns  for  seacoast  fortifi- 
cations. 

(e)  The  abandonment  of  certain  existing  seacoast  armament  that 
IS  deemed  to  be  of  insufficient  military  value  to  warrant  incurring  the 
cost  of  providing  a  manning  personnel  or  ammunition  therefor. 

(/)  The  retention  of  the  disappearing  carriage  as  the  type  mount 
for  airect-fire  seacoast  guns,  except  in  those  instances  where  special 
conditions  may  render  advisable  the  installation  of  the  turret  or 
barbette  mount;  any  type  of  mount  for  direct-fire  guns  to  be  con- 
structed in  future  to  admit  of  an  elevation  of  approximated  30 
degrees  and  a  motion  in  azimuth  as  great  as  the  necessities  oi  the 
site  demand  to  meet  an  attack  over  water  or  land  areas. 

(g)  Increases  in  the  allowances  of  seacoast  ammunition. 

When  the  features  of  the  revision  proposed  shall  have  been  effected, 
our  harbor  defenses  will  be  able  successfully  to  meet  any  attack  which 
can  reasonably  be  expected  from  the  sea. 

In  view  of  the  confidential  nature  of  mine-planting  work  and  of 
the  importance  of  having  military  control  over  the  crews  of  mine 
planters^  cable  ships,  tugs,  launches,  and  other  vessels  employed  with 
the  armies  of  the  United  States,  it  is  recommended  that  legislation 
be  sought  declaring  the  members  of  these  crews  "  Persons  subject  to 
military  law"  within  the  meaning  of  Article  II  of  the  Articles  of 
War. 

The  instruction  of  Coast  Artillery  has  been  somewhat  interfered 
with  by  the  necessity  for  the  detachment  of  troops  for  service  along 
the  Mexican  border,  but  they  have  all  now  been  returned  to  their 
proper  stations.  Vocational  training  has  received  considerable  atten- 
tion and  1,919  men  are  reported  by  the  Chief  of  Coast  Artillery  as 
having  availed  themselves  of  the  opportunities  to  take  vocational 
courses,  which  covered  instruction  of  electricians,  telephone  opera- 
tors, telegraph  and  radio  operators,  engineers,  firemen,  blacksmiths, 
painters,  plumbers,  carpenters,  and  also  in  music,  map  reading, 
sketching,  etc. 

In  February,  1913,  three  administrative  units  called  Coast  Artil- 
lery districts  were  established,  and  an  additional  district  in  the 
Panama  Canal  Zone  has  since  been  added.  The  duties  required  of 
commanding  officers  of  these  districts  are  analogous  to  those  pre- 
scribed for  brigade  commanders  of  troops.  The  lact  that  the  duties 
are  largely  technical  has  led  to  the  policy  of  appointing  to  the  com- 
mand OI  these  districts  Coast  Artillerv  officers  who  have  been  appointed 
general  officers  of  the  Army.  Legislation  which  fixed  the  number  of 
brigadier  generals  of  the  Army  did  not  take  into  consideration  these 


REPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  183 

assignments,  but  was  based  upon  the  necessities  of  the  mobile  troops. 
It  is  as  desirable  to  have  brigadier  generals  with  Coast  Artillery 
training  command  these  Coast  Artillery  districts  as  it  is  unsuitable 
to  use  them  in  command  of  mobile  troops. 

It  is  therefore  recommended  that  the  Coast  Artillery  Corps  be 
increased  by  brigadier  generals  to  command  Coast  Artillery  dis- 
tricts, the  number  to  be  the  proportion  due  the  Coast  Artillery  as  a 
part  of  the  line  of  the  Army,  to  be  filled  by  the  transfer  oi  such 

?;eneral  officers  of  the  line  who,  under  past  policy,  have  been  appointed 
rom  the  Coast  Artillery,  and  thereafter  appointment  of  general 
officers  for  that  corps  be  made  entirely  withm  that  corps  and  none 
to  the  line  of  the  Army.  These  brigadier  generals,  with  the  Chief 
of  Coast  Artillery,  would  give  the  Coast  Artillery  Corps  a  proper 
proportion  of  general  officer  appointments. 

Am/munition  for  harbor  defenses, — A  step  has  been  taken  toward 
securing  the  full  eflFectiveness  of  harbor-defense  armament  by  increas- 
ing the  allowance  of  reserve  ammunition  for  guns  to  that  correspond- 
ing to  the  accuracy  life  for  one-half  the  guns  mounted  in  the  conti- 
nental United  States  and  for  all  the  guns  mounted  in  the  insular 
possessions  and  the  Canal  Zone.  The  allowance  for  mortars  has  also 
been  materially  increased.  This  proposed  increase  in  the  allowances 
has  been  met  by  increased  appropriations  by  Congress,  and  it  is 
hoped  that  during  the  next  three  years  the  total  allowance  will  be 
provided  for. 

SHORTAGE  IN  ORDNANCE  MATERIEL. 

The  most  serious  shortage  of  materiel  for  preparations  for  war  is 
that  of  field  and  siege  artillery,  its  ammunition,  and  machine  guns. 
With  reference  to  field  and  siege  artillery  and  its  ammunition,  the 
project  therefor  in  existence  since  1911  and  known  as  the  Greble 
Board  standards,  has  been  replaced  by  that  known  as  the  Treat  Board 
standards,  in  which  provision  has  been  made  not  only  for  a  larger 
number  of  guns  for  the  men  employed,  but  also  for  a  materially 
greater  allowance  of  ammunition  per  gun.  While  Congress  at  ite 
recent  session  made  markedly  greater  appropriations  for  this  class 
of  materiel  than  in  the  past,  larger  appropriations  must  be  made 
if  this  project  is  to  be  provided  for  in  the  next  seven  years  as  contem- 
plated. 

The  large  orders  placed  in  this  country  for  foreign  Governments 
have  developed  a  large  capacity  for  ordnance  materiel,  especially 
mobile  artillery  ammunition,  of  which  class  the  greatest  quantities 
will  be  required  in  time  of  war,  but  this  capacity  is  far  in  excess  of 
the  peace  requirements  of  the  United  States,  and  a  large  portion 
must,  therefore,  inevitably  disappear.  Every  effort  will  be  made  to 
utilize  to  the  best  advantage  the  provisions  in  recent  appropriation 
acts  for  developing  private  capacity  for  the  manufacture  of  ordnance 
materiel  of  service  design,  but  the  fimds  available  for  this  are  too 
limited  to  permit  of  any  marked  progress  being  made. 

A  part  of  the  improvement  that  might  otherwise  be  obtained 
is  lost,  due  to  restrictive  legislation  as  to  the  capacity  at  which  the 
arsenals  shall  be  operated  and  as  to  procurement  by  purchase.  The 
extent  to  which  special  plants  can  be  continued  in  existence  after 


184  KEPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

the  European  demand  ceases,  is  directly  dependent  upon  the  orders 
that  can  be  given  them. 

It  is  therefore  recommended  that  effort  be  made  to  increase  the 
appropriations  for  armament,  to  continue  the  provisions  of  law  which 
aim  to  retain  commercial  capacity  for  production  of  war  materiel, 
and  to  remove  the  restrictions  which  will  result  in  reduction  of  this 
capacity. 

In  this  connection  I  desire  to  invite  attention  to  the  following 
extract  from  my  report  of  last  year : 

The  history  of  war  wiU  show,  almost  without  exception,  that  each  great 
conflict  has  resulted  In  the  introduction  of  new  and  powerful  weapons  and 
devices  for  attack  and  defense.  Initial  advantages  of  immense  import  have 
been  gained  by  a  belligerent  who  has  developed  some  new  innovation  against 
which  no  Immediate  defense  was  adequate.  The  innovation  of  yesterday  be- 
comes the  necessity  of  to-morrow.  The  present  gigantic  conflict  waging  in 
Europe  is  too  near  in  perspective  and  too  obscure  In  detail  to  grasp  as  yet  all 
its  manifold  lessons,  but  one  of  the  great  outstanding  features  is  the  use  of 
iarge-calibered  mobile  artillery.  Each  and  all  of  our  observers  have  been  struck 
with  the  gigantic  results  attained  by  its  use,  and  each  and  every  one  emphasizes 
the  necessity  of  our  Immediate  development  along  similar  lines.  In  this  view 
I  am  in  thorough  accord  and  earnestly  recommend  that  the  necessary  steps  be 
taken  to  this  end. 

Mobile  guns  of  at  least  124nch  caliber  mounted  on  railway  carriages  or 
dragged  by  suitable  motors  are  especially  needed  for  transportation  up  and 
down  our  coast  lines  to  protect  our  undefended  harbors  and  prevent  hostile 
ships  from  putting  landing  parties  ashore  anywhere  on  our  coast  outside  of 
the  range  of  the  guns  of  our  coast-defense  forts  and  assist  the  mobile  army 
in  defending  the  rear  of  those  forts. 

As  a  result  of  the  hearings  before  Congress  appropriation  was 
made  for  only  one  mobile  mortar  and  one  mobile  gun  on  designs  pre- 
pared bv  the  Ordnance  Department.  Many  of  our  harbors  are  unde- 
fended oy  permanent  fortifications.  Heavy  artillerv  of  mobile  type 
must  be  obtained  to  give  proper  defense  to  landing  places  and  harbors 
which  otherwise  mignt  give  access  to  an  enemy. 

It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  the  resources  of  England,  France, 
Italy,  and  Russia  were  noneffective  in  producing  war  materiel  re- 
quired by  those  countries,  and  that  the  industries  of  other  nations  are 
now  largely  employed  in  making  up  this  deficit. 

There  is  danger  that  the  procurement  of  war  materiel  by  the 
Ordnance  Department  will  be  delayed.  The  fortification  act,  ap- 
proved July  6,  1916,  provides,  in  effect,  that  no  purchase  shall  be 
made  unless  the  price  quoted  is  within  25  per  cent  more  than  the 
arsenal  cost,  or  in  the  absence  of  previous  arsenal  manufacture,  the 
estimated  arsenal  cost:  except  when  in  the  opinion  of  the  President 
an  emergency  exists  affecting  the  general  welfare.  In  times  of  fluctu- 
ating and  high  prices,  with  manufacturing  plants  supplied  with  more 
work  than  they  can  do,  as  at  the  present  time,  this  provision  might 
seriously  delav  the  procurement  of  needed  armament  unless  the  Presi- 
dent were  willing  to  declare  an  emergency.  The  Army  appropria- 
tion act,  approved  August  29,  1916,  provides,  for  field  artillery,  that 
not  more  than  $5,000,000  out  of  $10,000,000  appropriated  shall  be 
used  for  purchase.  As  the  arsenal  capacity  on  a  two-shift  basis  is 
not  above  $3,000,000  for  this  class  of  product  and  as  it  is  very  un- 
desirable to  run  plants  on  a  three-shift  basis  it  is  evident  that  this  act 
alone  supplies  sufficient  work  for  the  arsenals  for  about  18  months, 
'^nd  it  is  practically  obligatory  that  a  certain  amount  of  the  funds 
ider  other  acts  be  spent  for  these  same  purposes  at  the  arsenals. 


BEPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  185 

The  Ordnance  Department  is  using  every  means  to  expedite  pro- 
duction of  artillery.  Further  speeding  will  require  faster  procure- 
ment of  designs  and  more  rapid  manufacture.  The  former  can  be 
obtained  only  by  purchasing  foreign  designs  the  nearest  to  those 
required  that  can  be  procured  and  regardless  of  oost.  Manufacture 
can  be  best  hastened  by  invoking  paragraph  120  of  the  national  de- 
fense act,  approved  June  3,  1916,  which  provides,  in  effect,  that  in 
time  of  war,  or  when  war  is  imminent,  the  President  may  empower 
the  Ordnance  Department  to  partially  or  wholly  take  over  such 
manufacturing  plants  as  may  be  needed  and  cause  them  to  be  operated 
in  the  production  of  war  materiel  for  the  United  States.  This  course 
would  be  expensive  on  account  of  damages  because  of  contracts  in 
existence,  but  it  is  the  only  method  of  coercion  available.  Difficulty 
will  be  encountered  in  getting  early  deliveries  of  materiel,  as  the 
factories  are  generally  under  contract  for  their  capacity  for  a  consid- 
erable period  ahead.  The  maximum  speeding  up  of  production 
would  also  require  very  large  appropriations  and  contract  authoriza- 
tions at  the  next  session  of  Congress,  and  it  would  be  necessary  that 
legal  restrictions  on  purchase  in  this  country  and  abroad  be  removed. 

I  can  not  emphasize  too  strongly  the  vital  importance  of  providing 
as  quickly  as  possible  for  our  first-line  defense  all  materiel  that  re- 
quires time  to  design  and  manufacture. 

SERVICE  SCHOOLS. 

Owing  to  the  acute  situation  on  the  Mexican  border,  the  Army 
service  schools  at  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kans.,  the  Mounted  Service 
School  at  Fort  Riley,  the  School  of  Fire  and  the  School  of  Musketry 
at  Foi-t  Sill  were  closed  May  10,  1916,  and  tiie  class  graduated  as  of 
that  date,  the  student-officers  and  instructors  being  sent  to  join  their 
regiments  on  the  border.  Since  then  several  tentative  dates  have 
been  fixed  for  the  reopening  of  the  schools,  but  the  training  of  the 
Organized  Militia  on  the  border  has  been  of  such  paramount  im- 
portance and  the  necessity  of  every  officer  who  could  be  spared  from 
his  organization  being  required  for  this  purpose  has  so  far  prevented 
the  reopening  of  the  schools. 

CHIEFS    OF    INFANTRY,    CAVALRY,    AND    FIELD    ARTILLERY. 

It  is  fundamental  military  principle  that  the  entire  Military  Estab- 
lishment, and  each  of  its  various  components,  should  have  a  military 
head  (chief)  superior  in  rank  to  all  under  his  control,  who  directly 
supervises  and  may  be  held  responsible  for  its  training,  efficiency  of 
personnel,  and  other  correlated  matters.  All  staff  corps  and  dej^art- 
ments  as  well  as  the  Coast  Artillery  now  have  such  a  chief.  The 
Cavalry,  Infantry,  and  the  Field  Artillery  have  not.  Correct  mili- 
tary principles  and  consequently  military  efficiency  require  that  each 
of  these  arms  should  have  such  a  chief  and  this  chief  while  so  serving 
should  have  one  grade  higher  rank  than  any  otlicer  of  his  arm. 
This  chief  should  be  charged  with  the  inspection  of  his  arm  and 
should  supervise  its  training  and  equipment  and  all  such  chiefs  should 
have  the  same  status.  If  any  arm  be  given  an  advantage  over 
another,  either  in  the  matter  of  having  a  chief  or  in  the  matter  of  the 


186  BEPOKT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

official  standing  of  such  chief,  unequal  consideration  and  treatment 
and  unbalanced  military  development  of  these  arms  will  naturally 
result.  For  the  reasons  stated,  chiefs  of  Cavalry,  Infantry,  ana 
Field  Artillery  should  be  provided  for  those  arms  as  now  authorized 
by  law  for  the  Coast  Artillery.  During  the  Civil  War  when  Ameri- 
can Cavalry  was  being  developed  along  lines  that  have  influenced  all 
nations  in  the  use  of  this  arm,  it  became  necessary  to  establish  a 
bureau  of  Cavalry  at  the  War  Department  and  appoint  chiefs  of 
Cavalry  also  of  Artillery  of  the  various  large  commands. 

The  developments  of  modern  war  have  made  it  equally  necessary 
that  we  should  have  chiefs  of  Field  Artillery  and  Infantry.  For 
Field  Artillery  there  are  the  many  questions  incident  to  personnel, 
organization,  training,  equipment,  arm,  etc.,  which  demand  the  direct 
and  constant  attention  of  a  single  head  or  chief.  The  same  is  true  for 
Infantry.  It  is  generally  admitted  that  in  any  final  showdown  the 
mobile  army  must  be  the  mam  defense  of  the  country.  It  is,  there- 
fore, important  that  all  branches  be  maintained  on  the  highest  plane 
of  emciency,  and  this  will  be  only  possible  when  they  are  given  exactly 
the  same  status,  viz,  a  chief  directly  responsible  to  the  Chief  of  Stan 
and  Secretary  of  War.  This  accords  with  the  recommendation  made 
by  the  General  Staff  as  well  as  the  views  of  the  line  of  the  Army. 

SITUATION  ON  MEXICAN  BORDER. 

VUla^s  attack  on  Columhvs^  N.  Mex.^  niqht  of  March  8-9^  1916. — 
The  small  town  of  Columbus,  N.  Mex.,  with  a  population  of  a  few 
hundred  Americans  and  Mexicans,  is  situated  on  the  El  Paso  & 
Southwestern  Railroad,  about  73  miles  west  of  El  Paso,  Tex.,  and  3 
miles  north  of  the  border.  The  country  is  flat  and  partly  covered  with 
mesquite  brush,  though  troops  can  move  in  practically  all  directions, 
either  mounted  or  on  foot,  except  as  prevented  by  the  wire  fence 
along  the  border.  •     '         ^  ^  I 

The  troops  stationed  at  Columbus  at  the  time  of  the  attack  com- 
prised some  500  officers  and  men  of  the  Thirteenth  Cavalry,  which 
regiment  had  furnished  this  garrison  since  September,  1912.  During 
this  period  border  conditions  have  varied  so  greatly  that,  shortly 
before  the  attack,  a  reduction  of  the  garrison  by  half  had  been 
recommended. 

The  sector  of  the  border  assigned  to  this  command  covered  about 
90  miles  and  was  patrolled  by  detachments  varying  in  strength  de- 
pending on  the  proximity  or  Mexican  forces  south  of  the  border. 
During  the  months  of  January  and  February  conditions  were  very 
quiet  and  only  small  patrols  covered  the  border.  Early  in  March 
there  came  rumors  that  Villa  was  somewhere  near  Columbus.    The 

Satrols  and  outposts  were  strengthened  as  considered  necessary.  Or- 
ers  prohibited  our  troops  from  crossing  the  border  to  investigate 
nunors.  Numerous  Villa  sympathizers  lived  in  Columbus  and  vicin- 
ity, and  Villa  was  fully  informed  of  conditions  at  Columbus,  includ- 
ing the  disposition  of  troops. 

V  ilia's  command  crossed  the  border  in  small  parties  about  3  miles 
west  of  the  border  gate,  concentrated  for  and  made  the  attack  during 
hours  of  extreme  darkness  after  the  moon  had  set  and  before  day- 
light 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF   OF   STAFF.  187 

In  the  fight  which  ensued  7  American  troopers  were  killed  and 
about  an  equal  number  wounded.  Seventy-eight  Mexicans  were 
killed  and  many  wounded.  One  troop  mounted  and  pursued  the 
Mexicans.  Another  on  outpost  duty  at  the  border  gate  mounted  and 
struck  the  retreating  Mexicans  in  flank,  killing  18.  These  two  troops 
continued  the  pursuit  of  the  Mexicans  south  of  the  border  for  12 
miles,  discontinuing  only  when  their  ammunition  wns  exhausted. 

Expeditionary  force  into  Mexico. — As  a  result  of  this  attack  the 
conunnnding  general.  Southern  Department,  was  on  March  10  di- 
rected to  oiganize  a  suitable  expeditionary  force  under  the  command 
of  Brig.  (ien.  John  J.  Pershing  to  pursue  Villa  into  Mexico  for  the 
purpose  of  capturing  Villa  and  preventing  any  further  raids  by  his 
baud  and  with  scrupulous  regard  to  the  sovereignty  of  Mexico.  A 
comnuind  of  sufficient  size  had  to  be  assembled  at  Columbus,  N.  Mex. 
Owing  to  the  nature  of  the  country  and  the  character  of  the  pursuit 
it  was  necessary  for  the  force  to  consist  largely  of  cavalry.  The  Villa 
forces  were  all  mounted  and  capable  of  making  long  marches.  To 
ha\o  pursued  at  once  with  troops  then  on  the  border  would  have 
loft  tlie  important  border  points,  Douglas,  Bisbee,  Columbus,  and  El 
Paso,  and  intervening  sections  exposed  to  like  raids.  Therefore,  be- 
fore the  expedition  could  start  on  its  mission,  it  was  necessary  to 
S(»nd  to  that  section  the  remaining  available  troops  in  the  United 
States,  which  required  approximately  five  days.  During  this  time 
the  first  motor  transport  companies  were  organized  and  shipped  from 
eastern  points,  (ien.  Pershing's  command  crossed  the  border  March 
15,  and  at  once  took  up  a  vigorous  and  energetic  pursuit,  neither 
men  nor  animals  being  spared  in  the  long  and  anluous  marches  which 
ri'snltod  in  driving  the  Villa  bands  over  400  miles  southward  and 
killin*;  srme  *200  or  more  members.  Oflicors  and  men  of  this  com- 
mand are  des<Mving  of  the  highest  conunendation.* 

Horder  conference  wit  ft  G(  n.  Ohrccfon, — I  proceeded  from  Wash- 
ington on  April  19  to  Fort  Sam  Houston,  Tex.,  arriving  on  the 
evening  of  April  21.  My  instructions  were  to  discuss  fully  with 
Gen.  Funston  the  object  of  Gen.  Pershing's  expeditionary  force  in 
Mexico,  the  extent  to  which  it  should  be  concentrated,  the  number  of 
troops  necessary,  the  extent  to  which  the  border  could  be  ade(jnately 
protected  with  the  troops  remaining  in  the  Southern  Department, 
and  what,  if  any,  additional  troops  were  needed  to  meet  conditions 
liable  to  arise.  These  matters  were  thoroughly  gone  over  with  Gen. 
Funston,  our  conclusions  wired  the  War  Department,  and  special 
instructions  conforming  thereto  communicated  to  Gen.  Perehmg. 

On  April  24, 1  was  instructed  that  a  conference  with  Gen.  Obregon 
had  been  arranged  for  Gen.  Funston  and  myself  to  be  held  at 
El  Paso,  Tex.,  or  that  vicinity,  and  we  should  hold  ourselves  in  readi- 
ness to  proceed  there  on  receipt  of  instructions.  These  instructions 
were  received  April  26,  and  on  April  27  we  proceeded  to  El  Paso, 
arriving  there  on  the  evening  of  the  *28th.  Gen.  Obregon  having  pre- 
viously arrived  in  Juarez,  (ten.  Funston  and  myself,  accompanied  by 
our  aides,  called  on  him  that  evening.  On  the  next  day,  April  29, 
Gen.  C)bregon  returned  our  call,  and  arrangements  were  made  for 
future  conferences,  commencing  that  afternoon. 

^A  more  detailed  report  of  thiH  expedition  would  have  been  made,  bat  at  this  writing 
th«  report  of  tbe  Southern  Department  and  the  report  of  Gen.  Pershing  have  not  beea 
received. 


188  BEPORT  OF  THE   CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

On  May  3  a  tentative  agreement  was  completed  which  was  signed 
by  Gens.  Obregon,  Funston,  and  myself,  and  submitted  to  our  respec- 
tive Governments.  Subsequent  conferences  were  held  on  May  7,  8,  9, 
and  11.  The  proceedings  and  the  results  of  the  various  conferences 
were  at  once  communicated  in  dispatches  from  El  Paso.  While  the 
Carranza  Government  would  not  agree  to  ratify  the  tentative  agree- 
ment signed  with  Gen.  Obregon,  the  conference  furnished  most  bene- 
ficial results  in  materially  relieving  a  very  acute  situation  and  in 
demonstrating  to  Gen.  Obregon  and  other  Carranza  leaders  the 
pacific  intentions  of  our  Government. 

It  had  in  every  way  been  most  emphatically  impressed  upon  Gen. 
Obregon  that  whenever  the  Mexican  Government  had  demonstrated 
its  capacity,  and  provided  proper  protection  for  our  border,  consid- 
eration would  then  be  given  to  the  withdrawal  of  our  troops  from 
Mexico. 

Raid  on  Glen  Springs^  Tex. — On  the  night  of  May  5,  1916,  a  de- 
tachment of  9  enlisted  men  stationed  at  Glen  Springs,  with  Sergt. 
Charles  E.  Smyth,  Troop  A,  Fourteenth  Cavalry,  m  charge,  was 
attacked  by  from  50  to  100  M^^exican  bandits.  Although  surrounded 
and  hopelessly  outnumbered,  this  detachment  stood  off  the  bandits, 
suffering  a  loss  of  3  privates  killed,  4  wounded,  and  9  horses  captured. 
After  leaving  Glen  Springs  these  bandits  proceeded  to  Deemer's 
store,  which  was  raided  and  Deemer  carried  off  as  a  prisoner. 

On  May  6,  Troops  A  and  B,  Eighth  Cavalry,  trom  Fort  Bliss, 
Troops  F  and  H  and  Machine  Gun  Troop,  Fourteenth  Cavalry,  from 
Fort  Clark,  all  under  the  command  of  Col.  Frederick  W.  Sibley, 
Fourteenth  Cavalry,  were  ordered  to  Marfa,  Tex.,  to  take  up  the 
pursuit  and  capture  or  destroy  the  bandits  that  had  made  the  attack 
on  Glen  Springs  and  Deemer's  store.  These  troops  arrived  at  Marfa, 
Tex.,  May  7.  One  party  of  the  bandits  was  surprised  and  attacked 
at  Santa  Anita,  Mexico.  Deemer  was  rescued  and  the  bandits  driven 
so  far  south  and  punished  that  the  expedition  fully  accomplished  its 
mission  and  on  May  26  the  troops  were  returned  to  their  proper  sta- 
tions. All  officers  and  men  taking  part  performed  this  very  arduous 
duty  most  ccimmendably. 

Attack  at  San  Ignacio^  Tex, — About  2  a.  m.,  June  15,  1916,  Troops 
I  and  M,  Fourteenth  Cavalry,  were  attacked  by  a  large  force  of  Mexi- 
can bandits  at  San  I«:nacio,  Tex.,  Troop  M  having  three  men  killed 
and  one  noncommissioned  officer  and  three  privates  wounded,  the 
noncommissioned  officer  fatally.  These  two  troops,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Maj.  Alonzo  Gray,  pursued  the  bandits  into  Mexico,  but 
being  unsuccessful  in  picking  up  the  trail,  returned  to  the  American 
side  late  the  same  day. 

Calling  out  of  the  militia, — As  a  result  of  such  raids  and  attacks 
hy  Mexican  bandits  there  were  continuous  demands  from  border 
towns,  villages,  and  ranches  for  regular  troops  to  insure  protection 
not  only  for  property  but  for  American  women  and  children.  With 
the  continued  pursuit  of  Villa  bands  by  the  expeditionary  force  under 
Gen.  Pershing,  the  attitude  of  the  Mexicans  in  general  became  moi*e 
and  more  embittered  against  Americans.  It  is  believed  that  the 
leaders  felt  that  if  the  advance  of  the  American  troops  continued 
southward  into  Mexico  it  would  result  in  actual  intervention  bv  the 
United  States,  and  with  such  an  eventuality  they  would  prefer  to  force 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  189 

ail  open  conflict.  This  feeling  undoubtedly  had  its  influence  in  in- 
creasing the  number  of  raids,  as  bandit  leaders  were  able  to  pick  up 
the  necessary  recruits  either  for  a  small  raid  by  a  few  men  for  steal- 
ing cattle  or  for  a  more  extensive  one  to  attack  American  camps. 
Owing  to  this  attitude  and  the  occurrence  of  these  raids,  it  became 
urgent  to  provide  at  once  more  troops  along  the  border  to  insure 
reasonable  protection  to  both  life  and  property  as  well  as  to  permit 
Gen.  Funston  to  be  able  to  reinforce  Gen.  Pershing  with  a  regular 
force  of  sufficient  size  to  meet  possible  attacks.  (Jen.  Pershing's 
expeditionary  force  was  more  or  less  scattered,  with  his  advance 
units  some  400  miles  in  Mexico.  The  entire  Regular  Army  stationed 
in  the  United  States,  with  the  exception  of  a  regiment  of  Cavalry  and 
some  of  the  Coast  Artillery,  was  either  already  distributed  along  the 
border  or  with  Gen.  Pershing's  expeditionarj^  force.  There  being 
no  regular  troops  available,  the  militia  of  Texas,  New  Mexico,  and 
Arizona  was  ordered  out  May  9.  This  eased  the  situation  materially, 
but  it  was  only  temporary. 

The  Mexican  leaders  became  insistent  upon  the  withdrawal  of 
Gen.  Pershing's  expeditionary  force  and  threatened  to  attack  any  of 
our  detachments  in  Mexico  marching  in  any  direction  other  than 
toward  the  American  border.  Conditions  became  such  that  an  imme- 
diate increase  in  the  border  troops  was  necessary.  The  only  organ- 
ized force  available  was  the  National  Guard,  which  was  accordingly 
ordered  out  by  the  Presiotent  June  18  and  the  greater  part  sent  to 
the  border  as  promptly  as  possible. 

The  mere  calling  out  of  the  militia  had  the  effect  of  completely 
changing  the  attitude  of  the  Mexicans,  and  the  presence  of  this  addi- 
tional force  has  enabled  sufficient  numbers  of  troops  to  be  stationed 
so  as  to  furnish  adequate  protection  to  American  homes  near  the 
border,  which  they  have  been  without  for  from  five  to  six  vears. 

The  mobilization  of  the  militia  in  the  large  camps  established  at 
or  near  Douglas,  El  Paso,  Fort  Sam  Houston,  and  Brownsville  has 
also  enabled  these  troops  to  receive  practical  instruction  with  trained 
officers  under  field  conditions  which  would  not  otherwise  have  been 
possible. 

THE  ORGANIZED  MH^ITIA  AND  THE  NATIONAL  GUARD. 

According  to  the  latest  return  of  this  force,  before  being  called 
into  service  1,451  officers  and  6,131  enlisted  men  belonged  to  the  staff 
noncombatant  branch;  456  officers  and  8,084  enlisted  men  to  the  Coast 
Artillery;  and  6,682  officers  and  109,390  enlisted  men  to  the  mobile 
branches,  a  total  of  8,589  officers  and  123,605  enlisted  men. 

The  plan  of  organizing  the  mobile  troops  and  the  National  Guard 
into  12  tactical  divisions  has  made  some  progress  during  the  year; 
however,  no  division  is  complete.  The  division  in  the  State  of  New 
York  and  the  division  in  Pennsylvania  are  most  advanced  in  divi- 
sional organization.  On  June  30  both  were  deficient  a  few 
auxiliary  units.  On  a  divisional  basis  there  is  an  excess  of  Infantry 
units  equivalent  to  17  regiments,  and  a  deficiency  of  52  troops  of 
Cavalry,  58  batteries  of  Field  Artillery,  49  machine-gun  companies, 
12  medical  supply  detachments,  8J  battalions  of  engineers,  26  field 
hospitals,  17  ambulance  companies,  and  17  sanitary  detachments. 
There  i?  a  deficiency  in  Coast  Artillery  of  261  officers  and  9.239  en- 


190  BEPOET  OP  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

listed  men  in  order  to  provide  their  half  of  the  complete  manning  of 
guns  of  harbor  defense  elsewhere  referred  to. 

The  nimierical  strength  of  the  National  Guard  was  18,195  enlisted 
men  below  the  minimum  authorized  peace  strength.  Reports  show 
that  only  about  43  per  cent  of  the  reported  stren^h  attended  at  least 
24  drills  of  one  hour  per  day  during  the  year. 

Reports  on  small-arms  target  practice  are  incomplete.  Seven 
States  have  submitted  no  report.  Of  the  remaining  States  only  58 
per  cent  fired  range  practice;  128  companies  of  Coast  Artillery  at- 
tended camps  of  instruction  at  or  near  harbor-defense  batteries.  The 
reports  of  46  of  these  companies  show  that  only  72  per  cent  had  serv- 
ice practice.  Six  batteries  of  Field  Artillery  attended  camps  of  in- 
struction and  one  battery  had  service  practice  prior  to  call  of  June 
18,  1916.  Six  special  camps  of  instruction  were  held  for  officers  and 
noncommissioned  officers.  Other  camps  which  were  planned  had  to 
be  abandoned  by  reason  of  the  organizations  being  called  into  the 
service  of  the  United  States. 

The  effect  of  pay  for  armory  service  is  yet  to  be  determined  and 
can  not  be  judged  imtil  the  National  Guard  in  the  service  of  the 
United  States  has  been  mustered  out  and  has  assumed  its  normal 
peace  training.  The  plan  of  organizing  the  mobile  and  auxiliary 
troops  of  the  National  Guard  into  tactical  divisions  will  be  modified, 
both  as  to  organizations  specified  and  as  to  geographic  distribution 
in  order  to  adapt  it  to  the  national  defense  act. 

There  was  called  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  on  May  9 
and  June  18,  1916,  108  regiments  and  7  separate  battalions  of  In- 
fantry ;  3  regiments,  13  separate  squadrons,  and  22  separate  troops  of 
Cavalry ;  6  regiments,  12  separate  battalions,  and  17  separate  batteries 
of  Fidd  Artillery;  3  battalions  and  11  separate  companies  of  Engi- 
neers; 4  battalions,  16  separate  companies,  and  1  aero  company.  Sig- 
nal troops;  22  ambulance  companies  and  37  field  hospitals.  There 
were  already  organized  on  June  18  two  Infantry  divisions,  19  In- 
fantry brigades,  and  one  Artillery  brigade.  On  July  31  reports 
show  that  110,957  were  on  the  border  and  40,139  in  State  mobilization 
camps,  aggregating  151,096.  This  aggregate  strength  was  deficient 
by  4,083  of  the  authorized  minimum  peace  strength  and  short  war 
strength  by  97,350  men. 

Forty-four  officers  of  the  Army  were  commissioned  in  the  Na- 
tional Guard.  Called  into  service  were  3  as  brigadier  generals,  10 
as  colonels,  27  as  lieutenant  colonels,  and  40  as  majors.  There  were 
also  commissioned  of  noncommissioned  officers  of  the  Army,  34  in 
the  Infantry,  9  in  the  Cavalry,  7  in  the  Field  Artillery,  and  1  in  the 
Signal  Corps.  Two  major  generals  and  24  brigadier  generals  of  the 
National  Guard,  in  addition  to  the  3  brigadier  generals  commissioned 
from  the  Regular  Army,  were  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States. 

In  11  States  from  which  complete  returns  are  at  hand  16,630 
officers  and  men  in  the  aggregate  were  on  the  rolls  at  the  date  of 
call.  Of  this  number  1,761,  or  a  little  over  10  per  cent,  failed  to 
report  Of  the  remainder  who  reported  in  response  to  the  call  4,385, 
or  about  29  per  cent  of  those  examined,  failea  to  pass  the  required 
physical  examination.  From  the  two  causes  combined  37  per  cent 
of  the  aggregate  strength  at  the  date  of  call  failed  to  materialize  as 
soldiers.    By  these  subtractions  the  original  aggregate  was  reduced 


REPORT  OP  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  191 

to  10,484  officers  and  men.  To  these  were  added  7,950  new  recruits 
without  former  service,  making  a  final  strength  of  18,434.  Making 
a  comparison  by  percentages,  about  57  per  cent  of  the  final  strength 
were  officers  and  men  with  more  or  less  former  training  in  the  Na- 
tional Guard  and  43  per  cent  were  without  former  service  or  training. 
These  figures  will  probably  hold  good  approximately  for  the  entire 
bodv  of  the  National  Guard. 

When  we  consider  that  the  National  Guard  when  called  upon  was 
obliged  to  take  with  it,  at  a  minimum  strength,  43  per  cent  of  men 
without  former  service  or  training,  which,  when  it  is  recruited  up  to 
war  strength  of  150  men  to  a  company,  with  its  present  state  of 
development  would  amount  to  75  per  cent  of  untrained  men  and 
these  commanded  by  officers  of  very  limited  experience,  the  con- 
clusion is  obvious  that  it  is  a  very  expensive  military  system,  which  is 
no  sooner  called  into  service  than  the  department  is  inundated  with 
requests  for  the  discharge  of  individuals  and  Congress  is  called  upon 
to  make  provision  for  families  left  behind.  Discharges  from  these 
and  other  causes  were  so  great  that  department  commanders  were 
authorized  to  provide  three  recruiting  parties  for  each  regiment 
mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  These  parties  con- 
sisted of  a  commissioned  officer,  a  noncommissioned  officer,  and  a 
Erivate,  and  were  maintained  at  Government  expense.  The  results, 
owever,  were  so  unsatisfactory  owing  to  the  lack  of  recruits  that 
orders  have  recently  been  issued  to  the  commanding  generals  of 
several  departn^jBnts  authoriziujg  them  to  discontinue  National  Guard 
recruiting  service  when  in  their  opinion  the  results  obtained  do  not 
warrant  its  continuance.  This  may  be  illustrated  in  the  State  of 
New  York  in  which  the  militia  organization  was  very  much  above 
the  average.  From  August  2  to  September  6  only  351  recruits  were 
secured  at  an  average  cost  necessitated  by  the  keeping  up  of  recruit- 
ing parties  of  $40  per  recruit.  This  was  the  cost  to  merely  get  the 
man.  The  system  speaks  for  itself  in  dollars  and  cents,  which  is 
readily  understood  by  the  average  man.  In  the  State  of  Massa- 
chusetts 20  recruiting  stations  wore  established;  between  August  1 
and  September  25  they  enlisted  only  189  recruits. 

THE  Mn^rriA  bureau. 

The  following  is  taken  from  the  report  of  the  Acting  Chief, 
Militia  Bureau: 

Under  the  provisions  of  section  81  of  the  amended  militia  law,  the  "  Division 
of  MiUtia  Affairs  In  the  office  of  the  Secretary  of  War  "  formerly  con8titute<]  by 
War  Department  orders  as  a  subdivision  of  the  office  of  the  Chief  of  Staff,  be- 
comes the  Militia  lUironu  of  the  War  Department  *'  under  tlic  immediate  super- 
vision of  the  Secretary  of  War  and  shall  not  form  a  part  of  any  other  bureau, 
office,  or  organization.** 

The  National  Militia  Board  created  by  the  act  of  May  27,  1008,  is  abolished 
and  the  President  Is  autliorized  to  nssiim  one  colonel  and  one  lieutenant  colonel 
of  the  National  Guard  to  duty  In  the  Militia  Bureau  as  assistants  to  the  chief 
thereof. 

The  officers  of  the  National  Guard  who  can  be  of  most  service  as  assistants 
In  the  Militia  Bureau  are  those  who  have  had  experience  in  an  administrative 
capacity,  particularly  as  quartermasters  and  disbursing  officers.  As  a  general 
rule  experience  of  this  sort  should  be  a  necessary  quallflcatlon  for  assignment. 

In  drafting  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  June  3,  1916,  It  was  the  evident  in- 
tention of  Congress  to  exercise  to  its  full  extent  Its  constitutional  powers  to 


192  REPORT  or  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

"  provide  for  organizing,  arming,  and  disciplining  the  militia  **  within  the  limit, 
"reserving  to  States,  respectively,  the  appointment  of  the  officers  and  the 
authority  of  training  the  militia  according  to  the  discipline  prescribed  by  Con- 
gress.*' The  National  Guard  is  federalized  as  far  as  it  can  be  federalized 
under  the  constitutional  restrictions. 

This  was  the  desire  of  the  representatives  of  the  National  Guard  Association 
as  expressed  in  their  hearings  before  the  Committee  on  Military  Affairs  of 
Congress.  There  is,  however,  considerable  evidence  that  the  construction  placed 
upon  the  term  federalization  by  these  representatives  did  not  Involve  vesting 
In  the  Federal  Government  the  greatest  amount  of  control  over  the  National 
Guard  consistent  with  the  terras  of  the  Constitution  On  the  contrary,  a  rejwrt 
of  a  legislative  committee  of  the  National  Guard  Association  proposed,  in 
November,  1915,  to  retluce  the  already  Inadequnte  powers  conferred  on  the 
Fe<leral  Government  in  the  militia  law  of  1903  by  securing  the  adoption  of  a 
constitutional  amen<lment  which  would  place  the  very  important  power  of  deter- 
mining the  organization  of  tiie  National  Guard,  now  a  pi-erogatlve  of  the  IVcl- 
eral  government,  in  the  hands  of  the  States.  The  adoption  of  such  an  amend- 
ment would  have  resulted  In  complete  heterogeneity  In  the  composition  of  the 
militia  of  the  several  States  and  would  have  destroyed  all  possibility  of  develop- 
ing the  National  Guard  Into  a  force  organized  to  meet  the  necessities  of  national 
defense.  Further  evidences  of  the  opposition  to  any  real  federalization  Is 
found  in  draft  of  a  bill  "to  provide  for  the  organization,  armament,  discipline, 
and  government  of  militia  of  the  United  Stales  and  to  further  provide  for  thc^ 
national  defense"  (Committee  print,  J.  26698-1)  which  was  offered  with  the 
sanction  of  the  executive  committee  of  the  National  Guard  Association.  The 
cnitstanding  feature  of  this  draft  was  the  creation  of  a  militia  section  of  the 
General  Staff,  composed  entirely  of  National  Guard  officers,  with  powers  so 
extensive  as  practically  to  Insure  the  control  of  the  National  Guard  by  its  own 
members  and  to  destroy  such  power  as  was  possesseil  by  the  War  Department  to 
control  the  training  of  the  mlUtia  as  an  effective  Federal  force.  The  tendency 
of  the  proposed  legislation  may  be  gathered  from  certain  provisions  here  men- 
tioned. The  scoi>e  of  the  examinations  to  determine  the  fitness  of  candidates 
for  commission  in  the  National  Guard  was  to  be  determined  by  tlie  mllltla  sec- 
tl«>n  of  the  General  StafT.  the  examinations  themselves  to  be  conducted  by 
boards  appointed  by  the  governors  of  States  or  Territories.  Regulations  fixing 
the  standard  of  military  fitness  which  should  entitle  members  of  the  National 
Guard  to  Federal  pay  were  to  be  prescribed  by  the  militia  section.  Although 
projects  evolved  by  the  mllltla  section  could  not  be  carried  into  effect  until 
apr)roved  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  he  could  not  reverse  their  decision  and  ptit 
into  effect  plans  which  appeared  to  him  more  effective,  but  could  only  interpose 
his  objection  and  if  the  militia  section  persisted,  a  deadlock  would  result. 
These  provisions  are  of  Importance  when  considered  In  connection  with  the  sub- 
sequent amendment  to  the  Army  reorganization  act  which  was  urged  for  tlie 
addition  of  five  militia  officers  to  the  General  Staff.  It  is  difficult  to  escape  the 
conclusion  that  the  purpose  of  this  amendment  was  to  create  in  the  city  of 
Washington  a  body  of  mllltla  officers  In  whose  hands  the  control  of  mliltia 
affairs  would  be  vested  and  through  whom  a  practically  complete  Independence 
from  Federal  control  would   be  attained. 

Such  a  result  would  be  deplorable.  It  would  involve  the  predominance  of 
local  interest  over  the  interests  of  general  national  defense.  Two  systems 
would  have  been  built  up,  the  existence  of  which,  side  by  side,  would  have 
destroye<l  all  Idea  of  the  coordinated  action  under  a  common  control  which 
is  the  real  significance  of  federalization.  It  would  be  almost  Inevitable  that 
militia  officers  serving  In  su^h  a  capacity  would  become  the  representatives  of 
local  Interests  and  the  wlelders  of  local  Influence  for  the  benefit  of  local  Interests 
In  national  mllltnrj*  affairs  in  much  the  same  way  that  this  function  was  exer- 
cised by  a  group  of  National  Guard  representatives  in  bringing  local  Influence 
to  bear  on  the  legislation  enacted  at  the  recent  session  of  Congress.  Their 
official  position  would  give  sanction  to  their  statements,  and  their  nonamen- 
nbllity  to  military  jurlstllctlon  would  relieve  them  from  a  sense  of  responsblllty 
for  their  actions. 

It  is  but  just  to  say  that  there  was  not  full  concurrence  on  the  part  of  the 
National  Guard  In  the  views  of  their  representatives  and  in  the  measures  advo- 
CO  ted  by  them.  Probably  the  provisions  of  the  new  defense  act  as  they  apply 
to  the  National  Guard  much  more  nearly  conform  to  the  ideals  and  sentiments 
of  the  National  Guard  as  a  body  than  the  original  measure  proposed  by  the 
r-ommittee  of  National  Guard  representatives. 


REPORT  OP  THE  CHIEF  OP  STAPP.  193 

It  l8  believed  that  under  the  act  of  June  3,  1016,  the  powers  of  Oongress  to 
vest  coDtrol  over  the  National  Guard  in  the  Federal  Government  have  been 
practically  exhausted.  Every  power  that  can  be  granted  to  the  War  Department 
has  been  conferred,  and  the  necils  of  the  National  Guard  In  respect  to  conipen- 
satton  have  been  met.  This  leaves  no  further  material  legislative  changes  to 
be  sought  to  increase  the  efficiency  of  the  system.  A  failure  to  attain  a  reason- 
able degree  of  efficiency  with  the  facilities  provided  will  be  attributable  only  to 
defects  too  inherent  in  the  militia  system  to  be  subject  to  correction  by  legis- 
lative action. 

MOBILIZATION    OF   THE   ORGANIZED    MILITIA   AND    NATIONAL   GUARD. 

Organizations  of  the  militia  and  National  Guard  of  the  States  of 
Arizona,  New  Mexico,  and  Texas  were  called  into  the  service  of  the 
United  States  on  May  9,  1916.  These  organizations  were  directed  to 
proceed  from  the  home  rendezvous  direct  to  their  border  stations. 

On  June  18,  1916,  the  Organized  Militia  and  the  National  Guard 
of  all  the  other  States  were  called  into  the  service  and  directed  to 
assemble  at  their  State  mobilization  camps.  The  movement  from  the 
company  rendezvous  to  the  State  camps  was  under  the  control  of  the 
State  authorities  and  from  those  camps  to  the  stations  designated 
on  the  border  under  direction  of  the  War  Department.  These  ti'oops 
began  leaving  their  mobilization  camps  June  27  and  on  July  1  there 
were  en  route  to  the  border  from  various  sections  of  the  United 
States  122  troop  trains,  carrying  over  2,000  pasK^ger  and  baggage 
cars,  with  a  total  strength  of  36,042  men.  Four  days  later  101  troop 
trains  were  en  route  to  the  border:  56,681  militia  troops  were  either 
at  the  border  or  en  route  to  the  borcjcr.  Up  to  July  31, 112,000  militia 
troops  were  transported  to  the  border. 

The  task  imposed  upon  the  railroads  of  the  country  involved  «S50 
trains  to  carry  the  first  100,000  men.    Over  3,000  passenger  cars  were 
provided  an(l,  in  addition,  about  400  baggage  cars,  most  of  which 
were  equipped  as  kitchen  cars  for  serving  hot  meals  en  route,  1,300 
box  cars,  2,000  stock  cars,  and  800  flat  cars.    This  call  upon  the  rail- 
roails  came  at  a  time  when  their  passenger  traffic  was  at  its  height. 
All   railroads  concerned  gave  preference  to  troop  movements  over 
other  travel.    The  distance  traveled  by  the  militia  organizations  was 
from  600  to  3,000  miles,  the  majority  of  these  troops  being  carried 
over  2,000  miles.    It  was  impracticable  to  furnish  touri>t  sleepers  for 
all  the  troops,  but  over  600  tourist  and  standard  cars  were  made 
available  for  the  movement.    In  cases  where  tourist  cars  could  not 
be  furnished,  day  coaches  were  supplied  at  the  rate  of  a  double  seat 
for  each  man  where  the  distance  was  long.    Wherever  tourists  could 
be  secured  en  route  they  were  placed  in  the  train  and  men  trans- 
ferred from  coaches  to  these  tourists  up  to  the  number  that  could  be 
berthed.    Official  reports  from  all  departments  show  that  no  organi- 
zation moved  in  coaches  with  less  space  than  three  men  to  every  four 
seats.    The  average  number  of  men  transported  in  coaches  was  30  to 
the  coach.    When  we  consider  the  great  distance  traveled,  the  celerity 
with  which  trains  were  moved,  and  the  entire  absence  of  congestion 
or  delay,  it  is  believed  that  there  has  been  no  case  in  our  history 
where  troops  have  been  so  well  and  safely  transported.    Especial 
credit  is  due  the  transportation  division  of  the  Quartermaster  Gen- 
erars  Office  for  bringing  abi)ut  the  cooperation  which  existed  among 
the  transportation  companies.    Over  a  year  ago  the  matter  was  taken 
up  by  the  head  of  that  division,  who  outlined  the  plan  of  mutual 

OOlTrt"    w\nlJ)m  -voi.l   -  i.'i 


194  EBPOET  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

cooperation  before  several  of  the  transportation  associations  and 
brought  about  the  establishment  within  the  American  Railway  Asso- 
ciation of  a  committee  on  military  transportation  with  a  view  to  co- 
ordination and  cooperation  between  the  railroads  and  the  War 
Department  in  the  transportation  of  troops  and  supplies  for  the 
United  States. 

Immediately  after  the  call  for  mobilization  of  State  troops  ar- 
rangements were  made  through  this  committee  for  placing  a  compe- 
tent railroad  official  at  each  department  headquarters,  at  each  mobi- 
lization camp,  and  the  office  of  the  Quartermaster  General,  who  could 
act  as  advisers  to  the  quartermasters  at  these  various  points  on  mat- 
ters affecting  rail  transportation.  In  this  way  the  railroad  equip- 
ment of  the  country  became  available  to  effect  this  movement  in  the 
most  expeditious  manner  possible. 

A  series  of  placards  was  adopted  by  which  cars  of  Government 
freight  were  given  the  right  of  way  from  point  of  ori^n  to  point  of 
destination  and  were  placed  in  fast-moving  freight  trains  to  point  of 
destination  where  immediate  delivery  was  made,  the  placards  them- 
selves serving  to  identify  all  ^ipments.  The  placards  showed  the 
department  to  which  the  supplies  belonged  ana  all  information  of 
the  car  and  contents.  In  this  way  many  shipments  have  been  sent 
from  Washington  and  vicinity  to  the  Texas  border  in  4  days; 
and  from  the  Lakes  to  the  border  shipments  have  been  made  in  a 
little  more  than  48  hours.  This  cooperation  of  the  railroads  has 
been  rendered  without  hesitation,  without  additional  charge  to  the 
Government,  and  with  all  the  energy  possible.  This  placard,  with 
the  full  cooperation  of  the  railroads,  has  removed  one  of  the  prin- 
cipal sources  of  criticism  applicable  to  the  mobilization  in  1898. 
With  the  plan  of  cooperation  now  working  with  the  transportation 
interests,  the  problem  of  rail  congestion  has  been  eliminated  and  it 
is  not  believed  possible  to  repeat  the  mistakes  of  1898.  The  coopera- 
tion of  the  American  Railway  Association  representatives,  with  their 
knowledge  of  transportation  conditions,  eliminated  a  great  deal  of 
trouble  heretofore  experienced  in  the  mobilization  of  lar^e  bodies  of 
troops,  and  the  War  Department  is  highly  appreciative  oi  this  volun- 
tary and  able  assistance. 

Subsistence. — When  the  National  Guard  is  called  into  the  service 
of  the  United  States  they  are  subsisted  at  the  expense  of  the  Govern- 
ment from  time  of  arrival  at  company  rendezvous,  but  it  is  super- 
vised and  provided  for  by  the  military  authorities  of  the  State  and 
also  at  State  mobilization  camps  until  sworn  into  the  service;  then 
they  come  under  the  supervision  and  control  of  the  Federal  authori- 
ties and  are  subsisted  as  are  other  troops  of  the  Regular  Army. 

When  these  tr<>  ps  were  transported  to  the  Texas  border,  kitchen 
cars  or  baggage  or  box  cars,  furnished  with  range  installed,  were 
provided  with  each  train  by  which  the  food  could  be  prepared. 
When  ready  for  transportation  10  days'  rations  were  furnished  to 
make  the  journey  to  destination  and  afford  them  a  small  supply  in 
addition  for  emergencies. 

The.sul>sistencc  of  the  soldier  is  of  vital  importance  as  conducive 

to  his  health,  contentment,  and  efficiency.    Our  Army  ration  is  the 

most  liberal  of  that  of  any  in  the  world,  notwithstanding  that  cora- 

olaint  was  occasionally  made  as  to  the  poor  quality  and  insufficiency 

f  food  furnished  various  militia  organizations.    Each  case  of  com- 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  195 

plaint  was  investigated  thoroughly  and  the  records  indicate  that 
practically  all  were  unfounded  or  due  to  the  inexperience  of  cooks  . 
of  the  National  Guard  or  lack  of  experience  and  training  of  these 
organizations  in  taking  care  of  themselves.  Extensive  inspections 
of  the  National  Guard  have  borne  testimony  to  the  thorough  and 
satisfactory  manner  in  which  troops  have  l>een  subsisted  in  Texas 
and  on  the  border. 

Rollvna  kitchens. — All  European  nations  use  some  type  of  rolling 
kitchen  by  which  men,  after  the  fatigue  of  march  or  action,  can  h^ 
quickly  furnished  with  hot  soup  or  other  substantial  diet.  A  number 
of  experiments  or  tests  of  various  types  have  been  made  during  the 
year.  An  American  type  has  now  been  procured  and  shipped  to  the 
Southern  Department  for  elaborate  field  test.  These  tests  should 
result  in  the  adoption  of  a  type  as  good  as  any  in  existence. 

Field  shoes. — The  constant  service  on  the  border  has  demonstrated 
that  our  regulation  shoe  was  too  light  and  did  not  possess  the  neces- 
sary wearing  qualities  for  service  in  the  field.  As  a  result  of  an 
experiment  with  600  pairs  with  uppers  made  of  undressed  side  leather 
and  soles  of  adequate  thickness  and  provided  with  hob  nails,  made 
upon  the  lasts  as  heretofore  used  in  the  manufacture  of  Army  shoes, 
it  is  believed  that  a  proper  field  shoe  has  been  obtained.  The  Quar- 
termaster Department  is  now  purchasing  365,000  pairs  which  are 
being  sent  to  the  troops  as  fast  as  accepted  from  the  factory. 

Uniforms. — The  impossibility  of  importing  dyes  which  have  been 
used  to  produce  the  fast  color  and  shade  in  the  olive-drab  woolen 
and  cotton  fabric  entering  into  the  manufacture  of  material  for 
uniforms  for  the  Army  for  a  while  produced  a  serious  situation,  but 
manufacturers  now  claim  to  be  able  to  produce  suitable  dyestuffs  in 
the  United  States. 

Motor  transportation. — ^In  1907  the  first  motor  truck  for  carrying 
supplies  was  purchased.  Since  then  there  has  been  constant  progress 
in  developing  the  motor  truck  as  a  means  of  transportation.  During 
the  early  part  of  1916  motor  transportation  was  confined  to  opera- 
tion of  trucks  in  transporting  supplies  to  outlying  camps  on  the 
border.  When  instructions  were  given  for  the  organization  of  a 
force  to  cross  the  Mexican  border  in  pursuit  of  the  band  which 
attacked  the  town  of  Columbus,  N.  Mex.,  there  was  received  a  request 
from  the  Southern  Department  for  two  motor-truck  companies  of  27 
trucks  each  of  1^  tons  capacity,  equipped  with  the  necessary  per- 
sonnel for  their  operation.  Two  additional  truck  companies,  as  well 
as  the  necessary  tank  trucks,  followed  soon  after.  It  was  the  use  of 
motor  trucks  which  made  possible  the  long  advance  of  this  expedi- 
tionary force  into  Mexico.  There  was  such  an  increase  in  the  demand 
for  motor  trucks  that  on  June  30  there  were  in  use  588  motor 
trucks,  besides  tank  trucks,  motor  machine  trucks,  and  wrecking 
trucks.  It  is  reported  that  the  approximate  cost  of  operation  of 
trucks  per  ton-mile  is  70  cents,  which  includes  all  incidentals  such  as 
upkeep  of  repair  shops,  roads,  etc.  Motor  trucks  will  remain  an 
important  factor  of  transportation  in  our  Army,  as  they  have  in 
every  other  army. 

HEALTH  OF  THE  ARMY. 

The  general  health  of  the  Army  was  excellent  during  the  year. 
There  were  no  epidemics  or  unusual  incidents  of  infectious  diseases. 


196  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

The  mean  strength  of  the  entire  Army  for  the  calendar  year  1916, 
upon  which  the  statistics  contained  in  the  Surgeon  General's  report 
are  based,  was  103,842. 

The  admission  rate  for  the  entire  Army  during  1915  was  726.19 
per  1,000,  as  compared  with  660.46  for  1914.  With  the  exceptions 
of  1914  and  1913,  the  1915  admission  rate  is  the  lowest  in  the  last  10 
years  and  shows  a  marked  decline  since  1906,  when  it  was  1,188. 

The  noneffective  rate  for  the  entire  Army  for  1915  from  all  causes 
was  25.22  per  1,000  (for  disease  alone,  20.85),  which  is  slightly 
higher  than  that  for  1914,  the  lowest  noneffective  rate  in  the  history 
of  the  Army,  but  still  much  below  the  rates  for  any  preceding  year, 
except  1913,  when  the  rate  was  23.98  per  1,000.  This  rate  during  the 
past  decade  shows  a  steady  reduction.  In  1906  the  noneffective  rate 
was  47.86. 

There  were  eight  cases  of  typhoid  fever  in  the  entire  Army  during 
the  year  1915,  only  four  of  which  occurred  among  troops  serving 
within  the  continental  limits  of  the  United  States. 

There  were  no  deaths  from  typhoid  fever  during  the  year. 

The  noneffective  rate  for  this  disease  was  0.02  per  1,000. 

All  of  these  cases,  with  one  exception — a  recruit — ^had  been  vacci- 
nated against  typhoid  fever,  with  intervals  elapsing  between  the  time 
of  vaccination  and  the  onset  of  the  disease  varying  from  8  months 
and  18  days  in  the  shortest  period,  to  4  years  7  months  and  2  days 
in  the  longest.  The  average  interval  for  the  year  1915  was  2  years 
2  months  and  10  days.  The  average  interval  for  the  past  3  years 
was  2  years  1  month  and  5  days. 

The  admission  rate  from  alcoholism  and  its  results  for  the  entire 
Army  during  the  year  was  12.68,  as  compared  with  13.64  in  1914 
and  13.54  in  1913.  This  rate  is  the  lowest  in  the  history  of  the  Army 
and  shows  a  steady  diminution  since  1907. 

The  death  rate  of  the  entire  Army  for  1915,  from  all  causes,  was 
4.45  per  1,000,  compared  with  4.40  for  1914,  which  was  the  lowest 
mortality  rate  in  the  Army  for  many  years.  The  death  rate  from 
disease  was  2.53  per  1,000  for  1915;  the  same  rate  for  1914  was  2.35, 
and  that  for  1906  was  3.77. 

The  discharge  rate  for  the  year  from  all  causes  was  14.06,  somewhat 
higher  than  for  1914,  when  the  rate  was  12.78  per  1,000,  but  still 
markedly  less  than  the  discharge  rates  prior  to  1910,  when  they 
ranged  from  16.64  upward. 

The  total  losses  or  the  Army  from  all  causes  (deaths,  discharges, 
and  retirements)  was  18.03  per  1,000  for  1915;  for  the  year  1914  it 
was  16.86,  the  lowest  in  the  past  decade. 

Malarial  fevers  show  the  lowest  noneffective  rate  in  the  history  of 
the  Army,  0.54.  In  1906  the  noneffective  rate  for  malarial  fevers 
alone  was  2.55  per  1,000.  The  decade  following  that  year  has  dem- 
onstrated the  effectiveness  of  the  antimalarial  measures  that  have 
been  unceasingly  employed  by  the  sanitary  officers  of  the  Army  each 
year,  exhibiting,  with  but  two  exceptions,  a  marked  decrease  in  the 
mcidents  of  the  disease. 

The  record  in  the  Philippines  ht\s  been  specially  creditable  com- 
pared to  former  years,  though  here,  as  in  Panama,  the  Medical  De- 
partment has  been  seriously  handicapped  at  several  posts  through 
lack  of  screening  due  to  insufficient  appropriation  of  funds. 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  197 

The  highest  noneffective  rate,  for  disease,  for  the  year  1915  was 
among  the  troops  stationed  in  China,  31.79  per  1,000.  Then  follows 
Panama  with  21.66;  the  Philippine  Islands,  21.42;  the  United  States, 
20.90;  Porto  Rico,  20.57,  and  Hawaii  and  Alaska  with  the  lowest 
noneffective  rates  for  the  year  1915,  16.20  for  Hawaii  and  6.02  for 

Alaska. 

Paratyphoid  fever. — Nine  cases  of  paratyphoid  fever  occurred  in 
the  entire  Army  during  the  calendar  year  1915.  Three  of  these  cases 
were  reported  from  the  Philippine  Islands  and  one  from  the  Ha- 
waiian Islands,  leaving  but  five  distributed  throughout  the  United 
States. 

The  Acting  Surgeon  General  states: 

Paratyphoid  fever  is  a  distinct  clinical  entity  and  is  not  typhoid  fever,  though 
sometimes  resembling  typical  cases  of  that  disease.  It  is  caused  by  a  different 
micro-organism,  the  bacillus  paratyphosus,  of  which  two  types  are  distinguish- 
able :  B.  paratyphosus  **  A  "  and  B,  paratyphosus  **  B ".  In  western  Europe, 
as  reported,  paratyphoid  fever  is  much  more  frequently  due  to  the  "  B  "  type 
of  bacillus  than  to  the  "A"  type.  CllnlcaUy  they  are  hardly  distinguishable, 
but  it  is  stated  that  the  "  A  "  fever  is  apt  to  last  three  or  four  days  longer. 

Paratyphoid  fever,  heretofore  but  infrequently  met  with  in  our 
Army,  appeared  in  the  New  York  division  of  the  National  Guard, 
stationed  in  the  Brownsville  district  in  August,  1916,  principally 
among  the  troops  at  Mission,  Tex.    A  few  scattering  cases  at  other 

foints  occurred  in  the  same  district,  in  all,  a  total  of  about  120  cases, 
t  is  probable  that  this  portion  of  the  State  of  Texas  contains  many 
carriers  and  foci  of  paratyphoid  fever. 

The  outbreak  of  tnis  disease  was  promptly  and  satisfactorily  met. 
The  vaccination  against  paratyphoid  fever  with  mixed  paratyphoid 
"  A "  and  "  B "  vaccine,  prepared  in  the  laboratories  of  the  Army 
Medical  School,  was  immediately  authorized  and  the  searching  of 
carriers  of  the  disease  was  vigorously  prosecuted,  camp  sites  were 
changed  and  all  sanitary  orders  rigidly  enforced  under  the  direc- 
tion of  inspectors  of  the  Army  Medical  Corps. 

The  results  of  these  measures  were  immediately  successful  in  check- 
ing this  outbreak.  The  disease  as  it  manifested  itself  in  the  New 
York  division  of  the  National  Guard  was  generally  very  mild  in 
character  and  no  deaths  occurred. 

THE  HOSPITAL  TRAIN. 

With  the  movement  of  the  militia  to  the  border,  the  majority  of 
whom  had  been  suddenly  removed  from  the  comforts  and  luxuries 
of  civil  life  and  stripped  to  the  bare  necessities  of  fighting  men, 
bringing  the  force  along  the  border  to  about  150,000  men,  it  was 
inevitable  that  a  certain  amount  of  sickness  and  disability  would 
occur.  Camp  hospitals  were  established  at  certain  points,  larger 
(base)  were  located  at  El  Paso  and  San  Antonio.  Motor  and 
animal  drawn  ambulances  were  provided  for  the  transport  of  the 
sick  and  injured  from  the  field  to  the  near-by  camp  hospitals.  The 
trivial  cases,  or  those  requiring  only  short  periods  of  convalescence, 
were  cared  for  in  the  camp  hospitals  and  the  more  serious  cases 
transferred  to  the  base  hospitals.  A  certain  proportion  of  the  latter 
cases  which  required  more  invigorating  climate  and  changed  sur- 
roimdings  were  evacuated  to  the  interior  general  hospitals  at  Wash- 


198  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  BTAFP. 

ington.  Hot  Springs,  San  Francisco,  and  elsewhere.  Provision  was 
made  lor  long-distance  trips  along  tne  border  and  in  the  interior  by 
a  hospital  train.  The  hospital  train  consisted  of  10  modified  stand- 
ard Fullman  cars,  constructed  at  the  Pullman  shops  and  designed 
jointly  by  a  medical  officer  of  the  Army  and  the  supervising  con- 
structor of  the  Pullman  shops.  This  new  train  is  different  from 
those  of  the  Spanish  War,  which  were  standard  Pullman  cars,  prac- 
tically without  modification.  The  total  capacity  of  the  new  train 
is  76  bed  cases  and  120  ambulance  cases.  Wherever  the  Pullman 
equipment  has  been  removed,  the  regulation  Armj  medical  equip- 
ment has  been  substituted.  The  use  of  hospital  trains  in  active  war- 
fare is  of  modem  development  and  very  necessary  for  proper  care  of 
the  sick  and  wounded. 

PHILIPPINE   SERVICE. 

The  details  of  administrative  matters,  which  in  every  department 
of  government  are  left  to  the  responsible  head,  are,  for  the  War 
Department,  often  confused  by  limitations  injected  in  appropriation 
bills.  To  illustrate,  the  Army  appropriation  act,  approved  March  4. 
1915,  provided  "That  on  ana  after  October  first,  nineteen  hundrea 
and  fifteen,  no  officer  or  enlisted  man  of  the  Army  shall,  except  upon 
his  own  application,  be  required  to  serve  in  a  single  tour  of  duty  for 
more  than  two  years  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  nor  more  than  three 
years  in  the  Panama  Canal  Zone,  except  in  case  of  insurrection  or  of 
actual  or  threatened  hostilities." 

Previous  to  this  time,  the  War  Department  had  fixed  upon  three 
years  as  the  tour  of  duty  for  the  Philippines  for  officers.  This 
decision  was  based  upon  reducing  the  cost  of  the  upkeep  of  this 
garrison  to  a  minimum,  and  increasing  the  efficiency  of  troops  to  a 
maximum.  Begiments  had  been  made  permanent ;  tnis  was  done  not 
only  to  reduce  the  expense  of  upkeep,  but  because  the  plan  of  chang- 
ing regiments  once  every  two  years  had  been  given  trial  for  14  years, 
with  results  that  it  was  found  practically  impossible  to  maintain  in 
the  Philippines  any  military  organization  well  prepared  for  duty 
which  might  be  required  in  case  of  invasion. 

About  the  time  of  the  re^ilation  of  the  matter  by  Congress,  ap- 
plications by  officers  for  Philippine  service  had  become  so  numerous 
that  the  Secretary  of  War  had  decided  that  in  order  to  give  all  an 
equal  chance  that  officers  should  go  on  a  roster  and  take  their  turn. 

The  present  law  is  very  disrupting  to  the  efficiency  of  the  service, 
expensive  to  the  public  funds  in  the  carrying  out,  and  it  is  involving 
many  of  our  young  officers  with  families  in  serious  financial  prob- 
lems. Every  officer  in  the  Philippines  itiust  change  station  at  least 
once  everv  two  years,  and  they  may  be  detailed  on  staff  and  other 
dutv  while  there,  and  then  return  to  a  camp  station  on  the  border, 
with  the  only  provision  for  their  family  in  rented  rooms  in  houses  in 
a  near-by  town.  For  the  young  married  officers  of  limited  income 
this  frequent  change  of  station  is  a  veritable  curse. 

The  length  of  service  for  the  Philippines  was  fully  considered  two 
years  ago  from  every  viewpoint,  including  that  of  health,  and  due 
to  the  opinion  of  the  great  majority  of  general  officers  including 
the  Surgeon  General,  the  tour  was  continued  at  three  years.  The 
noneffective  rate  for  1915  per  1,000  for  the  Philippines,  as  previoudy 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  199 

noted,  was  only  21.42,  as  compared  with  20.90  for  the  United  States. 
The  present  reistriction  should  be  removed  and  the  Army  permitted 
to  work  out  such  problems  in  a  rational  and  businesslike  manner. 

SHELTER  FOR  TROOPS. 

The  existing  barrack  accommodations  were  built  to  provide  for  a 
minimum  strength  of  65  for  Infantry  companies.  The  national 
defense  act,  which  raises  the  minimum  strength  to  100  and  provides 
additional  units  to  regiments  in  the  machine-gun^  headquarters,  and 
supply  companies  for  Infantry  and  Cavalry  regunents,  and  supply 
and  headquarters  companies  for  Field  Artillery  regiments,  will  neces- 
sitate the  extension  of  existing  barrack  accommodations  to  provide 
for  these  increases.  This  will  necessitate  increased  estimates  for  bar- 
racks and  quarters  for  the  fiscal  year  1918  to  complete  the  work  of 
extension  of  existing  barrack  accommodations  in  permanent  and 
abuidoned  posts  of  the  United  States  for  that  portion  of  the  first 
increment  oi  increase  to  be  taken  care  of  in  the  United  States  and  to 
provide  temporary  quarters  for  that  portion  of  the  increment  as- 
signed to  the  Philippines  and  Panama  and  permanent  quarters  to 
regiments  assigned  to  the  Hawaiian  Islands.  It  will  be  necessary  to 
provide  permanent  construction  for  the  second  increment  of  increase 
m  the  United  States  and  Hawaii  and  to  continue  the  temporary  shel- 
ter in  the  Philippines. 

The  estimates  for  construction  work  pertaining  to  the  military 
service  on  the  Panama  Canal  Zone  have  heretofore  oeen  prepared  by 
the  Panama  Canal  authorities,  and  these  authorities  will  continue 
to  prepare  estimates  and  undertake  construction  for  that  portion  of 
the  Army  there  located. 

TRANSFER  OF  GUARDIANSHIP  OF  YELLOWSTONE   NATIONAL  PARK  TO  THE 

INTERIOR  DEPARTMENT. 

United  States  troops  have  been  used  in  the  Yellowstone  National 
Park  since  1886  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  March  8,  1883, 
to  prevent  trespass,  intruders,  etc.  It  was  at  first  the  practice  to  de- 
tail a  certain  number  of  troops  of  Cavalry  for  this  duty.  In  1914 
it  was  arranged  to  use  a  detachment  for  this  purpose  of  8  officers 
and  200  enlisted  men.  The  Interior  Department  being  charged  with 
the  care  of  national  parks,  the  use  of  regular  troops  for  police  pur- 
poses naturally  caused  conflicting  responsibilities  oetween  the  War 
and  Interior  Departments.  Since  the  passage  of  the  act  of  1883  con- 
ditions have  materially  changed.  The  States  surrounding  the  na- 
tional parks  extended  the  protection  of  State  laws  governing  killing 
of  game,  and  the  sentiment  of  communities  surrounding  the  parl^ 
became  more  law-abiding  and  favored  complying  with  the  laws  and 
regulations  governing  park  administration.  In  the  interests  of  econ- 
omy as  well  as  the  efficiency  of  the  Army,  it  was  deemed  advisable 
to  urge  the  transfer  of  the  guardianship  of  all  national  parks  to  the 
Interior  Department.  This  was  effected  for  the  Yosemite  and 
Sequoia  Parks  in  1914.  The  transfer  of  the  Yellowstone  National 
Park  was  not  acceptable  at  that  time  to  the  Interior  Department, 
owing  to  the  lack  of  appropriations  necessary  for  the  employment  of 
civilian  rangers.    In  July  of  this  year  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior 


200 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


advised  the  Secretary  of  War  that  the  Department  of  the  Interior 
was  ready  to  cooperate  in  making  arrangements  for  the  complete 
withdrawal  of  regular  troops  from  the  Yellowstone  National  Fark, 
suggesting  that  the  detachment  of  troops  now  on  duty  in  the  park 
be  retained  there  until  shortly  after  the  close  of  the  present  tourist 
season,  between  September  15  and  October  1,  and  that  specially  se- 
lected cavalirmen  he  made  available  for  service  as  civilian  rangers 
upon  the  withdrawal  of  the  United  States  troops.  Instructions  were 
given  for  this  transfer  of  the  guardianship  of  the  park  to  the  In- 
terior Department  to  take  effect  October  1.  Such  enlisted  men  as  are 
qualified  and  desire  to  become  rangers  will  be  discharged  from  the 
Army  for  employment  by  the  Interior  Department.  Movable  Gov- 
ernment property  at  Fort  Yellowstone  has  been  ordered  shipped  to 
other  pomts.  The  buildings,  water  system,  telephone  lines,  except 
those  required  for  use  by  the  Engineer  Corps  in  the  park,  will  be 
transferred  to  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  as  was  done  in  the  case 
of  the  Yosemite  and  Sequoia  National  Parks  at  the  time  of  their 
transfer. 

REVISED  ARTICIiES  OF  WAR. 

The  project  for  the  revision  of  the  Articles  of  War  has  been 
under  consideration  of  the  War  Department  for  the  past  13  years 
and  before  Congress  for  the  past  4  years,  and  was  enacted  into  law 
in  the  Army  appropriation  act  approved  August  29, 1916.  With  the 
exception  of  a  few  articles  which  take  effect  immediately,  the  revision 
will  go  into  effect  March  1, 1917.  In  the  meantime  the  Jud^e  Advo- 
cate General  will  have  the  Manual  for  Courts-Martial  revised  and 
distributed  through  the  Army  by  February  1,  1917,  in  order  that 
there  may  be  a  month  avaUable  for  its  study  before  the  new  code,  as 
a  code,  takes  effect. 

DESERTION. 


There  were  2,382  desertions  reported  during  the  fiscal  year  1916, 
which  is  2.40  per  cent  of  the  whole  number  of  enlistment  contracts  in 
force  during  the  year,  which  is  a  decided  improvement  when  com- 

f>ared  with  4,435  reported  desertions  and  a  percentage  of  3.23  for  the 
ast  year.  These  ngures  include  the  cases  in  which  the  charge  of 
desertion  was  removed  as  having  been  erroneously  made  in  which  the 
accused  was  acquitted  and  in  which  he  was  convicted  of  the  lesser 
included  offense  of  absence  without  leave  and  retained  or  dishonor- 
ably discharged  from  the  service.  The  following  table  exhibits  the 
true  as  compared  with  the  reported  percentages  for  the  past  eight 
years: 


Year. 


Deeer- 

tiODS 

reported. 


1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1910 


4,993 
3,464 
2,504 
3,411 
4,451 
3,882 
4.435 
2,382 


ChtrgM 

UDStU- 

tafned. 


True 
oomber 
of  dflser- 

tlODS. 


311 
096 
380 
500 
871 
810 
795 
588 


4,682 
2,768 
2,124 
2,851 
3,580 
3,072 
3,640 
1.794 


Reported 

percent- 

agw. 


4.97 
3.00 
2.28 
3.00 
4.15 
3.10 
3.23 
2.40 


True  ptr- 
oentsfes. 


4.66 
2.92 
1.93 
2.50 
3.34 
2.45 
2.65 
LSI 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  201 

It  is  believed  that  a  materiml  improTement  in  discipline  was  effected 
in  the  revised  punishment  order  published  two  ^ears  ago,  which  made 
important  changes  in  tiie  regolations  gjoveming  punishment  to  be 
imposed  by  military  tribunals.  The  statistics  of  the  Judge  Advocate 
Greneral  show  a  very  great  lessening  in  the  number  of  enlisted  men 
now  placed  in  confinement  in  the  guardhouse  to  serve  punishments  as 
compared  with  former  years. 

AVIATION. 

The  concentration  of  forces  under  (Jen.  Pershing  to  protect  our 
border  marked  a  distinct  step  in  military  aviation  in  the  United 
States.  It  was  the  first  time  a  tactical  unit  from  this  branch  was 
put  in  the  field.  There  was  only  one  such  unit,  the  First  Squadron, 
San  Antonio,  Tex.,  equipped  with  ei^t  low-power«i  machines, 
which,  at  the  time  of  their  transfer  to  Columbus,  had  been  in  service 
for  many  months.  The  altitude  up  to  12,000  feet  encountered  in 
Mexico  and  the  long  distances  to  be  covered  made  Uiis  theater  a  very 
difficult  one  in  which  to  operate  aeroplanes.  Valuable  service  and  a 
great  amoimt  of  flying  were  rendered,  but  the  machines  were  quickly 
used  up.  The  appropriation  of  $500,000  made  by  Congress  March  81, 
1916,  for  the  Aviation  Section  was  the  large^  appropriation  that 
had  been  made  for  aviation  up  to  that  time.  Civilian  consulting 
engineers  were  obtained  in  connection  with  the  board  of  officers  of 
the  Aviation  Section,  and  this  board  recommended  the  purchase  of 
types  of  material.  Twelve  160  to  200  horsepower  biplanes  were  pur- 
chased. Tliese,  with  other  material,  gradually  equipped  the  aero 
squadron  with  Gen.  Pershing  in  all  details — ^motor  trucfcs,  portable 
machine  shops,  automatic  photographic  cameras,  machine  guns, 
i^oulder  rifles,  bombs,  and  other  accessories.  Difficulty  was  found 
with  the  propellers,  due  to  the  high  altitude  and  the  dry  atmosphere 
of  northern  Mexico.  Finally  a  propeller-making  plant  was  estab- 
lished at  Columbus  and  engineering  talent  all  over  the  country  con- 
sulted in  the  solution  of  the  problem,  to  the  end  that  troubles  were 
satisfactorily  solved. 

The  proj^  for  the  development  of  the  Aviation  Section  contem- 

Slates  7  aero  squadrons  for  the  Regular  Army,  12  squadrons  for  the 
rational  Guard,  and  5  for  the  defenses  on  the  coast.  The  aviation 
field  is  a  new  one  to  the  United  States,  but  the  progress  it  is  making 
in  training  personnel  and  in  developing  material  is  so  far  satisfactory. 

WASHINGTON-ALASKA  MILTTARY  CABLE  AND  TELEGRAPH  SYSTEM. 

This  system  embraces  2,627  miles  of  submarine  cable  and  448  miles 
of  land  telegraph  lines,  52  officers,  and  10  radio  stations.  Receipts 
for  current  busmess  handled  during  the  year  were  $159,819,  and  the 
value  of  official  business  at  commercial  rates  amounted  to  $194,571. 
The  yearly  outlay  for  this  system  is  about  $442,000  and  is  charged 
against  the  Army  appropriation.  There  is  no  sufficient  reason  for 
continuing  this  system  at  its  present  cost  against  Army  appropri- 
ations, for  the  reason  that  land  commimication  with  the  military  gar- 
risons in  Alaska  can  be  secured  through  Canadian  lines  in  combina- 
tion with  our  wireless  system  in  Alaska.    The  maintenance  of  this 


202  REPORT  OF  THB  OHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

system  has  been  a  heavy  burden  upon  Anny  api>ropriations  as  well 
as  upon  the  personnel  of  the  Army,  requiring  as  it  does  a  number  of 
officers  and  about  200  Signal  Cori)s  men  to  conduct  the  business  effi- 
ciently and  maintain  it  in  operation.  In  addition  to  the  personnel 
it  has  been  necessary  to  maintain  a  cable  ship.  For  five  years  effort 
has  been  made  to  have  this  system  turned  over  to  the  "Post  Office 
Department,  as  it  is  of  the  greatest  possible  value  to  the  commerce  of 
Alaska,  mail  service  of  that  country,  and  to  the  various  departments 
of  the  civil  government.  A  bill  was  introduced  in  Congress  two 
years  ago  to  turn  this  system  over  to  the  Interior  Department. 
Either  the  Interior  or  the  Post  Office  Department  had  better  be 
charged  with  the  cost  and  maintenance  of  these  lines  than  the  Army 
appropriation.  It  is  recommended  that  further  effort  be  made  to 
have  this  burden  transferred. 

SUPPLY  DEPOTS. 

In  1911  a  policy  was  adopted  which  established  depots  of  supplies 
in  areas  withm  which  troops  were  to  be  mobilized  in  the  event  of  war 
and  retaining  in  these  depots  the  supplies  necessary  to  supplement 
and  completely  equip  Organized  Militia  units  should  they  be  called 
into  service.  Three  field  supply  depots  were  established — one  in 
Philadelphia,  one  in  St.  Louis,  and  one  in  San  Francisco.  The 
fundamental  idea  was  that  any  call  for  militia  would  be  made  in 
such  time  as  to  permit  the  shipment  of  supplies  from  these  depots  to 
mobilzation  camps  in  advance  of  the  troops  arriving  from  their  com- 
pany or  regimental  rendezvous.  The  lack  of  complete  reserve  stores 
and  the  desire  to  decrease  expense  incident  to  storage  limited  these 
depots  to  three.  The  largest  of  these  depots,  and  the  only  one  of  the 
three  Teco^zed  by  specific  appropriations,  is  the  one  located  at 
Philadelphia,  in  which  were  stores  to  eauip  the  Organized  Militia  of 
16  States,  containing  the  greater  part  ot  the  Or^amzed  Militia.  The 
inadequacy  of  this  plan  was  fully  demonstrated  m  the  sudden  call  for 
the  militia  on  June  18  last  to  meet  an  emergent  condition  on  the 
Texas  border.  It  was  deemed  necessary  to  send  these  troops  to  the 
border  as  expeditiously  as  possible,  as  their  presence  there  was  neces> 
sary  to  save  a  vast  amount  of  property  and  women  and  children  in  that 
section  in  case  a  break  should  have  occurred  in  our  relations  with 
Mexico.  This  hurried  call  found  the  principal  supply  depot  at 
Philadelphia  somewhat  depleted  in  supplies,  diie  to  lack  of  appro- 
priation for  complete  reserve  supplies,  to  the  necessity  of  sending  a 
part  of  the  supplies  on  hand  to  the  Militia  of  Texas,  New  Mexico,  and 
Arizona,  and  to  an  increase  of  20,000  enlisted  men  in  the  Regular 
Army.  The  siding  facilities  at  the  depot  were  limited — two  sidings 
each  capable  of  accommodating  five  cars  at  a  time — so  that  it  was 
some  days  before  supplies  could  reach  the  necessary  points  of  mobili- 
zation. It  was  a  physical  impossibility  to  expect  supply  departments 
to  anticipate  the  action  and  have  blankets  and  clothing  at  mobiliza- 
tion camps  prior  to  the  arrival  of  men  and  recruits,  covering  as  it  did 
States  from  Maine  to  Florida. 

These  depots  were  an  experiment,  but  it  has  demonstrated  that  in 
a  sudden  call  for  troops,  the  system  of  a  small  number  of  supply 
depots  for  so  many  troops  is  an  impracticable  one  for  expeditious 
mobilization.    As  all  calls  for  the  Organized  Militia  will  probably 


REPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF,  203 

be  of  a  sudden  and  emergent  nature,  it  seems  imperative  that  supplies 
and  equipment  of  all  kinds  for  each  State  that  are  necessary  for  im- 
mediate use  in  the  field  should  be  stored  within  State  limits  and 
where  practicable  in  the  storerooms  of  regiments  themselves  under 
the  direct  control  of  the  inspector-instructors  on  duty  with  regiments. 
Arrangements  should  be  made  for  reserves  of  animals.  There  was  no 
appropriation  for  horses  and  mules  which  had  to  be  purchased  after 
the  call.  The  equipment  which  can  not  be  obtained  on  15  days'  notice 
is  that  for  which  general  supplv  depots  should  be  provided.  Based 
upon  our  experience  in  this  moBilization,  a  board  has  been  convened 
to  submit  a  new  plan  for  the  supply  of  National  Guard  and  volunteers 
when  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  which  when 
made  will  be  subject  to  the  scrutiny  and  recommendation  of  the 
General  Staff. 

AUTHORIZED  LAND  PURCHASES. 

The  current  Army  appropriation  act  makes  provision  for  the 
acquirement  of  lots  of  land  for  military  purposes. 

Three  hundred  thousand  dollars  is  appropriated  for  the  Aviation 
School  and  Training  Ground  at  San  Diego,  Cal.  The  site  has  been 
recommended  by  a  board  of  officers,  and  steps  are  now  being  taken  to 
acquire  it.  There  was  an  additional  appropriation  of  $300,000  for 
other  land  for  aviation  purposes  in  case  no  militarv  reservations  were 
found  suited  to  the  purpose.  A  board  of  officers  has  baan  appointed 
to  examine  the  present  reservations.  Action  will  be  taken  as  soon  as 
this  report  is  received. 

At  Fort  Sam  Houston,  Tex.,  an  appropriation  of  $750,000  was  made 
for  the  acquisition  of  additional  land  for  adequate  supply  depots, 
for  terminal  facilities  of  that  post  and  for  the  Southern  Department. 
The  land  is  estimated  to  cost  about  $300,000.  Steps  are  bemg  taken 
to  acquire  the  land  under  consideration. 

For  Vancouver  Barracks,  Wash.,  $100,000  was  appropriated  to 
provide  suitable  target  ranges  for  each  arm  of  the  military  service 
stationed  at  that  post.  The  land  was  to  cost  about  $70,000.  Suitable 
sites  are  under  investigation  by  department  and  post  authorities. 

For  Fort  Bliss,  Tex.,  $120,000  was  appropriated  for  the  af*qulsl 
tion  of  certain  private  holdings  now  within  the  target  range.  Effort  is 
now  being  maae  to  purchase  these  tracts  within  the  appropriation. 
If  this  falls,  condemnation  proceedings  will  be  resorted  to. 

Three  hundred  thousand  dollars  is  appropriated  for  the  acquisition 
of  the  necessary  land  for  suitable  ranges  for  field  artillery  practice. 
These  purchases  are  under  investigation  by  the  Militia  Bureau. 

The  last  Army  appropriation  act  also  directed  the  Secretary  of 
War  to  investigate  and  report  to  Congress  as  soon  as  practicable  what 
additional  tracts  are  necessary  for  permanent  mobilization,  training, 
and  supply  stations  for  use  by  the  National  Guard  and  by  the  Reg- 
ular Army  and  the  probable  cost  of  same.  A  board  of  officers  is 
to  be  appointed  to  make  thorough  report  upon  this  subject. 

The  fortification  act  approved  July  6,  1916,  provided  the  sum  of 
$1,400,000  for  the  acc[uisition  of  sites  for  coast  defenses  and  this 
amount  is  to  be  applied  to  the  acquisition  of  the  land  required  at 
Rockaway  Beach.  Negotiations  are  now  in  progress  with  a  view  to 
the  completion  of  the  acquisition  of  the  land  as  soon  as  practicable 


204  BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

and  the  initiation  of  the  construction  of  the  defenses  as  soon  as  funds 
may  be  provided  therefor. 

UNITED  STATES  MILITARY  ACADEMY. 

Since  my  last  report  a  law  has  been  enacted  by  Congress  increasing 
the  number  of  caaetships  to  1,332.  When  that  law  is  in  full  effect 
four  years  from  now  it  is  anticipated  that  it  will  place  about  1,200 
cadets  at  the  academy.  This  increase,  although  spread  over  a  pe- 
riod of  four  years,  makes  it  imperative  that  the  erection  of  the  neces- 
sary buildings  to  meet  the  increase  should  be  started  at  the  earliest 
possible  date.  It  will  require  two  years  and  perhaps  more  in  some 
cases  to  complete  the  large  buildings  after  they  are  started.  This 
coming  year  s  increase  can  be  handled  with  the  present  plant,  but 
further  increases  in  the  number  of  cadets  call  for  material  increase 
of  accommodations.  The  superintendent  of  the  academy,  in  his 
annual  report,  submits  a  construction  plan  calling  for  an  expenditure 
of  approximated  $3,000,000.  A  board  of  officers  has  been  appointed 
to  report  upon  this  important  matter  by  December  1. 

The  growth  in  size  and  importance  of  this  institution  makes  it  im- 
portant, in  order  to  properly  maintain  the  dignity  of  the  position  of 
the  superintendent,  that  he  should  have  the  temporary  rank  of  a 
general  officer,  whatever  his  rank  may  be  when  detailed  to  the  posi- 
tion. I  therefore  recommend  that  the  law  which  now  gives  him  the 
temporary  rank  of  colonel  be  changed  to  give  him  the  temporary 
rank  of  brigadier  general.  The  authorized  number  of  cadets  at  the 
United  States  Military  Academy,  at  the  time  of  the  passage  of  the 
law,  June  12,  1858  (sec.  1310,  Rev.  Stat.),  giving  the  superin- 
tendent the  grade  of  colonel,  was  282. 

INEQUALITIES  OF  RANK  IN   MILITARY  AND   NAVAL  SERVICE. 

There  is  every  reason  that  in  the  military  and  naval  service  of  the 
United  States  there  should  be  such  coordination  of  rank  for  duty 
as  will  not  induce  invidious  comparisons.  In  both  services,  where 
similar  interests  are  involved,  they  should  be  considered  alike  in  the 
enactment  of  laws.  If  a  superior  grade  is  created  for  one  service, 
a  similar  grade  should  be  created  for  the  other,  so  that  all  the  officers 
of  one  service  will  be  on  a  footing  of  official  equality  with  officers 
holding  similar  commands  in  the  other  service  and  in  the  services  of 
the  world.  Otherwise  embarrassment  results  when  the  two  branches 
are  brought  in  contact  with  each  other  and  with  officers  of  foreign 
services.  If  in  all  those  joint  matters  in  which  the  Army  and  Navy 
are  concerned,  the  Navy,  by  reason  of  the  possession  of  superior 
grades  is  entitled  to  outrank  the  Army,  it  is  easy  to  see  that  the  Army 
will,  perforce,  be  looked  upon  as  a  subordinate  branch. 

The  act  of  March  4,  1915,  provided  the  grade  of  admiral  for  the 
commander  in  chief  of  the  United  States  Atlantic  Fleet,  the  com- 
mander in  chief  of  the  United  States  Pacific  Fleet,  ana  the  com- 
mander in  chief  of  the  United  States  Asiatic  Fleet.  The  second  in 
command  of  these  fleets  was  given  the  rank  of  vice  admiraL  These 
ffrades  correspond  to  the  grades  of  general  and  lieutenant  general 
in  our  service.    The  duties  of  a  fleet  commander  may  properly  be 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  205 

compared  to  those  of  the  commander  of  a  tactical  division,  of  a  de- 
partment, of  the  commander  of  the  land  forces  of  the  United  States 
m  the  Philippine  Islands,  the  Hawaiian  Islands,  and  the  Panama 
Canal  Zone.  These  officers  of  the  Navy  are  given  this  rank  only 
during  the  performance  of  duty  and  then  return  to  the  lower  grade 
of  rear  admiral,  of  which  there  are  24  on  the  active  list  of  the  Navy. 
The  Navy  has  no  grade  corresponding  to  that  of  brigadier  general 
in  our  service,  which  grade  has  also  disappeared  from  nearly  all 
the  armies  of  the  world.  The  chiefs  of  bureaus  of  the  Navy  Depart- 
ment are  thus  superior  to  all  bureau  chiefs  of  the  War  Department 
except  the  two  who  received  the  favor  of  special  laws  giving  them  in- 
creased rank.  The  result  is  that  most  bureau  chiefs  of  the  War  De- 
partment and  all  brigadier  generals  of  the  line  are  junior  in  grade 
to  officers  of  the  Navy  performing  corresponding  duty.  An  adjust- 
ment hj  Congress  of  these  differences  and  distinctions  and  doing 
away  with  the  grade  of  brigadier  general  would  materially  benefit 
the  efficiency  of  the  military  service. 

The  naval  appropriation  act  for  the  current  fiscal  year,  approved 
August  29,  1916,  provides  for  a  Chief  of  Naval  Operations,  who 
under  the  terms  oi  the  act  shall  have  the  rank  and  title  of  admiral, 
to  take  rank  next  after  the  Admiral  of  the  Navy  (Admiral  t)ewey). 
The  Chief  of  Naval  Operations  under  the  new  naval  law  has  duties 
corresponding  to  those  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army,  and  he  is 
given  two  grades  of  rank  above  the  Chief  of  Staff  of  the  Army.  The 
scope  of  his  authority  may  be  seen  from  the  following  extract  from 
the  law : 

All  orders  issued  by  the  Chief  of  Naval  Operations  in  performing  the  duties 
assigned  him  shall  be  performed  under  the  authority  of  the  Secretary  of  the 
Navy,  and  his  orders  shall  be  considered  as  emanating  from  the  Secretary  of 
the  Navy  and  shall  have  full  force  and  effect  as  such. 

A  similar  law  covering  the  functions  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  would 
solve  many  questions  and  relieve  the  Secretary  of  War  from  the 
necessity  of  giving  his  personal  attention  to  many  small  details  of 
administration  which  now  take  up  his  time. 

In  this  connection  attention  is  invited  to  the  following  provision 
in  the  same  act : 

That  officers  of  the  Marine  Corps  with  the  rank  of  colonel  who  shall  have 
served  faithfully  for  forty -five  years  on  the  active  list  shall,  when  retired,  have 
the  rank  of  brigadier  general ;  and  such  oflicers  who  shall  hereafter  be  retired 
at  the  age  of  sixty-four  years,  before  having  served  for  forty-five  years,  but  who 
shall  have  served  faithfully  on  the  active  list  until  retired,  shall,  on  the  com- 
pletion of  forty  years  from  their  entry  in  the  naval  service,  have  the  rank 
of  brigadier  general. 

A  similar  provision  for  officers  of  the  Regular  Army  would  be  very 
appropriate,  otherwise  the  Army  becomes  the  object  of  comparison 
with  what  may  seem  to  be  the  more  favored  branch  of  Congress. 

DELAYS  IN  PRINTING. 

The  War  Department  has  experienced  frequent  and  embarrassing 
delays  in  obtaining  from  the  Government  Printing  Office  blank  forms 
for  use  of  the  Army  under  ordinary  circumstances,  and  this  em- 
barrassment has  been  greatly  increased  by  the  many  delays  which 


206  BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

occurred  in  obtaining  blanks  for  use  of  the  National  Guard  while  in 
the  service  of  the  United  States. 

The  delay  in  printing  orders  and  bulletins  is  the  same  as  that 
experienced  in  the  printing  of  the  blank  forms,  and  it  is  probable 
that  the  pressure  of  work  at  the  Government  Printing  Office  is  such 
that  prompt  delivery  of  the  department's  printing  can  not  be  made. 
This  IS  especially  so  while  Congress  is  in  session,  during  which  time 
the  congressional  work  takes  precedence  of  all  others.  The  Public 
Printer  nas  been  uniformly  courteous  and  obliging  and  has  put  forth 
special  efforts  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  department,  and  the  heads  of 
his  several  departments  have  cooperated  to  the  full  extent  of  their 
ability. 

It  is  recommended  that  an  effort  be  made  to  have  the  present  branch 
printing  office  materially  enlarged  so  that  it  will  be  able  to  handle 
the  printing  of  practically  all  the  orders,  bulletins,  and  changes  and 
all  of  the  smaller  blank  forms  that  are  printed  by  the  department. 

To  accomplish  this  it  will  be  necessary  to  provide  much  more  com- 
modious quarters  than  it  is  believed  can  be  provided  in  the  State, 
War,  and  Navy  Building.  Ample  provision  in  the  way  of  space 
for  an  office  large  enough  to  do  the  work  referred  to  may  be  had  by 
removing  the  office  to  the  building  at  1725  F  Street  NW.,  which 
belongs  to  the  War  Department,  and  is  now  occupied  by  a  branch 
of  the  Insular  Bureau.  Some  years  ago  the  War  Department  branch 
printing  office  was  located  in  this  building  and  at  that  time  printed 
all  the  desertion  circulars  and  the  Army  List  and  Directory,  so 
that  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  it  would  be  ample  for  the  purpose 
indicated. 

CENSORSHIP  OF  INFORMATION  IN  TIME  OF  PEACE, 

In  my  report  of  last  year  I  invited  attention  to  the  importance  of 
devising  some  legal  plan  for  a  censorship  during  time  of  war.  It 
is  reasonable  to  expect  that  if  the  public  peace  is  in  jeopardy  or 
our  relations  with  another  power  become  strained,  most  editors  and 
press  associations  would  refrain  from  publishing  information  con- 
cerning our  troops  and  material  which  would  be  of  advantage  to  the 
enemy.  On  the  other  hand,  the  press  must  suppler  the  public  with 
news,  and  much  information  will  be  given  out  which  will  interfere 
with  plans  for  national  defense  or  the  preservation  of  peace  within 
our  country.  This  matter  has  during  the  year  been  very  fully  con- 
sidered by  the  General  Staff,  by  the  Judge  Advocate  General  of  the 
Army,  and  by  the  Joint  Board  of  Army  and  Navy  officers.  As  a 
result  of  this  consideration  the  view  was  held  that  so  long  as  the 
freedom  of  speech  and  press  do  not  permit  publications  injurious  to 
the  public  or  private  morals,  there  has  never  been  a  right  to  publish 
matter  endangering  the  safety  of  the  country.  In  order  to  give  full 
sanction  to  this,  the  passage  of  a  law  was  recommended  to  the  chair- 
men of  the  Judiciary  Committees  of  the  Senate  and  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives, but  no  action  was  taken  at  the  last  session  of  Congress. 
In  order  to  invite  full  discussion  of  this  proposed  measure,  and  in 
the  hope  that  thereby  action  may  be  hastened  in  Congress,  the  pro- 
posed draft  is  given  herewith,  as  follows: 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  RepreientativeM  of  t?ie  United 
States  of  America  in  Congress  assemhledt  That  whenever  in  his  judgment  the 


BEPOET  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  207 

defense  of  the  country  or  the  preservation  of  the  public  peace  requires  such 
action,  the  President  may  issue  a  proclamation  prohibiting  the  publication  of 
any  or  all  information,  facts,  rumors,  or  speculations  referring  to  the  armed 
forces  of  the  Government,  materials  or  implements  of  war,  or  the  means  and 
measures  that  may  be  contemplated  for  the  defense  of  the  country,  except  when 
such  publication  shall  have  been  duly  authorized,  and  he  may  issue  such  regula- 
tions as  may  be  necessary  to  render  such  prohibition  effective. 

Sec.  2.  That  after  the  President  shall  have  issued  such  proclamation  as  is 
authorized  by  section  one  of  this  act  it  shall  be  unlawful  for  any  person  or  cor- 
poration, or  any  officer,  director,  or  agent  of  a  corporation,  in  his  capacity  as 
such,  within  the  Jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  to  publish,  or  cause  or 
procure  or  willingly  or  through  negligence  permit  to  be  published,  or  to  assist 
in  the  publication  of  any  information,  facts,  rumors,  or  speculations  prohibited 
by  the  terms  of  the  proclamation  or  regulations  issued  under  this  act,  except 
when  such  publication  shall  have  been  duly  authorized  under  such  regula- 
tions, and  any  person  who  so  offends  may  be  punished  by  a  fine  of  not  more 
than  ten  thousand  dollars  or  by  a  term  of  imprisonment  of  not  more  than  three 
years,  or  both.  Any  corporation  which  so  offends  shall  be  punished  by  a  fine  of 
not  more  than  twenty  thousand  dollars;  and  any  officer,  director,  or  agent  of 
any. corporation  who  shall  consent  to,  connive  at,  or  through  negligence  permit 
any  violation  of  the  provisions  of  this  act  by  such  corporation  or  by  any  of  its 
agents  or  agencies  shall  be  punished  by  a  fine  of  not  more  than  ten  thousand 
dollars  or  by  a  term  of  Imprisonment  of  not  more  than  three  years,  or  both. 

Sec.  3.  That  when,  in  the  Judgment  of  the  President,  the  defense  of  the 
country  or  the  preservation  of  the  public  peace  no  longer  requires  prohibition 
of  publication,  he  shall  issue  a  proclamation  revoking  any  proclamation  issued 
under  section  1  of  this  act,  and  thereafter  the  pains  and  penalties  authorized 
by  this  act,  except  for  violations  thereof  committed  prior  to  such  revocation, 
shall  not  be  effective  until  a  further  proclamation  is  issued  under  authority 
of  this  act. 

MOBILIZATION  OF  INDUSTRIES. 

Section  120  of  the  national  defense  act  of  June  3,  1916,  provides 
that  the  Secretary  of  War  shall  make,  or  cause  to  be  made,  a  com- 
plete list  of  all  privately  owned  plants  in  the  United  States  equipped 
to  manufacture  arms  and  ammunition  or  the  component  parts 
thereof. 

The  President  is  authorized,  in  his  discretion,  to  appoint  a  Board 
on  Mobilization  of  Industries  essential  for  military  preparedness, 
nonpartisan  in  character,  and  to  take  all  necessary  steps  to  provide 
for  such  clerical  assistance  as  may  be  deemed  necessary  to  organize 
and  coordinate  the  work. 

Section  121  of  the  same  act  authorizes  the  Secretary  of  War  to 
appoint  a  board  of  five  citizens,  two  of  whom  shall  be  civilians  and 
three  of  whom  shall  be  officers  of  the  Army,  to  investi^te  and  report 
to  him  the  feasibility^  the  desirability,  and  practicability  of  the  Gov- 
ernment manufacturmg  arms  and  munitions  and  equipment.  The 
Secretarv  of  War  is  directed  to  transmit  the  report  or  this  committee 
to  Confffess  on  or  before  January  1, 1917. 

The  Naval  Consulting  Board  has  prepared  extensive  lists  of  manu- 
facturing concerns  and  privately  owned  plants.  Army  officers  have 
cooperated  with  the  Naval  Consulting  Board  in  preparation  of  these 
lists.  Inventories  of  some  20,000  concerns  are  now  being  arranged  in 
the  office  of  the  Naval  Consulting  Board.  When  completed,  copies 
of  these  lists  are  to  be  furnished  the  War  Department. 

The  investigation  required  as  to  the  Government  manufacture  of 
arms  is  proceeding  through  the  office  of  the  Chief  of  Ordnance.  This 
investigation  has  been  delayed  on  account  of  the  great  rush  of  work 
due  to  the  calling  of  the  militia  into  the  Federal  service  and  increase 


208  BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

of  the  Regular  Army.    The  committee  will  be  appointed  and  the 
report  rendered  on  January  1, 1917,  as  required. 

I  have  omitted  from  this  report  statistics  usually  embodied  con- 
cerning the  authorized  and  actual  strength  of  the  nulitary  establish- 
ment, geographical  distribution  of  troops,  and  information  of  de- 
tached officers  and  other  incidental  details,  as  these  matters  are  fully 
covered  in  other  reports. 

Attention  is  invited  to  reports  of  department  commanders  and  to 
the  reports  of  chiefs  of  bureaus  and  corps  of  the  War  Department 
as  containing  interesting  detailed  information  of  their  respective 
responsibilities. 

H.  L.  Scott, 
Major  Generaly  Chief  of  Staff. 

To  the  Secretary  of  War. 


APPENDIX. 


War  Department, 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Staff, 

War  College  Division, 
Washington^  September  11  j  1916. 

Memorandum  for  the  Chief  of  Staff: 
Subject:  Military  policy. 

1.  Memorandums  from  your  office,  dated  March  11  and  March  17, 
1915,  directed  the  War  College  Division  to  make  a  complete  and  ex- 
haustive study  of  a  proper  military  policy  for  the  United  States,  and 
to  prepare  a  clearly  and  succinctly  expressed  statement  of  the  policy, 
basing  it,  in  a  general  way,  upon  the  "  Report  on  the  Organization  oi 
the  Land  Forces  of  the  United  States,  1912,"  "  eliminating  every- 
thing that  is  not  necessary  for  the  easy  and  quick  comprehension  of 
the  military  policy,  and  adding  anythmg  which  may  be  necessary  to 
afford  such  comprehension." 

2.  The  following  extract  from  the  memorandum  of  March  17, 1916, 
gives  the  subjects  which  the  "  statement "  was  to  cover,  viz : 

The  substance  of  this  policy  wUl,  therefore,  be  a  clearly  and  succinctly  ex- 
pressed statement,  with  the  reasons  therefor,  of  the  recommended  strength  and 
organization  of — 

I.  (a)  The  Regular  Army; 
(6)  The  Organized  Militia. 

This  should  be  followed  by — 

II.  A  careful  study  of  the  question  of  a  reserve  for  both  the  Regular  Army 
and  the  Organized  Militia  and,  if  possible  to  agree  upon  it,  a  plan  for  the  forma- 
tion of  such  reserves. 

III.  The  Volunteers:  Their  organization  and  relation  to  the  Regular  Army 
and  the  Organized  Militia. 

IV.  Reserve  material  and  supplies  which  should  be  available  and  which  can 
not  be  promptly  obtained  if  delayed  till  the  outbreak  of  war. 

The  Secretary  of  War  is  of  the  opinion  that  a  statement  which  shall  contain 
everything  that  is  pertinent  to  the  foregoing  subjects  will  Inform  Congress  of 
all  the  essential  things  that  the  best  Judgment  of  the  War  Department  thinks 
it  Is  Justified  In  asking  Congress  to  provide  in  peace  and  to  be  prepared  to  pro- 
vide in  war.  These  things,  being  such  as  commend  themselves  to  the  general 
miUtary  intelligence  (if  they  do  not  so  commend  themselves  there  can  be  no 
policy  such  as  is  now  aimed  at),  may  be  assumed  to  be  those  that  will  be  asked 
for  by  succeeding  administrations  of  the  War  Department — ^at  least,  they  wUl 
indicate  the  general  line  of  ^development  to  be  pursued.  Such  a  statement  wiU 
constitute  what  he  has  in  mind  as  a  comprehensive  military  policy. 

There  are  many  other  things  that  will  from  time  to  time  be  asked  of  Con- 
gress or,  when  authority  exists  for  it,  that  will  be  done  without  asking  legisla- 
tion. Such  things  may  be  requests  for  appropriations  to  build  new  posts  in 
view  of  the  abandoning  of  others ;  the  concentration  of  the  Army  in  a  swaller 
number  of  posts  in  definite  areas  of  the  country;  projects  for  promotion,  re- 
tirement, etc. ;  plans  for  training  the  Army  and  the  militia,  etc. 

68176*— WAB 1916— VOL  1 14  209 


210  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

Such  things  have  no  part  in  the  statement  of  a  general  military  policy  which 
the  Secretary  of  War  now  desires  to  have  prepared,  and  in  order  to  save  time 
and  labor  and  to  concentrate  attention  upon  that  which  is  essential,  he  desires 
any  such  extraneous  matter  to  be  eliminated  from  the  study  which  he  has 
directed. 

3.  Following  these  lines  the  accompanying  "  Statement  of  a  Proper 
Military  Policy  for  the  United  States  "  was  prepared. 

4.  It  is  proposed  to  supplement  this  statement  later  with  brochures 
on  such  subjects  as  require  more  detailed  discussion  than  would  be 
appropriate  herein. 

M.  M.  Macomb, 
Brigadier  Oeneraly  Chief  of  War  College  Division. 


A  PEOPEE  MILITARY  POUCY  FOE  THE  ITNITED  STATES. 

INTBODXTCTION. 
THE  MILITARY  PROBLEM  CONFRONTING  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

1.  TJie  evolution  of  national  military  policies. — National  policies 
are  evolved  and  are  expanded  as  the  Nation  grows.  They  renect  the 
national  sense  of  responsibility  and  also  the  national  ambitions. 
They  constitute  the  doctrine  underlying  acts  of  statesmanship  and 
diplomacy.  A  nation's  military  policy  is  the  national  doctrme  of 
self-preservation.  The  world  is  never  without  virile,  capable,  and 
progressive  nations,  the  circumstances  of  whose  development  have 
imbued  them  with  the  belief  that  their  vital  interests  demand  an 
active  aggressive  policy.  They  are  forced  to  resort  to  imiversal 
service  in  the  effort  to  fulfill,  at  any  cost,  what  they  conceive  to  be 
their  destiny.  In  the  United  States  the  development  of  the  Nation 
has  proceeded  under  an  environment  so  favorable  that  there  is  no 
well-defined  public  opinion  in  regard  to  what  constitutes  an  ade- 
quate military  policy.  Heretofore  isolation,  combined  with  the  neces- 
sity of  preserving  the  balance  of  power,  has  been  a  sufficient  guaranty 
against  strong  hostile  expeditions  from  Europe  or  Asia.  The  safe- 
guard of  isolation  no  longer  exists.  The  oceans,  once  barriers,  are 
now  easy  avenues  of  approach  by  reason  of  the  number,  speed,  and 
carrying  capacity  of  ocean-going  vessels.  The  increasing  radii  of 
action  of  the  submarine,  the  aeroplane,  and  wireless  telegraphy  all 
supplement  ocean  transport  in  placing  both  our  Atlantic  and  Pacific 
coasts  within  the  sphere  of  hostile  activities  of  oversea  nations. 

The  great  mass  of  the  public  does  not  yet  realize  the  e&ct  of  these 
changed  conditions  upon  our  scheme  of  defense. 

Ajiother  thin^  that  militates  against  the  evolution  of  a  soimd 
military  policy  lor  our  country  is  me  erroneous  conclusion  drawn  by 
the  people  from  our  past  experiences  in  war.    In  developing  such  a 

1)olicy  victory  is  often  a  less  trustworthy  guide  than  defeat.  We 
lave  been  plunged  into  many  wars  and  have  ultimately  emerged 
successfully  from  each  of  them.  The  general  public  points  to  these 
experiences  as  an  indication  that  our  military  policy  has  been  and 
still  continues  to  be  soimd.  That  this  is  not  really  the  belief  of  those 
in  authority  is  shown  b^  the  fact  that  each  war  of  importance  has 
been  followed  by  an  official  investigation  of  our  military  system  and 
the  policy  under  which  it  operated.  The  reports  of  these  investiga- 
tions give  a  startling  picture  of  faulty  leadership,  needless  waste  of 
lives  and  property,  costly  overhead  charges  augmented  by  payment 
of  bounties  to  keep  up  voluntary  enlistments,  undue  prolongations  of 
all  these  wars,  and  finally  reckless  expenditure  of  public  funds  for 
continuing  pensions.  These  documents  supply  convincing  proofs 
that  all  such  shortcomings  have  been  due  entirely  to  a  lack  of  ade- 
quate preparation  for  war  in  time  of  peace.    But  we  have  not  yet 

211 


212  BEPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

learned  our  lesson.  It  has  never  been  driven  home  by  the  bitterness 
of  defeat.  We  have  never  known  a  Jena  or  a  Sedan.  At  no  stage 
of  our  national  life  have  we  been  brought  face  to  face  with  the  armed 
strength  of  a  great  world  power  free  to  land  sufficient  forces  to  gain 
a  foothold  at  any  desired  portion  of  our  coasts.  That  we  have  to 
some  extent  felt  this  danger  is  evidenced  by  our  efforts  to  provide  a 
navy  as  a  first  line  of  defense  and  to  supplement  it  with  the  necessary 
harbor  fortifications ;  but  we  have  not  yet  realized  that  our  ultimate 
safeguard  is  an  adequate  and  well-organized  mobile  land  force. 
Experience  in  war  has  shown  the  need  of  these  three  elements,  but 
the  public  has  not  yet  demanded  that  they  be  perfected,  coordinated, 
and  combined  in  one  harmonious  system  of  national  defense.  Not 
until  this  has  been  accomplished  will  a  proper  military  policy  for  the 
United  States  be  adopted. 

2.  Our  abiding  national  policies. — The  majority  of  our  people  have 
always  believed  in  asserting  their  own  rights  and  in  respecting  those 
of  others.  They  desire  that  the  cause  of  right  should  prevail  and  that 
lawlessness  should  be  crushed  out.  To  live  up  to  these  high  ideals 
imposes  upon  us  new  duties  as  a  world  power ;  duties  that  require 
something  more  positive  than  a  policy  or  mere  passive  defense.  In 
addition,  there  are  two  underlying  and  abiding  national  policies 
whose  maintenace  we  must  consider  as  necessary  to  our  national  life. 
These  are  the  "  ^Monroe  doctrine  "  and  the  policy  of  avoiding  "  entan- 
gling alliances."  They  are  distinctive  and  affect  our  international 
relations  in  a  definite  manner.  In  addition,  policies  may  develop  in 
the  future  as  a  result  of  international  relations  with  respect  to  trade 
conditions. 

A  general  consideration  of  our  responsibilities  as  a  nation  and  of 
our  geographical  position  indicates  that  the  maintenance  of  our 
abiding  policies  and  interests  at  home  and  abroad  involves  problems 
of  defense  measures  both  on  land  and  on  sea.  The  solution  of  the 
general  problem  of  national  defense  must  be  sought  in  the  provision 
of  adequate  land  and  sea  forces  and  a  consideration  of  their  coor- 
dinate relationship. 

3.  Coordinate  relationship  of  Army  and  Navy. — ^Upon  the  Navy 
devolves  the  solution  of  the  problem  of  securing  and  maintaining 
control  of  the  sea.  To  accomplish  this  it  must  be  free  to  take  the 
offensive  promptly — that  is,  to  seek  out  and  defeat  the  enemy  fleet. 
The  use  oi  any  part  of  the  high-sea  fleet  for  local  defense  defeats  the 
chief  object  or  tne  Navy  and  is  a  misuse  of  naval  power.  A  fleet  de- 
feated at  sea  and  undefended  by  an  adequate  army  is  powerless 
either  to  prevent  invasion  or  even  its  own  ultimate  destruction  by 
combined  nostile  land  and  naval  forces.  In  illustration  compare  the 
cases  of  the  Spanish  fleet  at  Santiago  and  the  Russian  fleet  at  Port 
Arthur  with  the  present  example  of  the  German,  Austrian,  and 
Turkish  fleets  under  the  protection  of  land  forces. 

Upon  the  Army  devolves  the  task  of  gaining  and  maintaining  on 
shore  the  ascendency  over  hostile  land  and  naval  operations.  To 
accomplish  this  it  must  be  able  to  seek  out  promptly  and  to  defeat, 
capture,  or  destroy  the  invader  wherever  he  may  attempt  either  to 
secure  a  footing  upon  our  territory  or  to  enter  the  waters  of  our  har- 
bors with  the  object  of  threatening  the  destruction  of  the  seaport 
or  of  a  fleet  driven  to  seek  refuge  or  repair  therein. 


REPORT  OF  THE   CHIEF   OF  STAFF.  213 

The  problems  involved  in  operations  against  hostile  land  forces 
are  complex  and  include  only  as  an  incident  the  protection  of  harbor 
defenses  on  the  land  side.  The  problems  of  harbor  defense  against 
attack  from  the  sea  are  simple  and  passive  in  their  nature. 

4.  Coordinate  relationship  of  statesman  and  soldier. — In  our  coun- 
try public  opinion  estimates  the  situation,  statecraft  shapes  the 
policy,  while  the  duty  of  executing  it  devolves  upon  the  military 
and  naval  departments. 

Such  a  doctrine  is  sound  in  direct  proportion  to  its  success  in  pro- 
ducing a  military  system  capable  of  devoloping  fighting  power  suffi- 
cient to  meet  any  given  national  emergency,  at  the  proper  time,  sup- 
ported by  all  the  resources,  technical  and  economic,  oi  the  country, 
m  a  word — preparedness.  All  the  other  world  powers  of  to-day  have 
realized  the  necessity  of  maintaining  highly  trained  and  organized 
military  and  naval  forces  in  time  of  peace,  and  all,  or  nearly  all,  are 
allied  in  powerf  itl  coalitions. 

Without  superiority  on  the  sea  or  an  adequate  land  force  there  is 
nothing  to  prevent  any  hostile  power  or  coalition  of  powers  from 
landing  on  our  shores  such  part  of  its  trained  and  disciplined  troops 
as  its  available  transports  can  carry.  The  time  required  is  limited 
only  by  the  average  speed  of  its  vessels  and  the  delay  necessarily 
consumed  in  embarking  and  disembarking. 

In  order  that  the  American  people  can  intelligently  decide  on  a 
doctrine  of  preparedness  which  shall  constitute  the  military  policy 
of  the  United  States,  and  that  Congress  and  the  Executive  may  be 
able  to  carry  out  their  decision,  information  concerning  the  military 
strength  of  other  great  nations  and  shipping  available  for  transport 
purposes  must  be  clearly  set  forth. 

The  work  of  the  statesman  and  of  the  soldier  and  sailor  are  there- 
fore coordinate;  where  the  first  leaves  off  the  others  take  hold. 

5.  Preparedness  of  the  world  powers  for  over-sea  expeditions. — 
Control  of  the  sea  having  been  once  gained  by  our  adversary  or 
adversaries,  there  is  nothing  to  prevent  them  from  dispatching  an 
over-sea  expedition  against  us.  In  order  to  form  an  idea  of  the 
mobile  force  we  should  have  ready  to  resist  it  an  estimate  must  first 
be  made  of  the  approximate  number  of  troops  that  other  nations 
might  reasonably  be  expected  to  transport  ana  of  the  time  required 
to  land  them  on  our  coasts. 

The  number  of  thoroughly  trained  and  organized  troops  an  enemy 
can  bring  in  the  first  and  succeeding  expeditions  under  such  an 
assumption  is  a  function  of — 

(a)  The  size  of  the  enemy's  army,  and 

(6)  The  number,  size,  and  speed  of  the  vessels  of  the  enemy's  mer- 
chant marine  that  can  be  used  as  transports. 

Should  our  enemy  be  a  nation  in  arms — that  is,  one  in  which  all  or 
nearly  all  of  .the  male  inhabitants  of  suitable  physique  are  given  a 
minimum  of  two  years'  training  with  the  colors  m  time  of  peace  (and 
this  is  true  of  all  world  powers  except  ourselves  and  England),  it  is 
evident  that  the  size  of  the  first  expedition  and  succeeding  expeditions 
would  be  limited  only  by  the  number  of  vessels  in  the  transport  fleets. 
It  also  follows  that  as  the  capacity  and  number  of  steamers  in  the 
merchant  marine  of  any  nation  or  group  of  nations  increase  in  the 
future,  the  number  of  trained  soldiers  which  such  nation  could  send 


214 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


in  such  expedition  will  also  increase,  and  our  trained  forces  should 
be  correspondingljr  augumented. 

What  the  conditions  were  in  August,  1914,  is  shown  in  the  follow- 
ing table,  which  may  be  regarded  as  a  reasonable  estimate : 

Preparedness  of  the  great  powers  for  over-sea  expeditions. 


Nation. 


Austria-Hungarj  . 

France 

Germany 

Great  Britain .... 
Italy 

Russia 


Strength 
of  army. 


4,320,000 
5,000,000 


Tonnage  available  of  ships 
with  capacity  over—* 


3,000 
tons. 


2,000 
tons. 


762,756 
l,70fi,931 


5.000,000   3,560,962  4,018,185 
«69:>,00013,000,000 

2,600,000 

2,212,000 

5,000,000 


1,065,321 
'42^619 


1,000 
tons. 


First  expe- 
dition using 
60  per  cent 
ol  tonnage 
given. 


Men. 


1,013,9S5 


Ani- 
mals. 


72,000 

160,931 

« 387, 000 

170,000 

91,000 

95,715 

37,630 


Second  expe- 
dition using 
75  re  cent 
of  tonnage 
given. 


Men. 


Ani- 
mals. 


14,000   10S,000   21,600 

32,1S6   243,295   4S,279 

«  Kl,  •270,2 440, 000  > 94, 600 

90,000 1 

13,650    136,000i  20,475 


24,416 
7,940 


142,6221  36,623 
66,444|  11,918 


Time 
needed  to— 


Load 

and 

cross 

ocean 

with 

first 

expe- 

tlon. 


Daf8. 

20.7 
15.8 
15.8 
14.0 
18.3 
22.5 
20.5 


Re- 
turn, 
load, 
and 

re- 
cross 
with 
sec- 
ond 

^ 

tion. 


4a4 

3ao 

30.8 
27.0 
35.0 
41.0 

4ao 


1  Fifty  per  cent  has  been  assumed  as  the  figure  representing  the  amount  of  shipping  In  or  within  call  of 
home  ports  at  outbreak  of  war. 

s  Using  no  ships  less  than  3,000  tons. 

•  240,500  territorials. 

<  Japanese  fleld  regulations  indicate  the  intention  to  use  steamers  of  1,000  tons;  for  this  reason  and  becaoM 
<tf  the  large  amount  of  steamers  between  10  and  12  knots  speed,  all  Japanese  steamers  over  10  knots  speed 
and  a  thousand  tons  gross  have  been  considered. 

Note.— The  allowance  prescribed  in  our  Field  Service  Regulations  of  3  tons  per  man  and  8  tons  per 
animal  for  ships  over  5,000  tons  and  4  tons  per  man  and  10  tons  per  animal  for  vessels  under  5,000  tons  has 
been  used  in  estimating  the  capacity  of  ships,  except  where  the  regulati(xis  of  any  country  prescribe  a 
different  allowance.  Tnese  allowances  include  rations,  water,  forage,  etc.,  for  the  voyage  ana  a  margin 
for  three  months'  reserve  supplies.  The  tonnage  allowance  covers  men,  animals,  and  all  accessories  and 
Is  sufflcient  to  provide  for  vehicles  (Including  gims). 

Fighting  power  is  the  result  of  organization,  trainins,  and  equipment  backed  by  the  resources  of  the 
country.    Available  shipping  is  a  matter  of  commercial  statistics. 

The  Quality,  organization,  and  efficiency  of  these  troops,  except 
those  or  Japan,  which  demonstrated  their  excellence  in  the  Russo- 
Japanese  War,  are  now  undergoing  a  supreme  test  of  military 
strength  on  land  and  sea.  This  test  by  the  ordeal  of  battle  is  visibly 
demonstrating  their  organization,  their  fighting  power,  and  the  rate 
at  which  each  is  capable  of  developing  and  mamtaining  its  military 
strength.  In  addition,  where  certain  nations  have  transported  troops 
by  sea  their  capabilities  in  this  respect  have  to  some  extent  been 
shown. 

This  evidence,  produced  under  conditions  of  actual  warfare,  pre- 
sents an  example  of  the  resultant  efficiency  of  any  nation  that  has  de- 
veloped a  sound  military  policy;  the  soundest  policv  being  the  one 
which  insures  a  successful  termination  of  the  war  in  the  shortest  time. 

6.  Statement  of  the  military  problem^ — From  what  has  been  stated, 
we  are  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  we  must  be  prepai'ed  to  resist  a 
combined  land  and  sea  operation  of  formidable  strength.  Our  prin- 
cipal coast  cities  and  important  harbors  have  already  been  protected 
by  harbor  defenses  which,  by  passive  method  alone,  can  deny  to  an 
enemy  the  use  of  these  localities  as  bases  for  such  expeditions. 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  215 

The  enemy  being  unable  to  ^in  a  foothold  in  any  of  these  fortified 
areas  by  direct  naval  attack  will  therefore  be  f orcea  to  find  some  suit- 
able place  on  the  coast  from  which  land  operations  can  be  conducted 
both  against  the  important  coast  cities  and  the  rich  commercial  cen- 
ters in  the  interior.  Long  stretches  of  coast  line  between  the  fortified 
!>laces  lie  open  to  the  enemy.  The  only  reasonable  way  in  which  these 
ocalities  can  be  defended  is  by  provicfing  a  mobile  land  force  of  suffi- 
cient strength,  so  located  that  it  may  be  thrown  in  at  threatened 
points  a|;  the  proper  time. 

It  has  just  been  shown  what  the  strength  of  these  expeditions  might 
be,  as  well  as  the  time  required  for  any  one  of  them  to  develop  its 
whole  effective  force.  Hence  it  can  be  seen,  when  we  take  into  con- 
sideration the  possible  two  months'  delay  provided  by  the  Navy,  that 
our  system  should  be  able  to  furnish  500,000  trained  and  organized 
mobile  troops  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  and  to  have  at  least  500,000 
more  availaole  within  90  days  thereafter.  Here,  however,  it  must  be 
pointed  out  that  two  expeditions  alone  will  provide  a  force  large 
enough  to  cope  with  our  1,000,000  mobile  troops,  and  consequently  we 
must  at  the  outbreak  of  hostilities  provide  the  srjrstem.  to  raise  and 
train,  in  addition,  as  least  500,000  troops  to  replace  the  losses  and 
wastage  in  personnel  incident  to  war.  To  provide  this  organized 
land  force  is  the  military  problem  before  us  for  solution. 

I.  THE  BEGXJIiAB  ABMY. 
GENERAL  FUNCTIONS  OF  THE  REGULAR  ARMY. 

7.  In  the  endeavor  to  reach  a  just  conclusion  as  to  the  strength 
and  organization  of  a  regular  army  adequate  to  play  its  part  in 
our  national  defense,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  this  defense  is  a 
joint  problem  requiring  for  its  correct  solution  the  united  efforts  of 
both  Army  and  Navy,  and  that  the  ultimate  strength  of  the  greater 
war  army  is  dependent  to  a  considerable  extent  upon  the  part  to  be 
played  by  the  neet.  It  is  therefore  assumed  in  this  discussion  that 
the  Navy  is  preparing  to  place  and  maintain  in  the  Pacific,  when  the 
occasion  requires,  a  force  superior  to  that  of  any  oriental  nation,  and 
in  the  Atlantic  one  second  only  to  that  of  the  greatest  European 
naval  power. 

The  Regular  Army  is  the  peace  nucleus  of  the  greater  war  army  of 
the  Nation.  Its  strength  and  organization  should  be  determined  not 
only  by  its  relation  to  the  larger  force  but  by  its  own  peace  and  war 
functions.  It  must  be  prepared  at  all  times  to  meet  sudden  and 
special  emergencies,  which  can  not  be  met  by  the  army  of  citizen 
soldiers.  Its  units  must  be  the  models  for  the  organization  and  train- 
ing of  those  of  the  ^reat  war  army. 

Some  of  the  functions  of  the  Regular  Army  are: 

(a)  To  furnish  the  entire  strength  of  our  garrisons  outside  of  the 
United  States  proper  both  in  peace  and  war. 

(6)  To  garrison  our  harbor  defenses  within  the  United  States 
proper  in  time  of  peace. 

(c)  To  furnish  detachments  of  mobile  forces  in  time  of  peace  suffi- 
cient for  the  protection  of  these  harbor  defenses  and  naval  bases 
against  naval  raids  which,  under  modem  conditions,  may  precede  a 
declaration  of  war. 


216  BBPOBT  OF  THE  OHIEP  OF  STAFF. 

(rf)  To  furnish  sufficient  mobile  forces  to  protect  our  principal 
cities  by  preventing  the  landing  of  hostile  expeditions  for  their  cap- 
ture in  the  intervals  between  our  fortified  harbors  or  near  such  cities. 

(e)  To  supply  a  mobile  reserve  to  reenforce  our  garrisons  outside 
of  the  United  States  proper  during  periods  of  insurrection  and  dis- 
order. 

(/)  To  furnish  expeditionary  forces  for  minor  wars  resulting  from 
the  occupation  of  foreign  territorv  where  treaty  rights  or  funda- 
mental national  policies  may  have  been  threatenea. 

{ff)  To  prepare  in  advance  its  existing  administrative  and  supply 
departments  for  the  equipment,  transportation,  and  supply  or  the 
great  war  army  of  the  Nation. 

(h)  To  assist  in  the  training  of  organizations  of  citizen  soldiers. 

8.  Concerning  the  strength  and  organization  of  the  Regular  Army, 
the  following  points  are  U>  be  considered : 

(a)  At  the  outbreak  of  war  the  Regular  Army  at  home  should  be 
strong  enough,  with  the  addition  of  organized  and  trained  citizen 
soldiers,  to  form  the  first  line  of  defense  in  order  to  give  sufficient 
time  to  permit  the  mobilization  and  concentration  of  our  greater  war 
army,  and  to  seize  opportimities  for  such  immediate  initial  operations 
as  may  be  undertaken  before  the  mobilization  of  the  army  of  citizen 
soldiers  can  be  completed. 

i6)  It  should  be  so  organized  and  located  that  it  can  be  economi- 
y  and  efficiently  trained,  quickly  and  easily  mobilized  and  concen- 
trated, and  readily  used  as  a  model  in  the  education  and  training  of 
the  citizen  forces. 

MOBUJB  AND  COAST  ARTILLERY  TROOPS  AND  THEIR  FUNCTIONS. 

9.  Ejcperience  has  shown  that  our  regular  land  forces  and  others 
modeled^upon  them  must  consist  of  two  distinct  classes,  i.  e. : 

(a)  Mobile  troops. 

(b)  Coast  Artillery  troops. 

These  two  groups  have  their  own  special  functions  for  which  they 
are  trained  and  equipped  and  from  which  they  should  not  be  diverted 
except  in  some  emergency. 

The  function  of  the  Coast  Artillery  is  to  man  our  harbor  defenses 
designed  to  protect  important  seaports  from  direct  naval  attacks  and 
raids  from  the  sea.  The  armament  and  accessories  of  these  forts  are 
intended  to  be  so  complete  and  powerful  as  not  only  to  prevent 
hostile  landings  at  all  places  within  range  of  the  guns,  but  also  to 
cover  all  navigable  waters  in  the  vicinity  of  ^eat  seacoast  cities  so 
thoroughly  as  to  leave  no  dead  spaces  from  which  enemy  ships,  either 
at  anchor  or  during  a  run-by,  could  bring  them  under  bombardment. 
While  these  harbor  forts  are  important  elements  in  our  scheme  of 
defense,  thev  are,  nevertheless,  powerless  to  prevent  invasion  at 

Eoints  outsiae  the  range  of  their  guns.  The  total  length  of  our  coast 
ne  is  enormous,  and  the  stretches  covered  by  harbor  defenses  are 
and  must  remain  very  small  compared  with  the  unprotected  inter- 
vals that  lie  between  them.  If  we  should  lose  command  of  the  sea 
an  invader  would  simply  land  in  one  of  these  intervals.  It  there- 
fore follows  that  the  ultimate  defense  of  our  coasts  depends  upon 
defeating  a  mobile  army  of  invasion,  and  this  can  be  done  only  by 
having  mobile  forces  prepaFed  to  operate  in  any  possible  theater  of 


REPORT  OF   THE   CHIEF   OF  STAFF.  217 

war.  At  this  stage  of  hostilities  the  problem  becomes  one  of  cooper- 
ation between  Coast  Artillery  and  mobile  troops,  but  there  can  be  no 
fixed  relation  in  the  strength  of  these  two  classes  of  land  forces*. 
The  necessary  strength  of  Coast  Artillery  troops  depends  upon  the 
number  and  character  of  harbor  defenses  established ;  that  or  mobile 
troops  upon  the  nature  and  extent  of  the  defensive  and  offensive 
operations  for  which  the  Nation  decides  to  be  prepared. 

RELATION  BETWEEN  HOME  AND  OVERSEA  GARRISONS. 

10.  The  most  rational  method  of  determining  the  proper  strength 
and  organization  of  the  Regular  Army  is  based  upon  the  fact  that 
this  force  is  and  must  be  divided  into  two  distinct  parts — one  for 
oversea  service,  the  other  for  home  service.  Each  of  these  parts 
must  have  its  proper  quota,  both  of  mobile  and  Coast  Artillery 
troops. 

The  troops  on  oversea  service  consist  of  the  detachments  required 
to  meet  the  special  military  problems  of  the  Philippines,  Oahu, 
Panama,  Alaska,  Guantanamo,  and  Porto  Bico.  Each  of  these  de- 
tachments has  a  distinct  tactical  and  strategic  mission,  and  is  to 
operate  within  a  restricted  terrain.  All  of  them  are  limited  to  over- 
sea communication  with  the  home  country,  and  all  of  them  may 
therefore  be  isolated  for  considerable  periods,  especially  in  the  criti- 
cal fiist  stages  of  war.  It  is  obvious  that  imder  these  circumstances 
these  detachments  should  be  prepared  to  meet  all  military  emergen- 
cies until  reenforcements  from  the  United  States  can  reasonably  be 
expected.  They  must,  therefore,  be  maintained  at  all  times  at  full 
statutory  strength,  and  must,  in  addition^  be  organized  with  the  view 
to  being  self-supporting,  preferably  during  the  continuance  of  war, 
or  at  least  until  the  Navy  has  accomplished  its  primary  mission  of 
securing  the  command  of  the  sea. 

The  Force  at  home  is  on  an  entirelv  different  basia  It  may  or  may 
not  be  given  an  adequate  number  oi  units  in  time  of  peace,  but  it  is 
supported  by  atl  of  the  resources  of  the  Nation.  It  may  be  increased 
at  the  pleasure  of  Congress,  and  it  may  be  reenforced  by  considerable 
forces  of  citizen  soldiery.  It  follows  from  these  considerations  that 
the  Military  Establishment  of  the  United  States  in  time  of  peace 
should  first  provide  effective  and  sufiicient  garrisons  for  the  political 
and  strategic  outposts  of  the  United  States,  and  that  the  residue  at 
home  should  be  organized  with  the  view  to  ultimate  expansion  into 
such  war  forces  as  national  interests  may  require.  The  possibility 
of  a  satisfactory  mobilization  of  this  home  force  is  dependent  upon 
keeping  the  units  of  the  regular  contingent  at  full  statutory  strength. 

GENERAL  REQUIREMENTS  OF  OVERSEA  SERVICE. 

11.  The  Philippines. — ^A  decision  to  defend  the  Philippines  against 
a  foreign  enemy  is  a  matter  of  national  and  not  of  military  policy. 
But  in  studying  the  military  requirements  of  such  defense  it  must  be 
remembered  that,  under  conditions  of  modem  warfare,  imless  our 
Navy  has  undisputed  control  of  the  sea,  we  can  not  reenforce  the 
peace  garrison  after  a  declaration  of  war  or  while  war  is  imminent. 

12.  Oahu. — ^The  maintenance  of  the  naval  base  at  Pearl  Harbor, 
Oahu,  is  an  essential  factor  in  the  military  problem  of  holding  the 


218  REPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

Hawaiian  Islands.  These  islands  constitute  a  vital  element  in  the 
defense  of  the  Pacific  coast  and  in  securing  to  ourselves  the  full  value 
of  the  Panama  Canal  as  a  strategic  highway  between  the  two  oceans. 

The  problem  of  holding  the  Hawaiian  Islands  can  be  solved  by 
making  Oahu,  and  therefore  Pearl  Harbor,  secure  against  all  comers. 
A  satisfactory  solution  requires  the  joint  action  of  the  Army  and 
Navy.  Pearl  Harbor  and  Honolulu  are  already  protected  from 
direct  naval  attack  by  fortifications  now  nearing  completion.  These, 
v/hile  deemed  adequate  to  meet  the  conditions  existing  when  they 
were  designed,  must  now  be  strengthened  to  meet  the  recent  increase 
in  power  of  guns  afloat;  but  no  matter  how  complete  these  harbor 
fortifications  on  the  southern  coast  of  Oahu  may  be,  they  are  unable 
to  prevent  attacks  either  on  the  remaining  hundred  miles  of  coast 
lying  beyond  the  range  of  their  guns  or  on  the  other  islands  of  the 
group.  Consequently  there  should  be  in  addition  a  force  of  modern 
submarines  and  destroyers  forming  part  of  the  permanent  naval 
equipment  of  Pearl  Harbor  with  sufficient  radius  of  action  to  keep 
the  Hawaiian  waters  thoroughly  patrolled  throughout  their  whole 
extent  and  to  make  them  dangerous  for  enemy  vessels.  Should  this 
force  be  worsted  in  combat  and  withdrawn  before  the  arrival  of  our 
high-sea  fleet,  the  complete  control  of  the  local  waters  might  pass 
temporarily  to  the  enemy,  so  that  the  ultimate  security  of  both  Hono- 
lulu, the  naval  base  at  Pearl  Harbor,  and  indeed  of  the  whole  group, 
depends  upon  including  in  the  Oahu  garrison  enough  mobile  troops 
to  defeat  any  enemy  that  may  land  anywhere  on  the  island.  It  is 
clear  that  perfect  coordination  between  the  Army  and  Navy  at  this 
station  is  absolutely  essential  to  success  in  holding  this  key  to  the 
Pacific.  Unless  we  provide  such  dual  defense  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands 
we  can  not  be  sure  of  retaining  control  even  of  that  part  of  the  Pacific 
lying  within  the  sphere  of  defense  of  our  western  coast.  By  making 
such  provision  the  high-sea  fleet  is  left  free  to  seek  out  the  enemy  fleet 
in  Pacific  waters. 

13.  Panama. — ^The  Panama  Canal  is  a  very  important  strategic 
position  which  it  is  our  duty  to  hold.  By  our  control  <Jf  this  highway 
between  the  two  oceans  the  effectiveness  of  our  fleet  and  our  general 
military  power  is  enormously  increased.  It  is  therefore  obvious  that 
the  unquestioned  security  of  the  canal  is  for  us  a  vital  military  need. 
The  permanent  garrison  should  be  strong  enough  to  guard  the  locks, 
spillways,  and  other  important  works  and  to  prevent  a  naval  attack 
which,  under  modem  conditions,  may  even  precede  a  declaration  of 
war.  We  should  therefore  be  able,  even  in  peace,  to  man  the  sea- 
coast  guns  and  mine  defense  that  cover  the  approach  to  the  canal, 
and  we  must  have  enough  mobile  troops  to  deieat  raids.  A  modem 
fleet  might  land  a  small  raiding  party  of  several  thousand  bluejackets 
at  any  one  or  more  of  a  number  of  places,  and  such  a  force  landing 
out  of  range  of  the  seacoast  guns  could,  if  unopposed,  penetrate  to 
some  vulnerable  part  of  the  canal  within  a  few  hours.  The  permanent 
garrison  should  therefore  include  a  mobile  force  strong  enough  to 
anticipate  and  defeat  naval  raids  at  the  beginning  of  hostilities  and 
to  protect  the  canal  against  more  serious  land  operations  liable  to  be 
undertaken  later.  If  the  enemy  is  operating  on  one  ocean  only,  it 
might  be  possible  to  send  reenforcements  from  the  United  States,  but 
to  count  on  such  relief  would  be  running  too  great  chances.    By  au- 


BSPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  219 

thority  of  the  Bepublic  of  Panama,  this  garrison  is  given  facilities 
in  time  of  peace  to  operate  beyond  the  Canal  Zone  in  order  that  the 
troops  may  be  properly  trained  for  their  special  mission  and  made 
familiar  with  tne  terrain  over  which  they  may  be  called  upon  to 
operate  in  defending  the  canal. 

14.  Guantanamo. — ^The  policy  of  the  United  States  contemplates 
the  establishment  of  a  naval  base  at  Ouantanamo.  Garrisons  of  coast 
artillery  and  mobile  troops  are  necessary  for  its  defense  and  should 
be  assigned  to  station  there  at  the  proper  time. 

15.  Alaskcu — The  garrison  of  Alaska  should  be  large  enough  to 
support  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  and,  in  time  of  war,  to 
maintain  our  sovereignty  over  a  small  selected  area  of  the  Territory. 
As  work  on  the  Alaskan  Kailroad  progresses,  the  military  needs  of 
Alaska  will  increase. 

16.  Porto  Rico  is  to  be  classified  with  the  Philippines  and  Guam. 
Unlike  Alaska  and  Hawaii,  these  island  possessions  have  not  been 
organized  as  Territories;  nevertheless,  they  all  belong  to  the  United 
States  and  must  be  protected. 

GEXEfiAL  REQUIREMENTS  OF  HOME  SERVICE, 

17.  Oeneral  distribution  of  Coast  Artillery  troops  in  fortified 
areas. — It  has  already  been  ^own  where  we  diould  have  garrisons 
for  oversea  service  and  why.  It  now  remains  to  show  how  we  should 
distribute  our  regular  troops  for  service  at  home.  Coast  Artillery 
stations  should  correspond  to  the  fortified  areas  on  the  seacoast,  and 
these  are  indicated  by  the  position  of  the  harbor  defenses,  which  are 
at  present  located  as  follows : 

Portland,  Me.  The  Potomac.  New  Orleans. 

Portsmouth,  N.  H.  Chesapeake  Bay.  Galveston. 

Boston.  Cape  Fear.  San  Diego. 

New  Bedford.  Charleston.  Los  Angeles. 

Narragansett  Bay.  Savannah.  San  Frandsca 

Long  Island  Sound.  Tampa.  Puget  Sound. 

New  Tork.  Key  West  The  Columbia. 

The  Delaware.  Pensacola. 

Baltimore.  Mobile. 

18.  Oeneral  distribution  of  mobile  troops  in  strategic  areas. — ^As 
previously  explained,  the  influence  of  harbor  defenses  is  limited  to 
the  areas  within  the  range  of  their  guns.  To  provide  harbor  defenses 
without  mobile  forces  necessary  to  cover  the  unprotected  intervals 
that  lie  between  them  would  be  comparable  with  attempting  to  make 
a  house  burglar  proof  by  barring  the  doors  and  leaving  the  windows 
open.  There  is  not  a  case  in  history  where  seacoast  fortifications, 
efficiently  manned,  have  been  captured  by  direct  attack  from  the  sea. 
In  all  cases  of  capture  mobile  land  forces  have  been  employed  for  the 
purpose,  and  an  enemy  that  hopes  for  success  must  undertake  landing 
operations  against  us.  We  must  therefore  decide  upon  a  rational 
distribution  of  our  mobile  forces  to  meet  this  contingency. 

19-  Puget  Sound  area. — Western  Washington  is  bordered  on  the 
east  by  the  steep  and  rugged  Cascade  Mountains,  on  the  south  by 
the  Columbia  River,  and  on  the  north  by  Juan  de  Fuca  Strait  and 
Canada.  This  comer  of  the  United  States  is  completely  cut  off  from 
the  rest  of  the  country  by  great  natural  obstacles  and  presents  an 


220  BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

extensive  front  for  attack  by  sea.  While  the  maps  show  some  twenty 
passes  across  the  Cascade  Mountains,  communication  with  the  ea^ 
IS  almost  entirely  by  three  railroads,  all  crossing  at  points  less  than 
50  miles  apart  and  having  tunnels  or  other  vulnerable  structures. 
The  only  practicable  wagon  road  is  effectually  closed  to  traflSc  for 
between  four  and  five  months  each  year  by  heavy  snows.  Communi- 
cation with  the  south  is  by  one  line  of  railroad,  crossing  the  Columbia 
River  by  bridge  at  Vancouver.  Communication  between  this  section 
and  the  east  and  south  is  thus  largely  dependent  upon  a  number  of 
structures  readily  destroyed  by  high  explosives,  and  impossible  of 
restoration  to  traffic  within  a  definite  time.  The  two  railroads  along 
the  Columbia  River,  at  the  point  where  it  breaks  through  the  moun- 
tains, could  be  easily  wrecked  so  as  to  require  considerable  time  to 
repair,  and  the  gorge  could  be  held  by  a  small  force  against  a  large 
one  coming  from  the  east.  If  an  enemy  succeeds  in  entering  western 
Washington  and  in  seizing  and  destroymg  the  important  bridges  and 
tunnels,  he  would  be  so  securely  established  as  to  render  it  extremely 
difficult  to  dislodge  him.  In  this  rich  region  an  invader  could  main- 
tain himself  indefinitely.  The  harbor  defenses  maintained  in  this 
region  are  reasonably  strong.  Ordinary  precaution  demands  that  a 
mobile  force  of  reasonable  strength  be  also  maintained  in  this  region. 

20.  California  area. — ^There  are  five  transcontinental  lines  of  rail- 
way entering  California.  The  Western  Pacific  and  Southern  Pacific 
by  the  passes  through  the  Sierras  northeast  of  Sacramento;  the 
Atchison,  Topeka  &  Santa  Fe,  and  the  San  Pedro,  Los  Angeles  & 
Salt  Lake  via  Daggetts  Pass  northeast  of  Los  Angeles;  and  the 
Southern  Pacific  via  the  Salton  Sea  and  Gorgonia  Pass  southeast  of 
Los  Angeles.  There  are  no  other  passes  through  the  Sierras  that  have 
been  considered  practicable.  There  is  no  railroad  running  south 
into  Lower  Caliiornia.  Only  one  railroad,  the  Southern  Pacific, 
runs  north  into  Oregon.  As  in  the  Puget  Sound  region,  communica- 
tion with  the  east  is  largely  dependent  upon  structures  readily  de- 
stroyed by  explosives  and  impossible  of  restoration  to  traffic  within  a 
definite  time;  California  and  the  greater  centers  of  population  are 
separated  by  wide  expanses  of  sparsely  settled  country.  To  trans- 
port promptly  large  bodies  of  troops  into  California  would  be  diffi- 
cult if  not  impossible  in  face  of  opposition  at  the  passes.  The 
invader  would  have  a  most  fertile  region  at  his  back,  while  the  reverse 
would  be  the  situation  with  us. 

The  harbor  defenses  maintained  in  this  region  are  reasonably 
strong,  but  they  are  of  little  use  unless  supported  by  a  reasonably 
strong  mobile  force  maintained  in  this  region. 

To  rely,  for  defense,  during  the  first  stages  of  a  war  upon  a  mobile 
force  shipped  in  from  the  east  is  to  invite  disaster. 

21.  Atlantic  area, — In  case  of  war  with  a  first-class  power  on  the 
Atlantic,  that  portion  of  our  country  lying  between  and  including 
Maine  and  Virginia  would  undoubtedly  be  the  primary  object  of  an 
invader.  While  all  other  points  along  the  Atlantic  and  Gulf  coasts 
and  all  points  on  our  land  frontiers  would  undoubtedly  be  in  danger, 
the  danger  would  be  secondary  to  that  of  the  North  Atlantic  States 
above  named.  Here  also  the  harbor  defenses  are  reasonably  stronff, 
and  here  also  a  mobile  force  should  be  kept  sufficient  in  size  to  hold 
important  points  until  the  citizen  soldiery  can  be  mobilized. 


R£POBT  or  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF.  221 

While  many  other  regions  are  important^  the  three  regions  de- 
scribed— Pug^  Sound,  California,  and  the  North  Atlantic  States — 
contain  the  critical  areas. 

22.  Middle  West  area. — ^The  center  of  jwpulation  of  the  United 
States  is  in  the  Middle  West,  and  here  diould  be  located  a  mobile 
force  for  use  in  case  of  need  on  either  the  Pacific  or  Atlantic  coast, 
the  northern  or  southern  border. 

NECESSAKY   8TREI«JGTH   OF    MOBILE   TBOOPS   FOE  OVEB-SEA    SEBTICE. 

23.  Constant  study  of  the  problem  which  confronts  each  of  our 
oversea  garrisons  in  connection  with  the  advance  made  in  arms,  trans- 
portation, tactics,  lines  of  information,  methods  of  communications, 
undersea  craft,  and  aerial  operations  has  led  to  the  conclusions  that 
the  strength  of  the  over-sea  garrisons  herein  given  is  the  minimum, 
below  which  they  should  not  be  allowed  to  fall  at  any  time. 

The  general  requirements  of  over-sea  service  have  already  been 
stated  for  each  of  the  several  localities  concerned.  It  now  remains 
to  determine  the  necessary  strength  to  meet  these  requirements,  tak- 
ing up  each  case  in  turn. 

24.  The  Phnippiius. — ^If  in  accordance  with  national  policy  it  is 
decided  to  keep  the  American  flag  flying  in  the  Philippines,  m  war 
as  in  peace,  it  becomes  essential  to  hold  Manila  Bay. 

25.  Oahu. — ^Having  in  mind  the  principles  governing  the  relations 
between  home  and  over-sea  garrisons,  the  force  maintained  at  all 
times  in  Oahu  should  include : 

9  regiments  of  Infantry  (3  brigades). 

1  regiment  of  Cavalry. 

2  regiments  of  Field  ArtlUery. 

2  battalions  Engineers;  1  field  battalion  of  Signal  troops;  1  aero  squad- 
ron ;  1  telegraph  company. 
2  ambulance  companies. 
14  companies  Coast  Artillery. 

This  force  will  total  about  25,000  combatant  officers  and  men. 

26.  Panama. — ^The  force  maintained  at  all  times  in  the  Canal  Zone 
should  include : 

9  regiments  of  Infantry  (3  brigades). 
1  regiment  of  Cavalry. 

1  regiment  of  Field  Artillery. 

2  battalions  Engineers ;  1  field  battalion  of  Signal  troops ;  1  aero  squad- 

ron; 1  telegraph  company. 
1  ambulance  company;  1  evacuation  hospital. 
21  companies  Coast  Artillery  Cori)s. 

This  force  will  total  about  24,000  combatant  officers  and  men. 

27.  Guantanamo, — The  policy  of  the  United  States  contemplates 
the  establishment  of  a  naval  base  at  Guantanamo.  Garrisons  of 
Coast  Artillery  and  mobile  troops  are  necessary  for  its  defense  and 
should  be  assigned  to  station  there  at  the  proper  time. 

28.  Alaska. — ^The  garrison  of  Alaska  should  be  large  enough  to 
support  the  authorit;^  of  the  United  States  and  in  time  of  war  to 
maintain  our  sovereignty  over  a  small  selected  area  of  the  Terri- 
tory. As  work  on  the  Alaskan  Kailroad  progresses  the  military 
needs  of  Alaska  will  increase. 

In  time  of  peace  it  is  believed  that  the  Alaskan  garrison  should  be 
one  regiment  of  Infantry  (1,915  officers  and  men),  to  be  increased 
later  as  circimistances  may  demand. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


29.  Porto  Rico. — ^The  present  garrison,  reorganized  into  a  full  regi- 
ment of  three  battalions,  etc.,  is  sufficient  (1,915  officers  and  men). 

80.  The  foUoTFing  table  gives  a  summary  of  the  minimum  garrison 
to  be  maintained  on  over-sea  service: 


ea  Hationi. 

Locstittes. 

miantry. 

SH 

11' 

.«., 

s 

SqUKl- 

Corp.. 

9 

1 

18 

1' 

it 

i 

2» 

t 

3t 

Si 

*\ 

3 

I  Inclurlu  I  ulegripli  compsny  In  eacb  earrlsc 
>  lro!npBQy  mounted  lorCavalry  brigade. 


NECESSARr  STRENGTH  OP  MOBILE  TROOPS  POD  HOME  SERVICE. 

SI.  Careful  studies  made  at  the  War  College,  extending  over  a 

Eriod  of  years,  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  the  strength  of  the 
fantry,  Cavalry,  Field  Artillery,  Engineers,  and  signal  troops  of 
the  Regular  Army  maintained  at  home  in  time  of  peace,  and  the 
distribution  of  administrative  units  of  these  arms  in  the  principal 
strategic  areas,  should  be  as  givea  in  the  following  table: 
Combatant  troops. 


lAKmiie. 

SS3 

C««IrT 

Pf.M 

JSSS 

End- 

UUoil. 

Corps. 

■quad- 

0 

1 

3 
3 

1 

U 
1 
1 

1 
I 

-     ■                                      

as 

X 

IS 

10 

J 

• 

•ttallon  horn  artUhrji  1  eompuiT  mmaM  EncUiMn;  1  cvmpaor 


«  organized  in  higher  tactical  units  and  dis- 
ss substantially  aa  follows : 

division  (less  dlvtsiooel  Cavalry)  and  one  CavaliT 
Igade  (ol  3  regiments). 

division  and  one  Cavalry  brigade. 

dtvlsloD  and  one  Cavalry  brigade. 

division  (less  divisional  Cavalrjr]  and  one  Cavaliy 
'lgad& 


B£POBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


223 


NECE88ABT  STRENQTH  OF  COAST  ARTILLERT  TROOPS  BEQUIRED  FOR  SERVICE 

OVERSEAS  AND  AT  HOME. 

82.  The  strength  of  the  Coast  ArtiUery  depends  upon  the  number 
of  guns  and  mine  fields  installed  and  projected  and  upon  the  assist- 
ance to  be  received  from  Organized  Militia  units.  An  estimate  pre- 
pared in  the  Office  of  the  Chief  of  Coast  Artillery*  gives  the  follow- 
ing strength,  in  companies,  required  under  the  supposition  that  all 
mine  fields  and  all  oversea  guns  and  one-half  the  guns  at  home  are 
manned  from  the  Regular  Army : 

Comj^anles. 

Phnipplnes 26 

Oahu 14 

Panama 21 

United  States 228 

Total 289 

Total  companies  (gun  and  mine) 289 

Officers  and  men 34, 413 


TOTAL  STRENGTH  OF  THE  REGULAR  TROOPS  REQUIRED  FOR  ALL  SERVICES. 

83.  Combining  all  previous  estimates  of  Coast  Artillery  and  mobile 
troops  required  for  service  in  oversea  garrisons  and  at  home,  the  fol- 
lowing tabulaB  statement  of  the  required  strength  of  the  Regular 
Army  in  units  appropriate  to  each  arm,  results,  viz : 


Intentry 
regi- 
men tfl. 

CavAlry 
regi- 
ments. 

Field 

ArtiUery 

regt- 

ments. 

t\  wt 
Artillery 

com- 
panies. 

Engi- 
neer 
bat- 
talions. 

Signal  Corps. 

LocaUtltt. 

Battal- 
ions. 

Aero 

squads. 

PblUppliMs* 

0 
9 

8 

1 
1 

3 
2 

1 

26 
14 
21 

2 

U 

1 

1 

1 

Of^n" ..^. 

1 

CkdaI  Z<m* 

1 

AJMka 

Porto  Rko 

pQff1^f  Soud4 mv*^. 

3 

4 
4 
3 
t 

3 

I 

1 

2) 
2 

I 

it 
1 
1 

1 

1 

C^fomfft • 

1 

North  AtlantJc  SutM 

1 

ICIddia  W«t 

1 

IffftT^ffii  hordtr 

1 

UnlttdSUtas 

228 

Total  required • 

65 

35 

21 

280 

iH 

11* 

8 

>  This  estimate  can  only  be  yerifled  by  an  inspection  of  all  the  harbors  in  question,  fbr  which  inspection 
Umts  has  not  been  sufllcient  time  since  this  estimate  was  received. 

•  Nine  regiments  Infantry,  2  regimenU  Field  ArUUery,  2  battalions  Engineers.  Filipinos  to  be  added, 
n/no  offloen  and  men. 


These  figures  may  be  summarized  as  follows : 

Oversea: 

Mobile    (combatant ) ..^•. 

Goast  Artillery  Ck>ri» 


74,600 
7,500 


In  United  States: 

Mobile    (combatant) 121,000 

Goast  Artillery  Corps 27,000 


Total : 

Mobile    (combatant) — 195, 500 

Goast  Artillery  Ck)rps-  .,■,.      34,500 


82,000 


148,000 


230.000 


224  BEPOBT  OF  THB  OHISF  07  STAFF. 

To  this  total  should  be  added  officers  and  men  for  the  Sanitary. 
Quartermaster,  Ordnance  Department,  etc.,  appropriate  to  a  force  oi 
this  strength,  amounting  approximately  to  30,000  officers  and  men. 
Including  Philippine  Scouts,  21,000,  the  grand  total  becomes  281,000. 

34.  Organization. — ^The  Tables  of  Organization,  approved  and 
published  on  February  25, 1914,  for  the  information  and  government 
of  the  Regular  Army  and  Organized  Militia  of  the  United  States 
have  been  taken  as  the  guide  in  estimating  the  numerical  strength  of 
the  personnel  of  the  various  tactical  and  administrative  units  men- 
tioned in  this  report.  This  was  done  as  a  matter  of  convenience  and 
because  the  service  generally  is  familiar  with  these  tables,  which 
are  the  latest  official  publication  of  the  War  Department  on  this 
subject.  They  conform  to  the  Field  Service  Regulations  and  are  the 
best  that  can  be  devised  under  the  limitation  of  the  present  laws  gov- 
erning the  Army,  but  it  can  not  be  too  emphatically  stated  that  they 
are  for  emergency  vse  only  and  contain  certain  undesirable  and  un- 
scientific features  which  should  be  corrected  as  soon  as  the  necessary 
legislation  can  be  obtained.  For  example,  the  war  organization 
shown  in  the  tables  is  provisional  only,  while  the  peace  strength  is 
arranged  so  as  not  to  exceed  the  total  enlisted  strength  of  about 
93,000  men  now  permitted  by  existing  appropriations. 

This  limitation  falls  heaviest  upon  the  Infantry,  whose  organiza- 
tions on  home  service  are  maintained  at  only  43  per  cent  of  full  statu- 
tory strength,  while  the  Cavalry  organizations  are  maintained  at  75 
fer  cent  and  those  of  Field  Artillery  at  77  per  cent  of  such  strength, 
t  is  generally  conceded  that  our  Infantry  companies  should  each 
have  the  full  statutory  strength  of  150  men  in  order  topermit  proper 
training  of  the  officers  in  time  of  peace  and  supply  emcient  fighting 
strength  in  time  of  war. 

In  consequence  of  the  greatly  reduced  strength  of  these  Infantry 
organizations,  their  efficiency  is  unduly  decreased  and  overhead 
charges  correspondingly  increased. 

The  requirements  of  modem  war  demand  that  a  machine-gun  unit, 
a  supply  unit,  and  certain  mounted  men  be  attached  to  each  regiment, 
and  that  units  of  various  strengths  be  assigned  to  brigade  and  divi- 
sion head(juarters.  None  of  these  units  is  unthorized  by  law,  yet  all 
are  essential.  Tables  of  Organization,  1914,  represent  an  effort  to 
adapt  an  archaic  statutory  organization  to  modem  reouirements  by 
organizing  the  nece^ary  additional  units,  provisionally.  This  has 
been  done  by  detaching  from  statutory  organizations  the  personnel 
required.  An  examination  of  the  tables  will  show  that  more  than 
5  per  cent  of  the  Infantry  personnel  authorized  by  Congress  have 
been  diverted  from  their  legitimate  duty  as  members  of  statutory 
organizations  and  have  been  assigned  to  provisional  imits  which, 
while  necessary  and  essential,  have  only  the  sanction  of  departmental 
authority,  and  lack  the  efficiency  which  can  only  be  given  oy  statute. 
In  the  Cavalry  more  than  9  per  cent  are  similarlv  diverted.* 

Recognizing  these  facts,  the  War  College  Division  of  the  General 
Staff  has  prepared  a  plan  for  organizing  on  modem  lines  an  army 
of  the  strength  just  shown  to  be  necessary  for  the  national  needs. 
Should  this  plan  be  approved,  the  organization  of  the  Regular  Army, 
the  militia,  and  whatever  reserves  are  formed  would  proceed  along 
the  new  lines. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  0HIE7  OF  STAFF.  225 

n.  THE  OBGANIZED  HILITIA. 

85.  Tho  act  of  Congress  approved  April  25, 1914,  commonly  known 
as  the  volunteer  law,  defines  the  land  forces  of  the  United  States  os 
^  the  Begular  Army,  the  organized  land  militia  while  in  the  service 
of  the  United  States,  and  such  volunteer  forces  as  Congress  may 
authorize." 

The  Organized  Militia,  in  addition  to  its  use  as  a  State  force,  is 
available  lor  use  by  the  Federal  Government,  as  provided  in  the 
Constitution. 

36.  Constitutional  functions  of  the  Organized  Militia. — ^Its  consti- 
tutional functions  are  the  following: 

(a)  A  -State  force  to  preserve  order  within  the  State  limits,  in 
order  to  avoid  calling  upon  the  Regular  Army  or  the  Organized 
Militia  of  other  States  to  discharge  such  function. 

(6)  A  Federal  force  when  called  forth  by  the  President,  and  duly 
mustered  as  prescribed  by  Congress,  for  any  of  the  three  purposes 
authorized  by  the  Constitution. 

37.  Some  uses  of  the  Organized  Militia  as  a  Federal  force. — ^Hav- 
ing  been  called  forth  as  militia,  they  may  be  used  as  follows : 

(a)  As  Coast  Artillery  supports  and  reserves. 

(b)  To  guard  and  protect  certain  bridges,  canal  locks,  arsenals, 
depots  of  supplies,  docks,  navy  yards,  and  other  vulnerable  points  in 
the  home  territory. 

(c)  To  guard  lines  of  communication  within  the  limits  of  the 
United  States. 

38.  Limitations. ^rlt  is  stated  later  in  this  report  that  12  months, 
at  150  hours  per  month,^  ^^  is  considered  the  minimum  length  of  time 
of  actual  training  considered  necessary  to  prepare  troops  for  war 
service."  Due  to  constitutional  limitations.  Congress  has  not  the 
power  to  fix  and  require  such  an  amount  of  training  for  the  Organ- 
ized Militia.  No  force  can  be  considered  a  portion  of  our  first  line 
whose  control  and  training  is  so  little  subject  to  Federal  authority 
in  peace.  No  force  should  oe  considered  a  portion  of  our  first  line  in 
war  unless  it  be  maintained  fully  organized  and  equipped  in  peace  at 

? Tactically  war  strength.  This  would  exclude  the  Organized  Militia 
rom  consideration  for  service  in  the  first  line  mainly  l^cause  of  the 
impossibili^  of  giving  it  in  peace  the  training  required  for  such 
function.  It  may  be  necessary  to  continue  Federal  support  of  the 
Organized  Militia  in  order  that  some  organized  force  may  he  imme- 
diately available  for  the  purposes  set  forth  in  paragraphs  36  and  37> 

39.  Recommendations. — In  the  preparation  of  plans  for  the  na- 
tional defense  and  for  the  preservation  of  the  honor  and  dignity  of 
the  I'^nited  States,  the  numl)er  of  troops  that  are  deemed  necessary 
are  largely  in  excess  of  the  total  regular  and  militia  forces  available 
in  the  United  States. 

It  is  only  during  the  existence  of  war,  or  when  war  is  imminent, 
that  any  other  forces  may  l)e  raised  under  existing  law.  WTien  Con- 
gi*ess  so  authorizes  the  President,  he  may  call  forth  volunteers. 

Section  3  of  the  volunteer  law  provides  that  under  certain  condi- 
tions organizations  of  the  Organized  Militia  may  be  received  into 
the  volunteer  service  in  advance  of  any  other  organizations  of  the 
same  arm  or  class  from  the  same  State,  Territory,  or  District:  and 

69176'-  WAB  1916^-voL  1 15 


226  BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 

section  i  of  the  act  of  May  27, 1908,  amending  the  militia  law,  pro- 
vides that  the  militia  shall  be  called  into  the  service  in  advance  of  any 
volunteer  force  that  may  be  raised. 

It  is  evident  that  it  can  not  be  known  prior  to  the  existence  of  the 
imminence  of  war  what  organizations,  if  any,  of  the  Organized 
Militia  will  enter  the  volunteer  service,  and  that  no  definite  plans  can 
be  prepared  providing  for  the  use  or  such  organizations,  either  as 
mihtia  or  as  volunteers,  imtil  war  is  actually  upon  us. 

No  legislation  affecting  the  Organized  Militia  is  recommended 
bejond  the  repeal  of  all  provisions  of  laws  now  in  effect  whereby 
militia  or  militia  organizations  may  or  must  be  received  into  the 
Federal  service  in  advance  of  any  other  forces. 

This  recommendation  is  not  to  be  construed  as  advocating  express 
repeal  of  certain  sections  of  existing  laws  relating  to  the  Organized 
Militia,  but  as  suggesting  that  any  legislation  hereafter  proposed 
for  the  organization  of  a  Federal  reserve  force  shall  contain  the 
usual  concluding  section  repealing  all  laws  and  parts  of  laws  incon- 
sistent therewith,  and  that  such  legislation  be  so  framed  as  to  render 
inconsistent  with  it  the  provisions  of  law  just  referred  to. 

m.  BESEBVES. 

40.  Reserves  include :  (a)  Well-instructed  soldiers  of  the  Regular 
Army  furloughed  to  what  is  herein  termed  the  regular  reserve,  (b) 
citizen  soldiers,  (c)  reserve  officers. 

41.  T?te  regular  reserve, — As  the  United  States  should  have  a 
mobile  force  of  500,000  soldiers  available  at  hom»  at  the  outbreak  of 
war,  the  Army,  with  the  regular  reserve,  should  amotmt'to  this 
strength.  In  order  to  develop  the  necessary  regular  reserve  with  the 
Army  at  the  strength  advocated  in  this  policy,  enlistments  would 
have  to  be  for  about  eight  years — two  with  the  colors  and  six  in 
reserve.  That  would,  in  eight  years,  result  in  approximately  the 
following  mobile  forces  at  home  available  at  the  outbreak  of  war: 

(1)  Mobile  regular  troops  (combatant)  with  the  colors 121.000 

(2)  The  regular  reserve -— —  879,000 


Total 500,000 

During  the  first  weeks  of  war  in  this  country  the  military  situation 
will  probably  be  critical.  At  that  time  eveir  fullv  trained  soldier 
should  be  put  in  the  field.  To  do  that  with  the  small  military  estab- 
lishmeiit  herein  advocated  it  is  necessary  that  during  peace  the  Army 
be  kept  at  war  strength,  and  that  the  regular  reserve  be  organized 
and  not  kept  back  to  replace  losses  expected  during  war.  Such  lo^es 
should  be  replaced  from  depot  units. 

42.  Citizen  soldiers, — In  addition  to  the  600,000  fully  trained 
mobile  troops  mentioned  above,  at  least  500,000  more — a  total  of 
1,000,000  men — should  be  prepared  to  take  the  field  immediately  on 
the  outbreak  of  war  and  should  have  had  sufficient  previous  military 
training  to  enable  them  to  meet  a  trained  enemy  within  three  months. 
Twelve  months'  intensive  training  is  the  minimum  that  will  prepare 
troops  for  war  service.  Therefore  the  600,000  partly  trained  troops 
above  referred  to  require  nine  months'  military  training  before  war 
begins.  Military  efficiency  of  reserves  requires  that  Regular  Army 
oflooers  be  assigned  thereto  for  training  purposes — at  least  one  to 


BEPORT  OP  THE  CHIEP  OF  STAFF,  227 

every  400  men — and  that  organizations  and  specially  designated  non- 
commissioned officers  of  the  Army  be  utilized  in  instructing  reserves 
as  far  as  practicable. 

Based  upon  experience  with  Tables  of  Organization,  1914,  the 
War  College  Division  has  recently  prepared  a  new  plan  of  organiza- 
tion for  the  Army.  The  Regular  Army  and  the  reserves  should  be 
organized  according  to  this  plan.  Or^nizations  should  be  formed 
of  men  from  the  districts  to  which  their  respective  organizations  are 
assigned  for  recruiting.  For  this  purpose,  each  organization  should 
be  assigned  to  a  district  from  which  recruits  most  suitable  for  the 
service  required  of  the  organization  may  be  obtained — ^mounted  units 
to  horse-raising  districts,  technical  troops  to  manufacturing  districts, 
etc.  As  a  rule  the  size  of  districts  should  be  about  in  proportion  to 
population  of  the  qualifications — age,  etc. — required.  Organizations 
m  war  ^ould  be  kept  at  full  strength  from  the  depot  units  which 
they  ^ould  have  in  their  respective  recruiting  districts. 

43.  Reserve  ojficers. — Officers  for  staff  ana  organizations  of  re- 
serves, and  officers  for  temporary  appointment  in  the  Eegular  Army 
as  provided  for  in  section  8  of  the  volunteer  law  (act  of  Congress 
approved  Apr.  25,  1914),  should  be  selected  and  trained  in  time  of 
peace.  The  President  should  be  authorized  to  issue,  by  and  with 
the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate,  commissions  as  reserve  officers 
to  citizens  of  the  United  States  who,  upon  examination  prescribed  bv 
the  Secretary  of  War,  demonstrate  their  physical,  mental,  moral, 
and  professional  fitness  therefor,  and  who  duly  obligate  themselves 
to  render  military  service  to  the  United  States  while  their  commis- 
sions are  valid.  Such  commissions  should  be  valid  five  years,  and 
renewable  under  such  regulations  regarding  examinations  and  quali- 
fications as  the  Secretary  of  War  may  from  time  to  time  prescriDe. 

IV.  VOLXTNTEEBS. 

44.  In  addition  to  any  forces  that  may  be  maintained  and  trained 
in  time  of  peace,  provision  must  be  made  for  vastly  increasing  such 
forces  in  time  of  war.  These  must  come  from  the  untrained  body  of 
citizens,  and  provision  for  raising  them  is  contained  in  the  act  of 
Congress  approved  April  25,  1914. 

45.  This  act  meets  the  military  needs  for  raising  volunteer  troops 
as  far  as  concerns  the  enlisted  personnel,  except  in  two  particulars, 
which  are:  First,  that  under  the  existing  laws  certain  organizations 
of  the  militia,  with  numbers  far  below  the  full  strength,  can  enter  the 
volunteer  force  in  advance  of  other  similar  volunteer  organizations 
from  the  same  State;  and,  second,  no  volunteers  of  any  arm  or 
branch  have  been  called  into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  The 
changes  necessary  to  remedy  these  defects  have  been  set  forth  in 
paragraph  89  under  the  subject  of  the  Organized  Militia. 

V.  BESEBVE  HATfiBIEL. 

46.  Of  all  the  features  disclosed  by  the  war  in  Europe  none  stands 
more  clearly  revealed  than  the  power  to  be  derived  from  national 
economic  organization  behind  the  armed  forces  of  a  nation. 

47.  In  a  war  of  gigantic  proportions  the  chances  of  success  are 
immeasurably  lessened  by  wastage,  abuse,  and  confusion.  Steps  should 


228  REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEP  OF  STAFF. 

be  taken  looking  toward  a  national  organization  of  our  economic  and 
industrial  resources  as  well  as  our  resources  in  fighting  men. 

48.  In  its  report  the  commission  appointed  by  the  x^resident  to 
investigate  the  conduct  of  the  War  Department  in  the  War  with 
Spain  used  the  following  language: 

One  of  the  lessons  taught  by  the  war  is  that  the  country  should  hereafter  be 
In  a  better  state  of  preparation  for  war.  Testimony  has  been  taken  on  this  sub- 
ject and  suggestions  have  been  made  that  large  supplies  of  aU  the  materiel  not 
liable  to  deterioration  should  be  kept  on  hand,  to  be  continuously  issued  and 
renewed,  so  that  in  any  emergency  they  might  be  available.  £iSpeciaUy  should 
this  be  the  case  with  such  supplies,  equipment,  and  ordnance  stores  as  are  not 
in  general  use  in  the  United  States  and  which  can  not  be  rapidly  obtained  in 
open  market. 

49.  The  lack  of  such  articles  as  shoes,  wagons,  harness,  rifles,  sad- 
dles, medical  chests,  and  so  on,  will  render  ineffective  an  army  just 
as  certainly  as  will  the  lack  of  ammunition. 

50.  For  the  purposes  of  storage  military  supplies  may  be  divided 
into  four  classes : 

(a)  Supplies  that  can  be  obtained  in  great  quantities  in  the  open 
market  at  any  time. 

(b)  Those  that  can  be  obtained  in  sufficient  quantities  on  15  days' 
notice. 

c)  Those  that  can  be  obtained  on  throe  months'  notice. 

d)  Those  that  can  not  be  obtained  within  three  months. 

51.  The  War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff  is  of  the  opin- 
ion that  for  purposes  of  defense  we  should  maintain  the  troops 
enumerated  in  Parts  I  and  III  of  this  report. 

52.  A  fully  trained  force,  to  be  effective  during  the  critical  period 
when  war  is  imminent  and  during  the  first  few  weeks  of  a  war,  must 
not  be  hampered  by  lack  of  necessary  supplies  and  equipment.  For 
this  reason,  supplies  of  all  kinds  which  can  not  be  obtained  in  the 
open  market  at  any  time  must  be  kept  on  hand,  in  use  and  in  store, 
at  home  and  oversea,  sufficient  to  equip  without  delay  all  troops  whose 
training  warrants  sending  them  promptly  into  the  field. 

53.  It  is  probable  that  as  soon  as  war  becomes  imminent,  the  Conti- 
nental Army — 500,000  mobile  troops — will  also  be  called  out.  As 
this  partially  trained  force  can  not  be  expected  to  take  the  field  within 
three  months'  time,  it  is  practicable  to  refrain,  after  the  third  year, 
from  keeping  on  hand  or  in  store  for  it  any  articles  of  eauipinent 
except  those  necessary  to  complete  its  training  and  those  wnich  can 
not  be  procured  within  three  months. 

54.  The  total  number  of  harbor-defense  troops  necessary  is  about 
50,000.  Due  to  conditions  of  service,  it  is  believed  that  ultimately 
supplies  of  all  kinds  for  60,000  should  be  kept  on  hand. 

55.  In  any  great  war  volunteers  must  be  called  out  in  addition  to 
the  troops  above  enumerated. 

56.  It  would  be  unwise  to  have  on  hand  at  the  beginning  of  a  war 
merely  the  supplies  sufficient  to  place  in  the  field  our  first  contingent 
of  troops  and  to  complete  the  training  of  the  Cdhtinental  Army,  and 
to  be  unprepared  to  supply  to  even  a  limited  extent  the  Volunteer 
Army  we  should  have  to  raise,  not  to  mention  replacements  of  arms, 
ammunition,  clothing,  and  equipment  of  all  kinos  for  those  already 
in  the  field ;  but  on  account  of  the  great  sum  of  money  which  will  be 
necessary,  in  entering  upon  a  program  for  collecting  and  storing  mill- 


REPORT  OF  THE  CHIEF   OF  STAFF. 


229 


tary  supplies  it  is  believed  that  the  subject  of  equipment  for  a  volun- 
teer army  and  replacements  for  the  Regular  ana  Continental  Armies 
should  be  provided  for  by  obtaining  options  with  domestic  manufac- 
turers to  lumish  the  required  supplies,  all  of  domestic  manufacture, 
in  accordance  with  tentative  contracts  to  be  made  by  the  supply  de- 
partments with  such  manufacturers  in  time  of  peace.  By  so  doing  wo 
will  be  taking  the  initial  steps  toward  organizing  the  industrial  and 
economic  resources  of  the  country  as  well  as  its  resources  in  fighting 
men. 

57.  Referring  to  Part  III,  approximately  the  following  troops  will 
be  available  at  the  close  of  the  successive  years: 


First  y 
Soetind  year . 
Third  year.. 
Fourth  y«ar. 
Fifth  year... 
Blxthyear... 
8e\cnth  yew 
Eighth  )*ear. 


Fully- 
trained 
mobUe 
troops. 


160,000 
210,000 
320,000 
383,000 
439.000 
480,000 
6M,000 
674,000 


PartlaUv- 
trained 
Conti- 
nental 
Army. 


185,000 
351,000 
500,000 
500,0(10 
500,000 
500,000 
500.000 
500,000 


Harbor- 
deieoM 
troops. 


30,000 
40.000 
SO.OOO 
52,000 
54,000 
56,000 
58,000 
60,000 


Total. 


37.5,000 

610,000 

870,000 

03.5,000 

093,000 

1,01.5,000 

1,092,000 

1,134,000 


A  study  of  those  figures  and  of  the  difficulties  we  have  experienced 
in  the  past  in  the  matter  of  supplies  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
program  adopted  for  procuring  reserve  supplies  should  be  such  that 
at  the  close  of  each  year  we  should  have  in  use  and  in  store,  at  home 
and  oversea,  supplies  of  all  kinds  necessary  to  equip : 


Infantry 
divisions. 


First  year... 
Second  year. 
Third  y<par.. 
Fourth  year. 
Fifth  j-ear... 
Sixth  year... 
Seventh  year 
Ejkhth  year. 


13 
23 
32 
U 
36 
37 
38 
40 


Ca^-alry 
divisions 
of  0  regi- 
ments. 


3 
6 
6 
7 
8 
0 
10 
10 


Harbor- 
defense 
troops 


30,000 
40,000 
50,000 
63,000 
54,000 
66,000 
68,000 
6>,000 


The  supplies  acquired  durine  the  first  three  ^ears  should  include 
all  articles  which  can  not  be  obtained  in  sufficient  quantities  on  15 
days'  notice,  those  acquired  during  the  last  five  years  to  include  only 
those  articles  which  can  not  be  obtained  on  three  months'  notice. 
After  the  eighth  year  the  program  should  be  extended  to  provide  for 
the  storing  of  sucn  additional  machine  guns,  rifles,  field  guns,  ammu- 
nition, etc.,  as  may  be  considered  advisable. 

58.  In  order  that  vast  supplies  pertaining  to  one  supply  bureau 
should  not  be  secured  and  relatively  nothing  be  done  by  other  supply 
bureaus,  supplies  should  be  obtained  progressively  in  complete  divi- 
sion units. 

59.  In  order  that  the  efforts  of  the  various  supply  bureaus  may  be 
properly  coordinated  by  the  Chitt  of  Staff,  reserve  supplies  should 


230 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  CHIEF  OF  STAFF. 


be  collected  in  general  supply  depots  located  in  accordance  with  the 
general  principle  below  enumerated.  Each  general  supply  depot 
should  be  considered  a  place  of  issue  in  time  oi  peace  for  all  articles 
of  field  equipment,  so  that  the  stock  on  hand  will  be  continually 
turned  over  and  the  machinery  for  the  issuing  and  forwarding  of 
supplies  will  be  in  operation  at  the  outbreak  of  war.  The  com- 
mander of  each  general  supply  depot  should  be  either  a  line  or  a 
staflF  officer  specially  selected  by  and  reporting  direct  to  the  Chief 
of  Staff  or  to  the  department  commander  and  independent  of  the 
control  of  any  one  particular  staff  department,  but  keeping  in  touch 
with  all.  The  commander  of  each  general  supply  depot  should  be 
assisted  by  the  necessary  commissioned,  enlisted,  and  civilian  person- 
nel. Supplies  for  not  more  than  three  division  units  should  be  stored 
at  any  one  locality.  Each  place  selected  for  a  reserve  storehouse 
should  be  one  that  will  be  at  all  times  under  adequate  military  pro- 
tection, where  ground  is  available  and  where  abundant  railroad 
facilities  exist. 

60.  As  a  general  military  principle,  no  supply  depot,  arsenal^or 
manufacturing  plant  of  any  considerable  size,  supported  by  War 
Department  appropriations  for  military  purposes,  wiould  be  estab- 
lidied  or  maintained  east  of  the  Appalachian  Mountains,  west  of  the 
Cascade  or  Sierra  Nevada  Mountains,  nor  within  200  miles  of  our 
Canadian  or  Mexican  borders,  and  steps  should  be  taken  gradually 
to  cause  to  be  moved  depots  and  manufacturing  plants  already  estab- 
lished in  violation  of  this  military  principle. 

61.  The  estimated  cost  of  the  fiela  equipment  of  one  Infantry  divi- 
sion, Tables  of  Organization  1914,  is  as  follows: 


KlndofsappUei. 


Signal  supplies 

guartermaster  sapplies 
neliiMr  supplies 

Ordnanoe  supplies 

Medical  supplies 


Can  be  ob- 
tained in  the 
open  market 

in  great 
quantities  at 

anytime. 


$722.12 

61,983.35 

1,835.26 

6,77».«7 

10,997.05 


Can  be  ob- 
tained on  15 
days'  notice. 


Il,688w61 

54,054.45 

471.50 

7,730.00 

10,180.63 


Can  be  ob- 
tained on 
8  months' 
notice. 


$6,030.46 

8,177,083.47 

7,703.07 

257,489.80 

88,801.51 


Can  not  be 

obtained  oo 

8  months' 

notJoa. 


$385,8ia26 


8,428.05 
4,  IM,  77a  68 


And  the  estimated  cost  of  the  field  equipment  of  one  Cavalry 
division  of  nine  regiments  is  approximately  as  follows: 


Kind  of  supplies. 


Signal  supplies 

guartermaster  supplies 
ngineer  supplies 

Ordnance  supplies 

Medical  supplies 


Can  be  ob- 
tained in  the 
open  market 

in  great 
quantities  at 

anytime. 


$370.80 

55,102.48 

l,7fi9.50 

31,8r>2.02 

13,464.00 


Can  be  ob- 
tained on  15 
days' notice. 


$1,638.63 
76,143.40 
416.53 
18,630.56 
13,060.57 


Can  be  ob- 
tained on 
3  months' 
notice. 


$4,290.61 

4,584.628.98 

10.885.20 

811,056.68 

106,630.36 


Can  not  bo 

obtained  oo 

3  months' 

notice. 


$2n,156.4S 


8,000.45 
3,541,004.68 


62.  While  the  amount  of  money  involved  is  large,  practically  all  of 
it  will  remain  at  home,  especiaUy  if  every  effort  be  made  by  toe  sup- 


REPORT  OP  THE  CHIEF  OP  STAFF.  231 

ply  bureaus  to  eliminate  from  supply  tables  all  articles  not  of  domes- 
tic manufacture.  It  must  also  be  kept  in  mind  that  it  is  cheaper  to 
buy  war  supplies  in  time  of  peace  than  in  time  of  war. 

Utt  of  Broohiir«t  Prepared  by  the  War  College  DiTition,  General  Staff  Oorpt, 
ai  Snpplementi  to  the  Statement  of  a  Proper  ICiUtary  Polloy  for  the  United 
States. 

NOVKICBEB,    1916. 
Poc. 
No 

606.  Changes  in  orjcanlzatlon  found  necessary  during  progress  of  the  Eioropean 

War.    WCD  4886-2S. 

607.  Comparison  of  costs  of  our  military  estabUshment  with  those  of  other 

countries.    WCD  9053-120. 

608.  Coordination  of  the  mobile  and  coast  artillery  units  of  the  army  in  the 

national  defense.    WCD  8911-9. 

609.  Development  of  large  caliber  mobile  artillery  and  machine  guns  in  the 

present  European  War.    WCD  923^1. 

610.  Educational  institutions  giving  military  training  as  a  source  for  a  supply 

of  reserve  officers  for  a  national  army.    WCD  9053-121. 

611.  Elimination  of  unnecessary  expense   from   army   administration.    WCD 

9053-113. 

612.  Finances  and  costs  of  the  present  European  War.    WCD  9287-1. 

613.  Fortifications.    WCD  4896-4. 

614.  General  Staffs  of  certain  belligerent  powers.    WCD  9286-2. 

615.  Military  aviation.    WCD  9311-1. 

616.  Militia  as  organized  under  the  Constitution  and  its  value  to  the  Nation 

as  a  military  asset    WCD  7835-9. 

617.  Mobilization  of  industries  and  utilization  of  the  commercial  and  industrial 

resources  of  the  country  for  war  purposes  in  emergency.    WCD  8121-46. 

618.  Modern  (»rf;anlzation  for  the  Regular  Army  and  its  use  aa  a  model  In 

organizing  other  forces.    WCD  9302-1. 

619.  Motor  transport  in  campaign.    WCD  9318-1. 

620.  Organization  and  administration  of  the  War  Department  adapted  to  a 

change  from  peace  conditions  to  a  state  of  war.    WCD  9262-14. 

621.  1.  Organization,  training,  and  mobilization  of  a  force  of  citizen  soldiery. 

2.  Method  of  training  a  citizen  army  on  the  outbreak  of  war  to  Insure 
its  preparedness  for  field  service.    WCD  7641-12. 

622.  Organization,  training,  and  mobilization  of  a  reserve  for  the  Regular 

Army.    WCD  8106-16. 
628.  Organization,  training,  and  mobilization  of  volunteers  under  the  act  of 

April  26,  1914.    WCD  8160-26. 
624.  Outline  of  plan  for  military  training  In  public  aehools  of  the  United 

States.    WCD  9064-16. 
626.  Pension  roll  as  affected  by  the  war  with  Spain  in  1896.    WCD  9290-3. 

626.  Personnel  versus  mat&lel  in  plans  for  national  defense.    WCD  9614-L 

627.  Places  of  origin  and  ability  to  procure  supplies  needed  In  vast  quantities 

in  time  of  war.    WCD  8121-89. 

628.  Proper  relationship  between  the  army  and  the  press  in  war.    WCD  8976-^ 

629.  Recruitment  of  oflicers  in  time  of  peace  in  the  principal  armies  of  Europe. 

WCD  9278-L 

680.  Standardization  of  methods  of  military  instruction  at  schools  and  colleges 

in  the  United  States,  with  draft  of  a  bill  to  establish  a  Reserve  Oflicers* 
Training  Corps.    WCD  9069-8. 

681.  Statistical  comparison  of  universal  and  voluntary  service.    WCD  4886-26. 

682.  Strategic  location  of  military  depots,  arsenals,  and  manufacturing  plans 

in  the  United  States.    WCD  8121-42. 
688.  Sanitary  troops  in  foreign  armies.    WCD  9819-1. 
634.  Training  of  forces  of  belligerent  nations  of  Europe.    WCD  928^1. 
686.  Utilization  of  our  resources  in  various  means  of  transportation  and  of 

the  services  of  trained  specialists.    WCD  9068-111. 


REPORT  OP  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


War  Department, 
The  Adjutant  General's  Office, 

October  5,  1916. 

Sm:  The  following  report  covers  the  entire  fiscal  year  1916  and 
relates  to  the  organization  and  operations  of  the  Army  and  National 
Guard  organizations  in  the  Federal  service  as  shown  oy  the  records 
of  The  Adjutant  General's  Office,  and  to  the  business  of  that  office  as 
a  bureau  of  the  War  Department. 

AUTHORIZED   STRENGTH   OF  THE   ARMY. 

The  strength  of  the  Regular  Army  authorized  by  the  President 
imder  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  and  of  the  joint 
resolution  of  Cong;ress  of  March  17,  1916,  which  latter  authorizea  the 
President  to  recruit  the  line  organizations  to  the  maximum  strength 
prescribed  by  the  acts  of  February  2, 1901,  and  January  25, 1907,  with- 
out regard  to  the  limitrtion  of  100,000  men  for  the  line  and  the 
Philippine  Scouts,  imposed  by  the  first-mentioned  act,  is  shown  in 
the  following  table: 


Branches  of  service. 


General  offlcw3 

General  Staff  Corps 

Adjatant  GeneraPa  Department 

Inspector  Oenerars  Department 

Judge  Advocate  General's  Department. 

SoartemiBster  Corps 
edlcal  Department 

Cwps  of  Enjf^eers 

Ordnance  Department 

Signal  Corps .-. 

Bureau  of  insnlu'  Afteirs 


Professors,  United  States  Military  Academy. 
Chaplains. 


Cavalry 

Field  Artillery 
Coast  Artillery  Coips. 
Infant 


itry. 
3Ri( 


Porto  Rico  Reeiment  of  Infantry 

United  States  Military  Academy  dctochnicnt^ 

Recruiting  parties,  recruit  depots,  and  unassicnetl  recruits. 

United  States  Disciplinar>'  Barracks  j.  uarus 

Service  school  detachments 

With  disciplinary  organizat  ions 

Mounted  orderlies 

Indian  scouts 


Total  Regular  Army. 
Philippine  Scouts 


Aggregate. 


OflBcers. 


24 

34 

23 

17 

13 

256 

»ei60 

248 

85 

106 

3 

7 

G7 

810 

262 

747 

1,606 

50 


6,018 
182 


5,200 


Enlisted 
men. 


6,403 
»5,388 
1,982 
1,115 
1,472 


17,594 

6,358 

19,321 

54,443 

599 

632 

6,098 

350 

746 

110 

7 

76 


122,693 
6,733 


128,426 


Total. 


24 

34 

23 

17 

13 

6,659 

6,048 

2,230 

1,200 

1,678 

3 

7 

67 

18,404 

6,620 

20,068 

66,049 

649 

632 

6,098 

360 

746 

UO 

7 

76 


127,711 
6,916 


133,626 


1  Includes  155  officers  of  the  Medical  Reserve  Corps  assigned  to  active  duty  under  the  provisions  of  the 
act  of  Congress  approved  Apr.  23. 1908  (35  Stat.  L.,  66). 

The  a^of  June  3. 1916,  provides  that  the  enlisted  strength  of  the  Medical  Department  is  not  to  be 
counted  as  a  part  of  tne  enlisted  strength  of  the  Army,  which  is  similar  to  the  provision  contained  in  the 
act  of  Mar.  1. 1887  (24  Stat.  L.,4S6). 

235 


236 


EEPOET   OF  THE  ADJUTANT   GENERAIi. 


One  of  the  temporary  major  generals  referred  to  in  the  previous 
annual  report  was  retired  from  active  service  December  4,  1915, 
causing  a  reduction  during  the  year  of  one  in  the  nimiber  of  major 
generals. 

The  following  increases  in  the  authorized  commissioned  strength  of 
the  Army  were  authorized  by  the  national  defense  act  approved 
June  3,  1916,  to  take  effect  on  the  date  of  the  approval  of  tnat  act: 
General  Staff  Corps,  34,  resulting  from  the  application  of  the  provi- 
sions of  section  27  of  the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  to  oflScers  below  the 
rank  of  brigadier  general  detailed  to  the  General  Staff;  Quartermaster 
Corps,  73,  caused  Dy  the  appointment  of  former  pay  clerks  as  second 
lieutenants  of  that  corps,  and  Porto  Rico  Regiment  of  Infantry,  19. 
There  was  also  an  increase  of  1  additional  oflScer  in  the  Cavalry  arm, 
an  increase  of  58  in  the  nimiber  of  officers  of  the  Medical  Reserve 
Corps  assigned  to  active  duty,  and  1  additional  officer  in  the  Medical 
Corps.  Tnere  was  a  decrease  of  1  additional  officer  in  the  Coast 
Artillery  Corps,  makins  a  net  increase  in  the  authorized  commissioned 
strengtn  of  the  Army  during  the  year  of  184. 

There  was  an  increase  of  370  enusted  men  for  the  Ordnance  Depart- 
ment and  17  for  the  service  school  detachments  authorized  during 
the  year,  in  addition  to  the  following  increases  authorized  by  the 
joint  resolution  of  Congress  of  March  17,  1916:  Infantry,  19,104; 
Cavalry,  3,446;  Field  Artillery,  823;  Coast  Artillery  Corps,  302,  and 
Engineers,  40.  There  was  a  decrease  of  27  in  the  number  of  author- 
ized recruits  during  the  year,  and  a  decrease  of  6  in  the  Field  Artillery, 
leaving  a  net  increase  of  24,069  in  the  authorized  enlisted  strength  of 
the  Anny  during  the  year. 

The  authorized  enlisted  strength  of  the  Hospital  Corps  was  in- 
creased 1,376  during  the  year. 

There  was  no  change  in  the  authorized  strength  of  the  Philippine 
Scouts  during  the  year  covered  by  this  report. 

ACTUAL  STEENGTH  OP  THE  ABMT. 

The  actual  strength  of  the  entire  military  establishment  on  June 
30,  1916,  by  branches  of  service,  is  shown  in  the  following  table: 


Branches  of  aervloe. 


GenerAl  offloect 

Btftfl  corps  and  deptirtmuito.. 

Kngtnxis 

CATtlnr 

Field  Arifltory 

CoMt  Artllkry  Corps 

Intentry 

lUiotUintoas 


TotaJ  Regular  Anny. 
FhiUpptDe  Scoots 


Aoragato. 


Officers. 


94 

t 1,206 
22S 
782 
257 
739 
1,007 


t4,S43 
182 


16,025 


BnUsted 


•  12,374 

1,829 

15,100 

5,027 

18,273 

34,313 

9,440 


■»7,013 
5,008 


102,016 


I  Inchidss  154  first  Ueutesiante  of  the  Medical  Beserrt  Corpa. 
■  InelodM  4,070  enlisted  men  of  the  Medical  Departmaot. 


TotaL 


M 

18,580 
2,064 

16,942 
6,884 

19,012 

85,920 
9,440 


101,860 
6,786 


107,  OU 


XEPCHET  or  THE  ABJITTAJTI  GBSTEMAU  237 

coMFABaas  or  avtbihuimd  axd  actual  boxsotsl 


The  foIlowiDg  table  h  preBeoted  for  the  porpose  of  sliowing  the 
authorized  and  the  actual  fetreniTLh  of  the  miiitarT  estabBBhment  on 
June  30,  1916,  and  June  30,  1^15,  K^thcr  wiih  the  increases  during 
the  year  and  the  nmnber  of  vacancdef  on  each  fjf  tti'^>se  dt^tes.  5 
inchideB  the  enlisted  Btreaigth  of  the  1i4edinal  I>epartanenx  and  the 
Quartermaster  Corp& 


*^®-    i^     Total    i2^    iSd     TBial.    ^    1^ 


JtlIwaQ,19U 4,&4     »7.24»   im.0a2       182       Ii,T33       i,9U   6,01ft   102  WSl    107,«B7 

dtiriDcy«ar. IM    2.445    £,09 IW    a.44&    25,aB 


Actual  Btren^h: 

JllXii30,  Ifiie 4.R43     97. Oi:,    IfT.  8:^       l*fl       5  603       fi.TK",   5,025   102  r,]f>   KT.Ml 

Jm»30,  1915 4,C16     K.Ttii    lX*.i**il       lifi       5,430       5,fil2   4. TVs    101  IM    105,! 


IncTMie  donng  year 227      l,Mi      1,«75 173  173      227      1,421       1, 

:^=  —  -  •     =^  -I  =^ 


Juoe3Q,lPl6 175     »,««0     26,855 1  130  1V>       175     25,BI0     25,«i 

JimedO,  1915 1      as       1,4S3       1,701 303  ^f^i       21S       1,7W       2,0W 

^ I  ! I 

The  large  number  of  vacancies  (175)  in  commissioned  personnel 
on  June  30,  1916,  is  due  to  the  fact  that  the  124  graduates  of  the 
Military  Academy  were  not  appointed  until  after  the  close  of  the 
fiscal  year  and  to  the  increase  resulting  from  the  appUcation  to  the 
General  Staff  of  the  provisions  of  section  27  of  the  act  of  February  2, 
1901.     Tliat  appUcation  was  authorized  by  the  act  of  June  3, 1916. 

The  large  number  of  vacancies  in  the  enlisted  force  is  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  authorized  strength  was  materially  increased  by  the 
joint  resolution  of  March  17,  1916,  and  during  the  short  period 
betwe^i  March  17  and  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  it  was  found  mipos- 
sible  to  enlbt  a  sufficient  number  of  men  to  fill  the  vacancies  occurring 
from  time  to  time  and  those  resulting  from  the  increase  in  the  author- 
ized strength.  Every  effort  was  made,  and  is  being  made,  to  secure 
a  sufficient  nimiber  of  recruits  to  fill  the  Army  to  its  authorized 
strength. 

INCREASE   IN  THE  ABMT. 
(Authorized  by  the  act  of  June  3,  1916.) 

The  act  of  June  3,  1916^  provides  for  a  material  increase  in  both 
the  commissioned  and  enlisted  strength  of  the  Regular  Army,  and 
also  provides  for  the  federalization  of  the  Nation^  Guard.  Those 
provisions  of  the  bill  that  pertain  to  this  office  are  mentioned  in  this 
report  under  the  subjects  to  which  they  relate. 

The  increases  in  the  numbers  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  authorized 
by  the  bill  is  to  be  made  in  five  annual  increments,  with  the  provision 
**That  in  the  event  of  actual  or  threatened  war  or  similar  emergency, 
in  which  the  public  safety  demands  it,  the  President  is  authorized 
to  immediately  organize  the  entire  increase  authorized  by  this  act, 
or  80  much  thereoi  as  he  shall  deem  necessary/' 


238  BBPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  OENERAIi. 

Under  the  provisions  of  the  act  cited,  the  authorized  enlisted 
strength  for  the  fiscal  year  1917,  which  includes  the  first  increment, 
is  as  follows : 

Infantry 51,224 

Cavalry 17,357 

Field  Artillery 7,881 

Engineers 2, 198 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 21, 423 

Quartermaster  Corps 8, 000 

Signal  Corps 3,369 

Ordnance  Department 1, 241 

MedicAl  Department 6, 614 

Service  school  detachments 752 

Military  Academy  detachments 684 

United  States  Disciplinary  Barracks  guards 468 

Disciplinary  oi]ganizations 101 

Mounted  orderuee 29 

Seiveants  on  duty  with  National  Guard 209 

In<uan  scouts 75 

Recruiting  parties  and  unassigned  recruits 11, 539 

Total  Regular  Army 133,164 

Philippine  Scouts 5, 733 

Aggregate 138,897 

In  time  of  peace  the  total  authorized  enlisted  strength  of  the  line 
of  the  Anny  is  limited  to  175,000.  Under  that  limitation  the  total 
enlisted  strength  will  be  175,000  for  the  line  (including  Ordnance 
Department)  and  approximately  42,750  for  the  staff  corps  and 
departments  and  miscellaneous  organizations,  making  a  total  of 
approximately  217,750  for  the  Regular  Army,  or  an  aggregate 
strength  of  approximately  223,580  u  the  enlisted  strength  (5,733) 
of  the  Philippme  Scouts  is  included.  Approximate  figures  are  given, 
because  tlie  strength  of  some  of  the  staff  corps  and  departments  is 
not  fixed  by  the  act,  but  will  be  fixed  by  the  President  from  time  to 
time  in  accordance  with  the  needs  of  the  service.  The  total  enlisted 
strength  of  the  Medical  Department,  limited  to  5  per  cent  of  the  total 
enlisted  strength  of  the  rest  of  the  Army,  can  not  be  determined  at 
this  time,  because  the  strength  of  all  of  the  other  staff  corps  and 
departments  is  not  fixed. 

The  total  number  of  officers  authorized  by  the  act  in  time  of  peace 
is  approximately  11,450,  including  the  182  officers  of  the  Philippine 
Scouts,  while  the  maximum  numoer  of  officers  authorized  womd  be 
about  580  more,  all  the  additions  being  in  the  Medical  Department. 
The  exact  number  of  officers  authorized  can  not  be  stated,  because 
the  number  of  additional  officers  varies  from  time  to  time,  and 
because  the  number  of  retired  officers  that  will  be  transferred  to  the 
active  list  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  March  4,  1915,  can  not 
be  foretold. 

The  total  maximum  enlisted  strength  (war  strength)  of  the  Army, 
including  the  Philippine  Scouts,  is  nearly  298,000.  This  figure  is 
approximate  and  is  based  on  increases  in  the  staff  corps  and  Depart- 
ments in  proportion  to  the  increases  authorized  for  the  nrst  increment. 

The  total  number  of  officers  authorized  for  the  fiscal  year  1917  is 
7|252,  including  182  officers  of  the  Philippine  Scouts. 


BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GEKEBAU 


239 


PHILIPPINE   SCJOUTS. 

There  was  no  change  in  the  organization  and  authorized  strength 
of  the  Philippine  Scouts  during  the  past  fiscal  year.  The  scouts  are 
organized  into  13  battalions  of  4  companies  each,  a  total  of  52  com- 
panies of  enlisted  natives  of  the  Phihppine  Islands,  with  a  total 
authorized  strength  of  182  ofQcers  and  5,733  enlisted  men. 

GEOGRAPHICAL  DISTRIBUTION  OF  TROOPS. 

The  geographical  distribution  of  the  Regular  Army  on  Jime  30, 
1916,  is  shown  in  the  following  table: 


Oeograpbical  distribution. 


In  the  United  States! 

In  Alaska 

In  the  Philippine  Islands: 

Regular  Army 

Philippine  Scouts 

In  China 

In  Porto  Rloo 

In  Hawaii 

In  the  Isthmian  Canal  Zone 

Troops  en  route  and  officers  at  foreign  stations. 


Total. 


Officers. 


8,622 
23 

480 

182 

41 

85 

333 

253 

66 


5,025 


Enlisted 


•103,016 


Total 


67,416 

71,038 

760 

702 

U,404 

^^'2* 

5,603 

5,785 

1,233 

1,274 

679 

714 

8,112 

8,445 

6,846 

7,090 

554 

610 

107,641 


1  Indudes  troops  serving  in  Mexico,  it  befaig  deemed  inadvisable  at  this  time  to  give  the  exact  number 
of  troops  serving  in  that  country, 
s  Includes  154  first  lieutenants  of  the  Medical  Reserve  Corps. 
•  Includes  4^70  enlisted  men  of  the  Medical  Department. 

OEOOBAPHICAL  DEPARTMENTS. 

There  was  no  change  during  the  past  fiscal  year  in  the  constitution 
of  the  geographical  departments  established  for  purposes  of  miUtary 
administration.  A  statement  showing  the  territory  embraced  in  the 
several  geographical  departments  was  printed  in  the  annual  report 
for  the  year  1914. 


CHANGES   OP  STATIONS   OP  TROOPS. 

The  following  tables  show  the  movement  of  troops  to  and  from 
the  insular  possessions,  and  changes  of  stations  of  troops  within  the 
continental  limits  of  the  United  States  during  the  fiscal  year  ended 
June  30,  1916: 

Movements  of  troops  on  transports  to  and  from  the  insular  possessions. 


Transport. 

Left- 

Arrived  at— 

Troops  on  board. 

Place. 

Date. 

Place. 

Date. 

Thomas... 

Sherman.. 
Tbomu... 

San  Francisco,  Cal. 
Manila,  P.  L 

•  .. .  •QO.  ••••••••••• 

1916. 
Aug.    6 

Aug.  16 
Sept.  U 

Manila,  P.  I. 

San  Francisco,  Oal. 

a  •  ■  •  «G0  ■•.•••••••*• 

1016. 
Sept.   2 

Sept.  13 
Oet.  13 

Fourth,  Seventeenth,  Thirty- 
third,  Thirty-sixth,  and  One 
hundred  and  eleventh  Com- 
panies Coast  Artillery  Corps. 

Euhth  Cavalrv  and  Company 
rV  Twenty-fourth  Infantry. 

Headquarters  and  9  companlei 
Twenty-fourth  Infantry. 

240 


BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAIi. 


MovementM  of  troops  orCtransporU  to  and  from  (he  insular  ]K>M0M<on«— Continued. 


Timnsport. 


Buford 

Sheridan.. 
Logan 


Sheridan. 


Do... 
Thomas. 


Kflpatiiok. 

Do 

Do 


Do. 
Do. 


Left- 


Place. 


Qalyeeton,  Tex.... 
San  Francisco,  Cal. 
Manila,  P.  I. 


.do. 


San  Francisco,  OaL 
do 


Galveston,  Tex.... 

.....do 

New  York,  N.Y.. 

Fortlfonroe,  Va.. 
Pensaoola,  Fla.... 


Date. 


1915. 
Sept.  29 
Oct.     6 
Oct.   15 

Nov.  15 

1916. 
Jan.     6 
Feb.    5 

Feb.  23 

Mar.  11 

Apr.    8 


Apr.  U 
Apr.  18 


Arrived  at— 


Place. 


Manila,  P.  L 

San  Francisco,  Gal. 


Manila,  P.  I. 

Honolulu,  Hawaii . 

Cristobal,  Canal 
Zone. 

»  •  •  •  ttUV  ■  •  •••••••••  « 


>  •  •  •  aUM  •••••••••••• 


Data. 


1915. 
Mar.    51 
Nov.    5 
Nov.  14 

Dec  14 

1910. 
Feb.    3 
Feb.  13 

Mar.    1 

Mar.  18 

Apr.  28 


>  •  •ViV*  •  •  •  • 


Troops  (m  board. 


Twenty-seventh  Infantry. 
Fifteenth  Cavalry. 
Companies  C  and  I,  Tweoty- 

fourth  Infantry. 
Seventh  Cavalry. 


Ninth  Cavalry. 

Thirteenth  Band,  Coast  Artil- 
lery Corps. 

First  Squadron,  Twelfth  Cav^ 
airy. 

Battories  E  and  F,  Fourth 
Field  ArtiU^ry. 

Fifth  Band  and  Ei^h, 
Eighty-seventh,  and  On* 
hundred  and  twenty-fourth 
Companies,  Coast  Artillery 
Corps. 

Seventy-third  Company,  Coast 
Artillery  Corps. 

Fifteenth  Company,  Coast  Ar- 
tillery Corps. 


>  Delay  caused  by  slide  in  Panama  CanaL 
Changes  of  statione  of  troope  within  the  United  States. 


Organization. 


One  hundred  and  eleventh 

Company,  Coast  ArtiUery 

Corps. 
Fourth    Company,   Coast 

Artillery  Corps. 
Seventeenth       Company, 

Coast  Artillery  Corps. 
Thirty -sixth     Company, 

Coast  Artillery  Corps. 
Thirty  •  third     Company, 

Coast  Artillery  Corps. 

Eighth  Cavalry 

Fifteenth  Cavalry 

Seventh  Cavalry 

Ninth  Cavalry 


First   Squadron,   Twelfth 

Cavalry. 
Thirtieth  Company,  Coast 

Artillery  Corps. 
One  hundred  and  sixtieth 

Company,  Coast  Artillery 

Corps. 
Twenty-fourth  Infsntry. . . . 
Batteries  E  and  F,  Fourth 

Field  Artillery. 
One  hundred  and  twenty- 

fburth  Company,  Coast 

ArtiUery  Corps. 
Eifl^th    Company,    Coast 

Artillery  Coips. 
Etehty-seventh  Company, 

Coast  Artillery  Corps. 


Left- 


Place. 


Fort  Dade,  Fla.», 


Fort  MoU,N.  7.1 

Fort  Washington,  Md.i. 

FortMott.N.J.i 

Fort  Cohimbia,  Wash.i. 


San  Francisco,  Cal. 
Fort  Bliss,  Tex.1.. 
San  Francisco.  Cal. 
Douglas,  Aris.>..... 


Mercedes,  Tex.s 

Fort  Rosecrans,  Cal. 
do 


San  Fruicisco,  Cal. 
El  Paso,  Tex 


Fort  Andrews,  Mass.* 


FortMcKinley,Me.>. 
FortTotten,N.Y.i.. 


Dato. 


1915. 
July  24 

July  25 
...do 


July  28 

Sept.  21 
Sept.  25 
Dec.  21 
Dec.  26 

1916. 
Feb.  21 

Feb.  15 

Feb.  17 


Feb.  25 
Mar.     8 

Apr.    6 


Apr.    7 
Apr.    8 


Arrived  at— 


Place. 


San  Francisco,  Gal. 


do 

do............ 

do 

do 

Fort  Bliss,  Tex 

San  Francisco,  Cal. 

Douelas,  Ariz 

San  Francisco,  Cal. 


QalvestoD,  Tex 

Fort  Worden,  Wash, 
Fort  Stevens,  Oreg. . 


Fort  D.  A.  Russell,  Wyo.. 
Galveston,  Tex 


New  York,  N.  Y. 


.do. 
.do. 


Date. 


1915. 
July  29 

July  30 

Do. 

Do. 

Da 

Sept.2« 
Sept.  28 
Dec  23 
Dec  28 

1916. 
Feb.  23 

Feb.  19 

Feb.  21 


Feb.  28 
Mar.  10 

Apr.    7 


Apr.    8 
Do. 


1  En  route  to  PhUippine  Islands. 


•  En  route  to  Canal  Zone. 


The  foregoing  table  does  not  show  practice  marches,  temporary  changes  in  stationSi 
or  movement  ol  troops  along  the  Mexican  border. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  241 

TROOPS  SBRVINa  OUTSIDtl  THE  CONTINENTAL  LIMITS  OP  THE  UNITBD 

STATES. 

The  troops  serving  outside  the  continental  limits  of  the  United 
States,  excluding  those  in  Mexico,  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  were 
as  follows: 

PHILIPPINB  DEPABTMBNT. 

First  Company,  Second  Aero  Squadron. 

Ninth  and  Fifteenth  Cavahy. 

Second  Field  Artillery. 

Fourth,  Eleventh,  Seventeenth,  Eighteenth,  Twenty-third,  Thirty-third,  Thirty- 
flixth.  Forty-second,  Seventieth,  Eighty-sixth,  Ninetieth,  Ninety-fifth.  Ninety-ninth. 
One  hundred  and  eleventh,  and  One  hundred  and  forty-second  Companies,  ana 
Ninth  Band,  Coast  Artillery  Corps. 

Eighth,  Thirteenth,  Fifteenth  (headquarters,  band,  first  and  third  battalions  de- 
tached in  China),  Twenty-fourth,  and  Twenty-seventh  Infantry. 

Companies  K  and  L,  Ciorps  of  Engineers. 

Companies  F  and  L,  Signal  Corps. 

Fiela  Hospital  No.  4  and  Ambulance  Company  No.  4. 

HAWAUAN  DSPARTMBNT. 

Fourth  Cavalry. 

First  Field  Artillery. 

Thirteenth  Band,  Tenth,  Fifty-sixth,  Sixty-eighth.  Seventy-fifth,  Ninety-first. 
One  hundred  and  fourth^  One  hundred  and  fifth,  One  nundred  and  fo^-third,  ana 
One  hundred  and  fifty-ninth  Companies,  Coast  Artillery  Corps. 

First,  Second,  and  Twenty-fifth  Infantry. 

Company  I,  Corps  of  Engineers. 

Company  E,  Signal  Corps. 

CANAL  ZONB. 

Fifth  Band,  Eighth,  Fifteenth,  Sixteenth,  Twenty-first,  Fortieth,  Forty-fourth, 
Forty-fifth,  Seventy-third,  Eighty-first,  Eighty-seventh,  One  hundred  and  sixteenth. 
One  hundred  and  nineteenth.  One  hundred  and  twenty-fourth,  and  One  hundred 
and  forty-fourth  Companies,  Coast  Artillery  Corps. 

First  Squadron.  Twelfth  Cavalry. 

Batteries  E  ana  F,  Fourth  Field  Artillery. 

Fifth,  Tenth,  and  Twenty-ninth  Infantry. 

Company  M,  Corps  of  En^neers. 

Third  Platoon,  Company  H,  Signal  Corps. 

Ambulance  Company  No.  8. 

The  First  Battalion,  Fourteenth  Infantry,  and  Companies  C  and 
K,  Signal  Corps,  are  stationed  in  Alaska. 

SECOND  LIEUTENANTS   APPOINTED. 

During  the  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  163  second  lieutenants, 
graduate  of  the  United  States  Militair  Academv ,  were  appointed  to 
the  Army,  23  being  assigned  to  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  33  to  the 
Cavalry  arm,  11  to  the  Field  Artillery  arm,  31  to  tne  Coast  Artillery 
Corps,  and  65  to  the  Infantry  arm.  Five  civihans^  were  appointed 
probational  second  lieutenants  in  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  under  the 
provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  February  27,  1911  (36 
Stat.  L.,  957). 

Since  June  30,  1916.  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year,  124  graduates  of 
the  United  States  Military  Academy  have  been  appointed  to  the 
Army.  All  of  them,  with  the  exception  of  1  who  was  not  gradu- 
ated until  June  29,  1916,  and  was  not  appointed  imtil  that  date, 

69176*— WAR  1916— VOL  1 16 


242  BBPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 

were  appointed  to  rank  from  June  13,  1916,  the  date  of  the  gradua- 
tion of  their  class.  Of  those  appointed,  24  were  assigned  to  the 
Corps  of  Engineers,  22  to  the  Cavalry,  10  to  the  Field  Artillery  arm, 
20  to  the  Coast  Artillery  Corps,  and  48  to  the  Infantry  arm. 

COMMISSIONED  OFFICERS   IN   ACTIVE   SERVICE. 

On  June  30,  1916,  there  were  4,843  commissioned  officers  on  the 
active  list  of  the  Arm  v.    Of  these,  1,458  (including  65  chaplains)  were 

feneral  officers  or  o&cers  of  the  staff  corps  and  departments,  782 
elonged  to  the  Cavalry,  257  to  the  Field  Artillery,  739  to  the  Coast 
Artillery  Corps,  and  1,607  to  the  Infantry. 

Of  the  1,458  general  and  staff  officers  1,354  were  present  for  duty, 
27  on  leave,  4  absent  sick,  and  73  on  detached  duty.  Of  the  3,385 
line  officers  2,699  were  present  for  duty,  71  on  leave,  22  absent  sick, 
and  593  on  detached  duty. 

From  the  foregoing  it  appears  that  20.26  per  cent  of  the  line  officers 
and  7.13  per  cent  oi  the  general  and  staff  officers  were  absent  from 
their  commanck.  At  the  close  of  the  preceding  fiscal  year  25.33  per 
cent  of  the  line  officers  and  11.66  per  cent  of  the  general  and  sti^ 
officers  were  so  absent. 

The  decrease  in  the  total  number  of  officers  absent  from  their  com- 
mands at  the  end  of  this  fiscal  year,  as  compared  with  the  preceding 
year,  is  due  chiefiy  to  the  decrease  in  the  number  of  officers  on  de- 
tached service  as  snown  in  detail  in  the  section  of  this  report  relating 
to  "Officers  on  detached  service." 

In  addition  to  the  officers  on  the  active  list  there  were  128  retired 
officers  under  assimment  to  active  duty  on  Jime  30,  1916,  as  is  more 
fully  shown  ekewhere  in  this  report. 

ADDITIONAL   OFFICERS. 

The  Army  appropriation  act  apmt)ved  March  3,  1911  (36  Stat.  L., 
1058),  provides  that  every  line  officer  on  the  active  list  below  the 
grade  of  colonel  who  has  lost  in  lineal  rank  through  the  system  of 
regimental  promotion  in  force  prior  to  October  1,  1890.  may,  in  the 
discretion  of  the  President  and  subject  to  examination  for  promotion 
as  prescribed  by  law,  be  advanced  to  higher  ^ades  in  his  arm  up  to 
ana  including  the  grade  of  colonel,  in  accordance  with  the  rank  he 
would  have  been  entitled  to  hold  had  promotion  been  lineal  through- 
out the  arm  or  corps  to  which  he  permanently  belongs.  It  is  ^o 
provided  that  officers  advanced  to  higher  erades  under  the  law  cited 
shall  be  ''additional  officers"  in  those  grades. 

From  the  date  of  approval  of  the  act  to  the  close  of  the  past  fiscal 
year  there  had  been  76  advancements  in  grade  (51  to  the  CTade  of 
colonel  and  25  to  that  of  lieutenant  colonel)  imder  the  act  oi  March 
3, 1911,  before  cited.  The  table  following  shows  the  CTades  to  which 
and  the  arms  in  which  these  advancements  were  made. 


BEPOHT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENEBAIj. 


243 


Anns  Of  servic*. 


From 
lieu- 
tenant- 
colonel  to 
colonel. 


CAVftlry 

Field  AitiUery 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 
Intantry. 

Total 


19 
2 
6 

24 


51 


From 
major 
to  lieu- 
tenant- 
colonel. 


14 


2 
0 


25 


Total. 


83 
2 
8 

33 


n 


Of  the  76  advancements  shown  in  the  foregoing  table,  32  were 
advancements  in  the  cases  of  16  officers  who  were  advanced  to  the 
grade  of  lieutenant  colonel  and  subsequently  to  that  of  colonel. 
Twenty-three  of  the  officers  advanced  were  retired  from  active 
service  prior  to  June  30,  1916;  2  died;  5  were  promoted  lineaUy  and 
ceased  to  be  ''  additional  officers/'  and  5  were  appointed  brigadier 
generals,  leaving  25  additional  officers  in  the  service  June  30,  1916. 
Of  these,  11  were  in  the  Cavalry  arm,  1  in  the  Field  Artillery  arm, 
3  in  the  Coast  ArtiUerv  Corps,  and  10  in  the  Infantry  arm. 

All  of  the  officers  advanced  in  grade  had  alreadv  reached  the  grade 
of  major.  The  25  majors  advanced  to  be  aciditional  lieutenant 
colonels  left  a  like  number  of  vacancies  in  the  grade  of  major,  which 
caused  the  promotion  to  the  next  higher  grade  of  the  same  number 
of  captains,  first  lieutenants,  and  secona  lieutenants.  Of  the  51 
lieutenant  colonels  advanced,  35  left  vacancies  in  that  grade  and 
caused  the  promotion  to  the  next  higher  grade  of  the  same  nimiber 
of  majors,  captains,  first  lieutenants,  ana  second  lieutenants.  The 
16  additional  lieutenant  colonels  who  were  advanced  to  be  additional 
colonels  did  not  leave  any  vacancies  in  the  grade  of  lieutenant  colonel. 


OFFICERS  ON  DETACHED  SERVICE. 

The  number  of  officers  absent  from  their  commands  on  detached 
service  was  lower  than  that  of  the  previous  year.  On  June  30,  1915, 
there  were  7.56  per  cent  of  the  general  officers  and  officers  of  the 
staff  corps  and  departments  and  21.32  per  cent  of  the  line  officers  on 
detachea  service.  On  June  30,  1916,  those  percentages  were  5.11 
forseneral  and  staff  officers  and  17.52  for  officers  of  the  line. 

T^e  character  of  the  duty  performed  by  the  officers  of  the  Army 
on  detached  service  on  June  30,  1916,  the  numbers  so  detached,  and 
their  ranks  and  branches  of  service  are  shown  in  the  table  following. 


244 


BEPOET  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENEBAL. 


Rank. 

Duty  and  branches  of  service  from  which 
detadied. 

■ 

1 

n 
1 

• 

1 
s 

Lieutenant 
colonel. 

1 

B 

First  lieuten- 
ant. 

Second    lieu- 
tenant. 

■ 

1 

Army  War  College: 

General  officers ............................ 

1 

Staff  deoartments. 

1 

...... 

I 

1 

2 

Field  Artillery 

1 

Coast  Artillerv  Corns 

1 

2 

Total 

1 

1 

1 
2 

a 

1 

0 

United  States  MiUtary  Academy: 

RtAfT  <l«rM»'tTnAntii 

10 

1 
1 
4 
4 

3 

5 

3 

13 

10 

"'i' 

15 

Cavalry 

11 

Field  Artillery 

4 

Coast  Artillerv  Corns 

1 

24 

20 

Total 

1 

a 

20 

34 

23 

80 

Army    Service  Schools,  Fort   Leavenworth, 
Kans.: 
Staff  deoartments.......... 

4 

2 

1 
2 
8 

6 

Cavalry. .,...,-,, 

1 

Field  Artillery 

1 
1 

3 

Infantry..  .......•••* » r-*--* r 

4 

18 

Total 

0 

13 

4 

23 

Artillery  School,  Fort  Monroe,  Va.: 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

1 

10 

20 

10 

47 

Mounted  Service  School,  Fort  Riley,  Kans.: 
Cavalry 

1 

1 

2 

4 

Bchool  of  Fire  for  Field  Artillery,  Fort  801, 
Okla.: 
Field  Artillery 

1 

1 

***""" 

School  of  Musketry,  Fort  SIU,  Okla.: 

Infantry ••• 

1 

1 

• 

2 

Instructors  at  civil  educational  institutions: 
Cavalry 

1 

7 

1 

1 

44 

1 
...... 

f 

Field  .Artillery 

1 

Coast  Artillery  Com 

1 

Intentrv. ^^r-^-r • T»»»Tr-- 

1 

1 

53 

Total 

1 

2 

88 

7 

08 

Becruiting  service: 

Cavalrv 

1 

1 
1 

9 

1 

7 

23 

13 

6 

12 

21 

...... 

21 

7 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

19 

Infantry 

3 

1 

2 

51 

4 

3 

2 

40 

51 

1 

101 

Aids-de-camp: 

Cavalry 

4 
2 

4 
••••j* 

4 

2 

1 
1 
3 

10 

Field  Artniery 

8 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

s 

Infantry 

*' 

****** 

1 

8 



Total 

1          1 

7 

10 

7 

9i 

1 
2 

Cavalry 

1 

Infantry 

2 

i 

Total 

1 

3 

8 

J 

With  Panama  Canal: 

General  officers 

1 

1 

3 

4 

10 
1 
1 

1 

1ft 

Coast  Artillerv  Corps 

1 

Infnntrv 

1 

....... 

Total 

1  '. 

3 

4 

12 

1 

21 



BEFOBT  OF  THE  AI>JUTANT  OENBBAIi. 


245 


1 

Rank. 

Doty  and  brandies  ofserFiee  from  which 
detadied. 

• 

1 

Brigadier  gen- 
eral. 

1 

Lieutenant 
ooloneL 

1 

First  lieuten- 
ant. 

Seoond    lieu- 
tenant. 

Total. 

liUitaryattaehft: 

8tan  departments 

2 

1 

s 

Cayalry'. 

5 

5 

Field  Artlilery ^ 

1 

1 

Coast  ArtlUery  Corps 

1 

4 
4 

5 

Infantry. 

1 

A 

Total 

a 

1 

1 

13 

1 

1 

10 

With  Philippine  Scoots: 

Cavalry 

4 

8 

4 



g 

Total 

12 

12 

1 

In  bureaus  of  War  Department: 

Staff  departments 

2 

1 
1 

8 

Cavalry 

1 

Field  Artillery 

1 

1 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

1 
1 

7 
3 

8 

2 

3 

0 

Total 

2 

5 

12 

3 



22 

At  department  and  brigade  headquarters: 
Cavalry 

2 

1 

2 

1 

■••*2* 

3 

8 

Field  Artillery 

1 

::::::•::::: 

2 

1 

1 
1 

8 

4 

8 

Total 

6 

1 

3 

5 

6 

20 

At  Disciplinary  Barrc  Ics: 

1 

...... 

5 

1 

1 
11 

"e" 

2 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

2 

Infuitrv 7.....* 

22 

; 

1 

6 

13 

0 

20 

With  militia: 

Staff  dejmrtmwits .  x .........  a . 

0 

1 

1 

5 

7 

10 

35 

7 

Cavalry' 

1 

5 
8 

1 
20 

12 

Field  ArtUlery 

15 

1 

5 

I 
0 

13 

M 

Total 

1 

6 

u 

58 

34 

1 

118 

Alaskan  Road  Commission: 

1 

Infantry 

i 

1 

2 

"**** 

Total ' 

1 

1 

1 

8 

OiDce   Engineer   Commissioner,  District    of  , 
Columbia:                                                 ; 
fttaff  fifpartments  .  .  

1 

1 

1 

3 

• 

Staff  departments 

1 

1 

2 

Coast  Artillery  Corps • 

1 

1 

1 

...... 

t 

Total .J 

_    .    1    . 

1 

1  1 

1 

3 

......... 

...... 

Cavalry , 

1 

10 

1 
1 

10 

11 

Field  Artillery V.V.V. 

1 

J  - 

1 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

1 

...... 

, 

2 

Tnfantnr  ....7...." 

I 

10 



' 

Total ' 

1 

1 

1 

22 

24 

Special  duty  abroad: 

Staff  departments 1 

1 

1 

2 

Cavalry V.    . 

2 

2 

1 

1 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

2 

2 



Total j 

•  •  *  •  *  *i  •  *  •  *  *  *  •••••• 

1 

2 

4 

•••••• 

7 

246 


REPOBT  OP  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


Duty  and  branches  of  service  from  which 
detached. 


Kember  of  board: 

Coast  Artillery  Ck>rp6, 

Special  duty: 

Infantry 


With  American  Red  Cross: 
Staff  departments 


United  States  Soldiers'  Home: 
Staff  departments 


Observers  with  European  armies: 

Staff  departments 

Cavalry 

Field  Artmery 

InCantry 


Rank. 


g 

s 


il 

«  8 


§ 


I- 

=  9 

Em 


3 


Total. 


With  Yellowstone  P§rk  detachment: 
Cavalry , 


Alaskan  Engineering  Commission: 
Cavalry 


With  Quartermaster  Corps: 

Cavalry 

Field  Artmery 


Total. 


Naval  War  College: 

Coast  Artillery  Corps . 

Duty  toipedo  depot: 
Coast  Artillery  Corps . 


Total. 


22 


23 


5 
1 


6 


65      232 


3 


250 


6 


5 
2 

1 
1 


8 
2 


10 


3 


82        MO 


RECAPITULATION. 


Rank. 


Major  general 

Brigadier  general.. 

Cirionel , 

Lieutenant  c<^onel. 

Major 

Captain 

First  lieu  tenant... 
Second  lieutenant. 


Total. 
Percentage. 


General 
oflloers 

and 
officers 
of  staff 
corps  and 
depart- 
ments. 


1 

1 

3 

10 

26 

27 

5 


73 
5.11 


Cavalry. 


5 
2 
4 

42 
48 
20 


121 
15.47 


Field 
Artillery. 


1 
3 

18 
17 

4 


43 
16.73 


Coast 

Artillery 

Corps. 


4 

4 

6 

47 

60 

20 


141 
10.08 


Infantry. 


10 

6 

16 

08 

120 

38 


288 

17.02 


Total. 


I 

1 
22 
23 
55 
232 
250 
82 


666 
13.84 


It  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  table  that  of  the  593  line  officers 
on  detached  duty\  532,  or  90  per  cent,  were  captains  or  lieutenants. 
Of  the  719  line  omcers  on  detached  duty  at  the  end  of  the  preceding 
year,  672,  or  93  per  cent,  were  captains  or  lieutenants. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


247 


The  following  table  shows,  by  grades  and  arms  of  service,  the 
number  of  officers  detached  from  their  proper  commands  on  June  30, 
1916,  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  March  3, 
1911  (36  Stat.  L.,  1045): 


Arms  of  aenrioe. 


Cavalry 

FWd  Artillery 

Coast  Artillery  Corps. 
Infantry 


Total. 


Ondfli. 


Colooal. 


2 

4 


8 


Lien- 
tenant 
coIoQel. 


2 

1 

2 
4 


Mi^jor. 


0 

2 

A 

13 


Cap- 
tain. 


19 

7 

IS 

88 


27 


82 


First 

lien- 

tenant. 


18 

5 

16 

85 


74 


TotaL 


47 
15 
44 
•4 


200 


The  character  of  employment  of  those  officers,  by  grades,  on  June 
30,  1916,  is  shown  in  the  following  table: 


Grades. 

Character  of  duty. 

Colonel. 

Lien- 
tenant 
colonel. 

Major. 

Cap- 
tain. 

First 

lien- 

tenant 

Total. 

With  OrKanised  If  ilitia  of  43  States 

5 

4 

5 
22 

84 

48 

22 

52 

es 

On  other  than  mUitla  dqty,, , , . , ,  -  ^ , . ,  ^ , . , , ^ 

8 

134 

Total 

8 

9 

27 

82 

74 

200 

RETIRED  OFFICERS   ON   ACTIVE   DUTY. 

On  June  30,  1916,  there  were  128  retired  officers  under  assignment 
to  active  duty.  The  following  table  shows  the  grades  and  employ- 
ment of  those  officers: 


Dnty. 

Lieu- 
tenant 
gener- 
al. 

Colo- 
nel. 

Lieu- 
tenant 
oolonel. 

Major. 

tain. 

First 
lien- 
tenant. 

Second 

lieu- 
tenant. 

Total. 

At  Soldiers'  TTome 

1 

4* 

2 

1 
1 

1 

10 
7 

3 

On  recruiting  service 

11 

9 

3 
1 

30 

With  State  militia 

23 

At  Army  Service  Schools,  Fort  Lea- 
venworth. Kans 

1 

At  Army  War  Colleee 

1 

5 

1 

12 

2 

At  dvil  educational  Institutions 

10 

8 

2 

32 

Doorkeeper  to  President ... 

* 

1 

i' 

12 
1 

8 

1 

34 

Withl^ignftlC<nT9...   .   ' 

2 

Total 

1 

0 

37 

49 

20 

3 

128 

Of  the  retired  officers  on  duty,  as  shown  in  the  forgoing  table,  1 
lieutenant  general,  1  colonel,  and  1  major  (all  at  the  United  States 
Soldiers*  Home  in  this  city),  1  captain,  and  1  second  lieutenant  (on 
college  duty)  received  from  the  United  States  only  the  retired  pay  of 


248  BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENEBAIj. 

their  respective  grades;  8  colonels  and  9  lieutenant  colonels  received 
the  pay  and  allowances  that  a  retired  major  would  receive  under  a  like 
assignment;  and  36  majors,  48  captains,  20  first  lieutenants,  and  2 
second  Ueu  tenants  received  the  active  pay  and  allowances  of  their 
respective  grades. 

OFFICERS  EXAMINED  FOB  PROMOTION. 

During  the  fiscal  year  2,197  officers  of  the  Army  were  examined  and 
2  were  reexamined  for  promotion. 

Of  the  2,197  officers  examined,  2,179  were  found  professionally 
qualified.  4  were  found  professionally  disoualified  and  will  be  sus- 

{ tended  irom  promotion  for  one  year,  ana  14  were  examined  and 
oimd  physicaUy  disqualified  and  were  retired  after  the  close  of  the 
fiscal  year.  Of  the  2  officers  reexamined,  1  was  found  qualified  and 
1  was  honorably  discharged  from  the  Army. 

The  act  of  Jime  3,  1916,  extended  the  provisions  of  previous  law 
requiring  examination  to  determine  fitness  of  officers  for  promotion 
to  include  examination  for  promotion  to  all  grades  below  that  of 
brigadier  general.  Previous  laws  provided  for  the  examination  of 
officers  up  to  and  including  the  grade  of  captain  before  promotion  to 
the  next  higher  grade,  except  medical  officers,  who  were  examined 
for  promotion  to  any  grade  oelow  that  of  brigadier  general. 

BETIBED  OFFICEBS. 

On  Jime  30.  1916,  there  were  1,005  commissioned  officers  on  the 
retired  list.  During  the  fiscal  year  ended  Jime  30,  1916,  36  officers 
were  placed  on  that  list.  In  addition  to  the  officers  of  the  R^ular 
Army  placed  on  the  retired  list  during  the  year  there  were  31  former 
officers  of  the  PhiUppine  Scouts — ^20  captains  and  1 1  first  lieutenants — 
who  had  been  separated  from  active  service  by  resignation,  discharge, 
etc.,  and  subsequently  placed  on  the  retired  hst  as  enlisted  men 

E laced  on  a  list  of  retired  officers  of  Philippine  Scouts  as  of  the  grades 
eld  by  them  as  officers  of  said  scouts,  under  the  provisions  of  section 
26  of  the  national  defense  act  approved  Jime  3,  1916.  Fifty  of  the 
officers  on  the  retired  list  died  durmg  the  vear,  5  were  restored  to  the 
active  list  as  additional  officers,  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of 
Congress  approved  March  4,  1915,  leaving  1,017  officers,  including 
those  of  the  PhiHppine  Scouts,  on  the  retire  list,  June  30.  1916.  Six 
of  the  brigadier  generals  were  advanced  to  the  grade  of  major 
general^  1  with  me  pay  and  allowances  of  a  major  general  on 
the  retired  list,  and  the  other  5  with  the  pay  and  allowances  of  a 
brigadier  general  on  the  retired  list.  One  officer  on  the  retired  list 
was  advanced  one  grade  imder  the  provisions  of  an  act  of  Couctcss 
approved  March  4,  1915,  on  accoimt  of  services  with  the  Canal  Com- 
mission in  the  Canal  Zone  in  connection  with  the  construction  of  the 
Panama  Canal.  The  table  following  shows  the  grades  of  the  officers 
on  the  retired  list  and  the  causes  of  the  retirement  of  those  officers. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENEBAIj. 


249 


GxBd«f. 


i 


I 


Lioutenant  general 2 

UaiorwiDenl 16 

Brigadier  generaL 70 

Colonel 57 

Lieutenant  ooIooeL 17 

Major 10 

Gaptab.... 4 

Flnt  lieutenant 2 

Second  lieutenant 

Qiaplain:  | 

Lieutenant  Ofdonel \     2 

Mik|or !     5 

Captain i     4 

First  lieutenant I 

Philippine  Scouts:  I 

Captain 

First  lieutenant i 


Total. 


189 


QQ 

P4 


8 
5 


13 


On  own  appli- 
cation. 


s 


88 


I 


I 

< 


1 

6 
71 
31 

6 


114 


00 


i 

I 


I 


1 

17 
39 
33 
40 
12 


142 


1 
1 
3 


For  disability. 


In  line  of  duty. 


OQ 


P4 


3 


16 
32 
25 
78 
122 
66 
21 


10 
3 
1 


374 


12 
44 

45 
20 


121 


s 


it 


I 

1 


I! 


o 

a* 


OQ 

P3 


I 


1 
3 
3 
1 


8 


CO 


I 


20 
11 


31 


1 
2 
6 


12 


I 


8 

25 

183 

166 

94 

183 

192 

91 

23 

8 

16 

7 

1 

20 
11 


1,017 


Of  the  4  officers  retired  under  section  32  of  the  act  of  Congress 
approved  July  28,  1866  (14  Stat.  L.,  337),  on  account  of  disability 
occasioned  by  wounds  received  in  battle,  with  the  full  rank  of  the 
command  held  by  them  at  the  time  such  woimds  were  received,  1  was 
advanced  three  grades,  1  two  CTades,  and  2  one  grade.  All  of  them, 
with  the  exception  of  the  brigamer  general,  receive  a  further  advance- 
ment of  one  grade  imder  the  act  of  Congress  approved  April  23, 
1904  (33  Stat.  L.,  264).  In  addition  to  these,  67  origadier  generals, 
13  colonels,  27  lieutenant  colonels,  54  majors,  16  captains,  and  1  first 
Ueutenant  hold  their  present  grades  on  the  retired  list  through  an 
advancement  of  one  grade  tmder  the  act  of  Congress  approved 
April  23,  1904,  making  a  total  of  180  officers  on  the  retired  list  June 
30, 1916,  who  have  been  advanced  one  grade  under  that  act  because 
of  service  during  the  Civil  War. 

The  table  following  shows,  by  grades,  the  number  of  officers  of  the 
Army  retired  from  active  service  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June 
30|  I9I6,  and  the  causes  of  their  retirement. 


250 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


Ond«f. 


lAf^oreeneral 

Br^sadier  general. . . . 

G<doiiel 

Lieutenant  (xdonel. . 

Major 

Gaptain 

First  lieutenant 

Chaplain  (major). . . . 
Philippine  Scouts: 

Captain 

First  lieutenant. 


Total. 


K3 


2 
1 

7 


11 


On  own  application. 


8, 

>  a   . 


t>>9 
Is 


1 

"i 


£^ 


1 
1 
3 


Fordisabmty. 


"CO 

2  • 


1 

2 
1 
6 
1 


11 


^^ 


III 


9 


1 
1 


CO 


^<5 


20 
11 


31 


I 


2 
1 

13 
8 
4 

10 
2 
1 

20 
U 


07 


COMMISSIONED  OFFICERS  WHO  HAD  CIVIL  WAR  SERVICE. 

The  official  records  show  that  of  the  4,811  commissioned  officers 
(including  154  officers  of  the  Medical  Reserve  Corps  called  into  active 
service)  on  the  active  list  of  the  Regular  Army  June  30,  1916,  none  of 
them  served  in  the  Army,  Navy,  or  Marine  Corps  during  the  Civil 
War  otherwise  than  as  a  cadet  prior  to  April  9,  1865,  the  last  officer 
so  serving  being  Col.  John  L.  Clem,  Quartermaster  Corps,  who  was 
retired  by  operation  of  law,  64  years  of  ace,  on  August  13,  1915. 

Tliere  were  986  officers  of  the  Army,  otner  than  Philippine  Scouts, 
on  the  retired  list  Jime  30,  1916.  Oi  these,  310  served  m  the  Army, 
Navy,  or  Marine  Corps,  otherwise  than  as  cadets  prior  to  April  9, 1865. 
The  following  table  shows,  bv  grades,  the  number  of  officers  on  the 
retired  list  of  the  Army  on  thme  30,  1916^  and  the  number  of  those 
officers  who  had  Civil  War  service  otherwise  than  as  cadets  prior  to 
April  9,  1865: 


OradM. 


Lieotenant  general. . . . 

Malor  general 

Bngadier  general 

Colonel , 

Lieutenant  colonel . . . . 

Major 

Captain 

First  lieotenant , 

Second  lieutenant 

Chaplain: 

Lieutenant  colonel 

M^or 

Captain 

First  lientenant. . . 

ToUl 


Officen 

1  on  the  retired  list 

June  30,  mo. 

Civfl 

No  Civfl 

Total. 

War 

War 

serrice. 

servioa. 

8 
25 

3 
20 

6 

188 

145 

88 

100 

18 

148 

94 

82 

02 

183 

67 

120 

102 

22 

170 

01 

8 

88 

23 
8 

ss 

2 

1 

16 

8 

7 

7 

1 

7 

1 

080 

810 

070 

BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  OENEBAL.  251 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  table  that  approximately  32  per 
cent  of  the  oflBcers  of  the  Army  on  the  retired  list  June  30,  1916, 
served  as  officers  or  enlisted  men  of  the  Army,  Nayy,  or  Marine  Corps 
during  the  Civil  War.  On  June  30,  1915,  approximately  34  per  cent 
of  the  officers  of  the  Army  on  that  list  had  Civil  War  service. 

officers'  reserve  corps. 

Provision  is  made  in  the  national  defense  act  approved  Jime  3, 
1916,  for  an  Officers'  Reserve  Corps,  to  consist  of  sections  correspond- 
ing to  the  various  arms,  staff  corps,  and  departments  of  the  Regular 
Army.  As  stated  in  the  law,  its  object  is  ^'  ior  the  purpose  of  securing 
a  reserve  of  officers  available  for  service  as  temporary  officers  in  the 
Regular  Anny,  *  *  *  as  officers  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps  and 
other  staff  corps  and  departments,  as  officers  for  recruit  rendezvous 
and  depots,  and  as  officers  of  volunteers."  The  corps  is  to  be  organ- 
ized under  such  rules  and  regulations  as  the  President  may  prescnbe. 
These  rules  and  regulations  are  printed  in  Oeneral  Orders  No.  32, 
War  Department,  tmly  28,  1916. 

The  organization  of  the  Officers'  Reserve  Corps  is  an  effort  to  obtain 
and  train  in  time  of  peace  the  large  number  ot  commissioned  officers 
necessary  in  war  or  when  war  is  imminent. 

Especial  inducements  to  secure  trained  and  educated  officers  have 
been  made  to  land-grant  colleges,  other  universities  and  coUeges,  and 
to  essentially  military  school!.  When  the  act  has  been  given  full 
effect,  by  appropriations  made  and  regulations  promulgated,  it  is 
intended  to  supply  students  under  military  training  at  such  institu- 
tions necessary  uniforms,  military  eouipment,  and  for  those  recom- 
mended by  the  officer  on  duty  and  tne  head  of  the  institution  com- 
mutation of  subsistence  for  the  last  two  vears  of  the  prescribed  four- 
year  course.  Additional  officers  have  oeen  provided  for  detail  to 
these  coUeges,  to  bring  the  militarj^  instruction  up  to  the  standard 
which  its  importance  to  the  nation  justifies. 

That  this  is  expected  to  add  greatly  to  the  nulitary  strength  of  the 
country  is  indicated  hy  a  provision  in  the  national  defense  act  that 
the  total  number  of  omcers  that  may  be  appointed  and  commissioned 
in  the  Reserve  Corps  from  this  source  is  50,000. 

To  secure  the  large  number  of  educated  and  trained  officers  for 
the  large  armies  that  will  be  necessary  under  existing  conditions  in 
war  IB  one  of  the  greatest  miUtary  problems;  and  it  is  noped  that  the 
Officers'  Reserve  Corps  provisions  in  the  national  defense  act  will 
in  time  solve  it. 

Copies  of  the  rules  and  regulations  TOveming  appointments  in  the 
corps  will  be  furnished  to  applicants  tnercfor. 

RETIRED   ENLISTED  MEN. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  year  there  were  4,028  enlisted  men  on 
the  retired  list  created  by  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress 
approved  February  14,  1885  (23  Stat.  L.,  305),  modified  by  the  acts 
of  Congress  approved  September  30,  1890  (26  Stat.  L.,  504),  March  2, 
1907  (34  Stat.  L.,  1218),  and  August  24,  1912  (37  Stat.  L.,  575). 

During  the  fiscal  year  310  enlisted  men  were  placed  on  the  retired 
list,  153  of  the  men  on  that  list  died,  and  31  were  transferred  to 


252  BEPOET  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL, 

the  list  of  retired  commissioned  officers  of  Philippine  Scouts,  under 
provisions  of  the  national  defense  act  approved  Jmie  3,  1916,  leaving 
4,154  enlisted  men  on  the  retired  list  at  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year. 

PERSONS  QUALIFIED  TO  HOLD  TOLtTNTEEB  COHHI8SION8. 

Certificates  were  issued  during  the  year,  under  the  provisions  of 
section  23  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  January  21,  1903  (32  Stat. 
L.,  779),  in  the  case  of  52  persons  who  were  founa  upon  examination 
by  boards  of  officers  convened  for  that  purpose  to  be  "specially 
qualified  to  hold  commissions  in  any  volunteer  force  which  may 
hereafter  be  c^ed  for  and  organizea  under  the  authority  of  Con- 
gress, other  than  a  force  composed  of  Organized  Mihtia."  Of  these, 
10  were  from  New  York,  5  from  Minnesota,  4  from  Washington,  2 
from  Massachusetts.  1  each  from  Illinois,  Indiana,  New  Jersey,  Ohio, 
Rhode  Island,  Soutn  Dakota,  Wyoming,  and  the  Phihppine  Islands; 
17  were  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular  Army,  and  2  were  clerks  of  the 
Quartermaster  Corps,  United  States  Army;  1  was  a  commissioned 
officer  of  the  Phihppine  Constabulary,  and  3  were  commissioned 
officers  of  the  Philippme  Scouts. 

The  board  of  officers  appointed  to  recommend  candidates  for 
appointment  as  volunteer  omcera,  as  provided  in  General  Order  No. 
42,  War  Department,  1915,  reported  on  May  18,  1916  (date  of  latest 
report),  that  658  candidates  had  been  found  qualified.  These  candi- 
dates werenot  required  to  pass  aprofessional  and  physical  examination, 
as  were  the  persons  to  whom  certificates  were  issued  under  the  provisions 
of  section  23  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  January  21,  1903,  but 
were  required  to  make  formal  applications,  upon  a  blank  form  fur- 
nished by  the  department,  and  to  furnish  letters  and  other  evidence 
as  to  character  and  qualifications.  The  following  table  shows  the 
number  of  candidates  by  grade,  arm,  corps,  or  department  found 
quahfied  by  the  board  toMay  18,  1916,  for  appointment  as  volunteer 
officers: 


QndM. 

i 

|j 

1 
1 

1 

, 

■3 

1 

1 
1 

. 

1 

l 

1 

1 

1 

1 

* 

1 

15 

33 
S 

3 

35 

a 

1 
13 

i 

» 

2 

\ 

n 

• 

■ 

M 

> 

^ 

" 

6 

113 

18 

24 

S» 

IT 

' 

ftSS 

al  the  national  defense  act,  June  3,  1916,  anpli- 
snt  as  volunteer  officers  are  no  longer  considered 
)rs  referred  to.  Such  apphcations  will  hereafter 
section  53  of  that  act,  or  the  candidates  will  be 


afflisr*^-- 


liar-- 


.1 


S'  "^ 


254 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  QENEBAU 


HONOB  SCHOOLS. 

Culver  Military  Academy,  Culver,  Ind. 

Kemper  Militi^  School,  Boone ville,  Mo. 

Kentuck^r  Militiuy  Institute,  Lyndon,  Ky. 

New  Mexico  Military  Institute,  Roswell,  N.  Mex. 

New  York  Military  Academy,  Comwall-on-Hudson,  N.  Y. 

St.  John's  Military  Aotdemy,  Delafield,  Wis. 

St.  John's  School,  Manlius,  N.  Y. 

College  of  St.  Thomas,  St.  Paul,  Minn. 

Wentworth  Military  Academy.  iiexinfi:ton,  Mo. 

Western  Military  Academy,  Alton,  111. 

STUDENTS  AND   GRADUATES   OF  CIVIL   INSTITUTIONS  OF  LEARNING   AT 
WHICH  ARMY  OFFICERS  ARE  DETAILED  AS  MILITARY  INSTRUCTORS. 

In  December,  1914,  an  effort  was  made  by  this  office  to  ascertain 
for  each  of  the  10  years  1905  to  1914,  inclusive,  the  number  of  stu- 
dents enrolled  at,  and  the  number  graduated  from,  civil  institutions 
of  learning  at  wnich  officers  of  the  Army  were  detailed  as  military 
instructors.  Requests  for  information  on  the  subject  were  sent  to 
all  such  institutions  (103  at  the  time),  and  all  but  7  of  them  furnished 
figures.  Data  on  this  subject  have  been  obtained  from  time  to  time 
since  1914,  and  the  following  table  shows  the  numbers  of  students 
at,  and  graduates  from,  those  civil  educational  institutions  at  which 
officers  of  the  Army  are  detailed  as  instructors  in  miUtary  science 
and  tactics  that  have  furnished  figures: 


Year. 


1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 
1913 
1914 
1915 
1916 


NumlMr 
of  stu- 
dents 
under 
military 
instruo- 
tion. 


17,8S5 
18,138 
21,616 
24,191 
35,222 
27,122 
28,843 
29,979 
31,028 
33,424 
32,313 
85,091 


Number 
of  mili- 
tary stu- 
dents 
eradu- 
at«L 


2,880 
8,078 
8.441 
8,789 
4,215 
4,701 
4,757 
5.188 
4,970 
>2.37« 
2,474 


1  Includes  only  those  who  graduated  in  military  science  and  tactics,  and  does  not  represent  the  total 
number  of  graduates  that  at  some  time  during  the  course  received  instruction  in  that  subject. 

The  report  for  1914  included  students  enrolled  at  101  institutions;  that  for  1915,  students  at  100  institutioaa; 
and  that  for  1916,  students  at  106  institutfons. 

STRENGTH  AND  LOSSES  OP  THE  ARMY. 


The  tables  facing  show  (A)  the  strength  of  the  Army  of  the  United 
States  June  30,  1915,  and  June  30,  1916,  with  losses  from  all  causes 
between  those  dates;  (B)  the  strength  and  losses  from  all  causes  in 
the  Army  in  each  month  of  the  fiscal  year;  (C)  the  strength  of  the 
Anny  by  departments,  etc.,  at  the  end  of  each  month  of  the  fiscal 
year;  and  (D)  the  number  of  deaths  in  the  Army  during  the  fiscal 
year. 


?Es  PEOM  All  Causes  bethtebn  Those  Dates. 


TAXES  Between  July  1,  1915,  and  June  30,  1916. 


WoUlfDED. 

• 

ENUSTED  MEN. 

J 

Died. 

• 

• 

1 

a 

« 

• 

1 

• 

9 

4S 

•S-S 

« 

1 

1 

1 
f 

'1 

« 

• 

1 

• 

• 

g 

s 

1 

is 

1 

1 

U 

it 

5 

o 

« 

1 

f 

1 

e 

o 

W 

c 

o 

-< 

« 

QQ 

^•^ 

§ 

p; 

P 

S 

H 

o 

w 

PS 

4 

1 

1 
3 

...... 

13 
22 
18 

6 

17 

5 

11 

3 
7 

8 

23 
23 
28 

468 
483 
402 

...... 

2,796 
2,921 
2,739 

214 

2 

1 
1 

4 

3 

360 

0 

i 

338 

0 

4 



21 

6 

1 

5 

2 

25 

331 

2,736 

8 

236 

0 

1 

18 

6 

6 

334 

30 

272 

1,824 

2 

243 

2 

25 
12 
26 
17 

6 

9 

6 

12 

2 
8 
3 
4 

7 
5 
3 
3 

4 

7 
3 

1 

576 
997 
602 
620 

29 
31 
29 
29 

213 
208 

228 
207 

1,976 
2,387 
2,302 
2,157 

254 

2 

227 

7 

"y- 

1 

1 

173 

4 

3 

10 

143 

8 

5 

1 

20 

4 

3 

1 

597 

28 

367 

i 

2,134 

9 

143 

3 

4 

29 

4 

3 

5 

7 

621 

20 

380 

2,020 

6 

143 

9 

9 

2 

22 

9 

3 

3 

2 

190 

26 

489 

3 

1,493 

1 

13 

170 

1  !      34 

1 

4 

243 

89 

46 

68 

28 

4,626 

321 

3,856 

6 

127,484 

5 

66 

3,443 

3 
3  , 

5' 

' 

05 

88 
80 
45 
6 
21 
33 
12 
10 
10 
13 
15 

•  •  ■  • 

1 
1 
2 
1 

...... 

1 

.. 

» 

5 

2    - 



3 

4 

5 
2 

1 

1 

2 

4 

1 
2 

2 

t 

1 

1 
1 
2 

t 

5   

2 
1 
3 
3 

1 

3  1 

» 

3 

i 

1 

7  1 

1 

1 

1 



2 



1 

11 

1 

1 

1 

11 

13 

428 

9 

34  t 

1 

7 

254 

90 

46 

59 

29 

4,637 

321 

3,869 

5 

«27,912 

6 

6 

2,451 

*  Actual  losses  are  25,461,  as  the  total  ga!n  from  desertion  during  the  year  was  2,451. 


ACH  Month  of  the  Fiscal  Year. 


6. 

Febniary,  191C. 

March,  1916. 

AprU,1916.                May,  1916.                June,  1916. 

1 

8ted 

1 
1 

Offloen. 

937 

60 

1,664 

803 

347 

Enlisted 
men. 

Offloen. 

Knltvt«d 
men. 

Officers. 

Enlisted 
men. 

OffleefB. 

EnlistMi 
men. 

,401 
,993 
,105 
,143 
,000 

1,009        25,645 
173  ,        3.<>57 

1,337        24,731 
360          8,423 
348  1        9,038 

2<i,639 
562 

31.200 
7,472 
8,969 

947 

60 

1,673 

803 

846 

28,898 
565 

81,667 
7,378 
8,510 

818 

59 

1,903 

228 

384 

19,819 
595 

87,697 
6,071 
8,167 

760 

63 

1,987 

337 

388 

17.887 
618 

40,476 
6,888 
6»11S 

.878 
,549 
,196 
,355 

430 

182 

44 

1.033 

10,836 
5,587 
1.194 
9.914 

471 

183 

44 

904 

11,676 

5,604 
1,161 
8,232 

475 

182 

41 

887 

11,576 
5,C04 
1,281 
9,632 

486 

182 

38 

857 

11,327 
6,006 
1,271 
9,659 

480 

183 

41 

963 

11,404 
6,608 
1,338 

11,601 

,630 

4,906        99,025 

4,911 

98,406  !        4,912  j      99,600          4,905 

>                  1 

100,202 

6,036 

ioa,6ie 

dng  troops  at  camps,  en  route,  recmlti,  etc 

Jlt-t  1,  1915,  AND  June  30,  1916. 


4e. 

Murder 
or  homicide. 

TotaL 

:nllsted 

r»i*«n 

offlcers. 

Enlisted 

Officers. 

Kntfatted 

.TTWm 

•  »»1«»»«         . 


v^ 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  QENEBAL.  255 

The  losses  in  the  Arm^r  durmg  the  year  ended  June^O,  1916,  are 
summarized  in  the  following  statement: 

REGULAR  ARMY. 

Officers: 

Died  of  disease,  etc 86 

Resigned  or  discharged 38 

DisimsBed 3 

Retired 36 

Deserted 1 

113 

Enlisted  men: 

Died  of  disease,  etc 605 

Discharged  upon  expiration  of  term  of  8er\'ice 6. 793 

Discharged  for  disability,  by  sentence  of  court-martial,  or  by  order.  12, 378 
Deserted  (includes  2,442  deserters  subsequently  returned  to  mili- 
tary control) 3, 866 

Retired 321 

Transferred  to  the  Reserve 4,626 

Missing  in  action 6 

27,484 

Aggr^iate 27,697 

PHILIPPINE   SCOUTS. 

Officers:  Resigned  or  discharged 3 

Enlisted  men: 

Died  of  disease,  etc 14 

Discharged  upon  expiration  of  term  of  service 262 

Discharged  for  disability,  by  sentence  of  court-martial,  or  by  order.        128 
Deserted  (includes  9  deserters  subsequently  returned  to  military 

control) 13 

Transferred  to  the  Reserve 11 

428 

Aggregate 431 

AGOREOATB. 

Officers: 

Died  of  disease,  etc 36 

Resigned  or  discharged 41 

Dismissed .^ 3 

Retired 36 

Deserted 1 

116 

Enlisted  men: 

Died  of  disease,  etc 619 

Discharged  upon  expiration  of  term  of  service 6, 066 

Discharged  for  disability,  by  sentence  of  court-martial,  or  by  order  12, 506 
Deserted  (includes  2,451  deserters  subsequently  retiuned  to  mili- 
tary control) 3, 869 

Retired 321 

Transferred  to  the  Reserve 4, 637 

MiflHing  in  action 6 

27, 912 

Aggregate 28,028 

As  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  table,  but  5,793  enlisted  men 
were  discharged  from  the  R^ular  Army  upon  expiration  of  term  of 
service  during  the  year.  This  small  number  of  discharges  upon 
expiration  of  service  is  the  result  of  the  act  of  August  24, 1912,  which 
provided  that  alter  November  1,  1912,  all  enlistments  in  the  Regular 
Army  shoidd  be  for  a  period  of  seven  years,  four  years  with  the 


256  REPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAIi. 

colors  and  tbtee  years  in  the  Reserve,  or  the  soldier  may  be  furloughed 
to  the  Reserve  after  an  active  service  of  three  years.  In  order  to 
reenlist  for  active  service,  he  must  serve  four  years  with  the  colors. 
Consequently,  the  only  discharges  occurring  auring  the  year  upon 
expiration  of  term  of  service  were  of  those  men  who  enlisted  prior  to 
November  1,  1912.  The  niunber  (4,626)  furloughed  to  the  Reserve 
during  the  fiscal  year  1916  should  be  included  in  the  separations  from 
service  upon  expiration  of  term  of  enlistment,  for  even  though  they 
have  not  been  actually  discharged,  they  have  completed  the  term  of 
active  service  for  which  enlisted.  If  tms  number  be  added,  the  total 
number  of  separations  from  active  service  because  of  completion  of 
term  of  enlistment,  or  that  part  of  it  calling  for  active  service,  is 
10,419.  Dxuing  the  preceding  fiscal  year  the  number  of  discharges 
upon  expiration  of  term  of  service  was  27,020,  and  during  the  fiscal 
year  1914  it  was  25,027.  Those  numbers  are,  respectively,  8.4,  19.7, 
and  20  per  cent  of  the  whole  number  of  enlisted  men  in  service  or  of 
enlistment  contracts  in  force  during  each  of  those  years. 

The  losses  from  all  causes  other  than  completion  of  term  of  active 
service  among  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular  Army  during  the  fiscal 
year  ended  June  30,  1916,  numbered  17,065,  but  from  tnis  number 
should  be  deducted  the  nxmiber  (2,442)  of  deserts  that  returned  to 
military  control  during  the  year,  leaving  14,623  as  representing  the 
nxmiber  of  losses  during  the  year  from  causes  other  than  completion 
of  term  of  active  service.  During  the  preceding  fiscal  year  those 
losses  were  14,517,  and  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1914, 
they  were  12,487.  Those  numbers  are,  respectively,  13.4  (or  11.8,  if 
the  nxmiber  gained  from  desertion  is  deducted  from  the  total  losses 
from  desertion),  10.6,  and  9.97  per  cent  of  the  whole  nxmiber  of 
enlistment  contracts  in  force  dxuing  the  year. 

DE8EBTIONS. 

As  shown  by  the  official  returns,  the  nxmiber  of  desertions  from 
the  Army  durmg  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  aggregated 
3,856,  which  is  3.10  per  cent  of  the  whole  number  of  enlistment  con- 
tracts in  force  during  the  year.  This  is  a  slight  decrease  as  com- 
Sared  with  the  percentage  (3.23)  for  1915.  The  number  of  reported 
esertions  during  the  year  1916  is  579  less  than  the  number  reported 
during  1915  and  595  less  than  the  number  reported  in  1914. 

Oi  the  3,856  cases  of  reported  desertion  during  the  year,  200  were 
declared  erroneous;  2  of  the  men  so  reported  were  tried  and  acquit- 
ted of  the  charge,  and  580  were  tried  and  found  guilty  of  the  lesser 
offense  of  absence  without  leave,  making  a  total  of  782  cases  im- 
properly classed  as  desertions.  If  this  number  be  deducted  from  the 
3,856  reported  desertions,  as  shown  by  the  retmns,  there  remain  but 
3,074  cases,  or  2.47  per  cent,  of  actual  desertions.  However,  this 
figure  does  not  represent  the  actual  number  of  desertions  occiuring 
during  the  year,  because  it  is  impossible  at  this  time  to  even  estimate 
the  number  of  the  men  now  regarded  as  deserters  that  will  come  under 
military  control  and  be  acquitted  of  the  charge  or  be  convicted  of  the 
lesser  offense  of  absence  without  leave  before  the  statute  of  limita- 
tions will  apply  in  their  cases.  Under  the  law  now  in  operation  the 
trial  of  the  men  who  enlisted  and  deserted  during  the  fiscal  year  1916 
will  not  be  barred  by  the  statute  of  limitations  until  some  time  during 


BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENEBAL. 


257 


the  fiscal  year  1925.  Unless  it  can  be  assumed  that  all  men  reported 
as  deserters  during  the  year  who  do  not  return  to  military  control 
or  have  not  been  tried  before  the  annual  report  for  that  year  is  pub- 
lished can  be  classed  as  deserters,  the  actual  number  of  desertions 
during  a  year  can  not  be  stated  in  the  report  for  that  year.  As  cases 
have  arisen  in  which  men  have  been  convicted  of  absence  without 
leave  after  having  been  absent  more  than  two  years  from  the  date 
of  their  reported  desertion,  no  such  assumption  is  possible.  As  the 
figTures  hereafter  given  in  this  report  are  comparative,  and  because  it 
is  impossible  to  determine  at  this  time  how  many  of  the  men  dropped 
as  deserters  during  the  year  will  ultimately  be  regarded  as  such,  the 
number  of  reported  desertions  as  shown  by  the  returns  will  be  used. 
A  comparison  of  the  percentages  of  reported  desertions  in  each  of 
the  past  20  years  is  shown  in  the  following  table: 


Fiscal  yean. 

Peroentace 
deserted. 

Fiscal  years. 

Peroentase 
deserted. 

1916 

3.10 
3.23 
3.10 
4.15 
3.00 
2.28 
3.66 
4.97 
4.59 
5.62 

1906 

7.43 

1915 

1905 

6.79 

1914 -. 

1904 

6.61 

1913 

1903 

7  10 

1912 

1902. 

5.00 

1911 

1901 

4.12 

1910 

1900 

4.09 

1909 

1899 

3.22 

1908 

1898 

1.57 

1907 

1897 

8.13 

The  following  table  shows  the  percentages  of  desertions  occurring 
in  each  of  the  several  periods  of  service  during  the  past  three  years : 


Period  of  service  in  which  desertioo  took  place. 


First  3  months  of  seiTioe 

Second  3  months  of  service 

Third  3  months  of  service 

Fourth  3  months  of  service 

First  year  of  service 

Second  year  of  service 

Third  year  of  service 

Fourth  year  of  service 

First  enlistment 

Second  enlistment 

Third  enlistment 

Fourth  enlistment  and  subsequent  enlistments 

Total 


Feroentase  of  whole  number 
of  desertirais. 


Year 

ended 

June  30, 

1916. 


10 
11 
10 

8 


(0 


39 

24 

9 


72 
21 

4 
3 


100 


Year 

ended 

June  30, 

1915. 


13 
17 
14 
10 


64 

20 

5 


79 

16 

3 

2 


100 


Year 

ended 

June  30, 

1914. 


18 

19 

14 

7 


58 

18 

5 


81 

13 

3 

3 


100 


1  During  the  year  1916  there  were  10  desertions  during  the  fourth  year  of^rvice,  but  as  that  number  is  less 
than  one-third  of  1  per  cent,  it  is  not  shown  in  this  table.  I>uring  the  preceding  years  the  enlistment  period 
ended  at  the  expiration  of  3  years. 

During  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  there  was  a  material 
decrease  in  the  percentage  of  desertions  occurring  in  the  first  year  of 
service,  the  percentages  for  the  years  1916,  1915,  and  1914,  being, 
respectively,  39,  54,  and  58  per  cent.    This  decrease  is  due  no  doubt 

69176'— WAR  1916— VOL  1 17 


258 


BBPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


to  the  fact  that  during  the  first  ei^ht  months  of  the  year  1916  the 
original  enlistments  were  comparatively  few,  as  the  Army  had  been 
recruited  to  its  authorized  strength.  Consec[uently,  the  total  nimiber 
of  men  serving  in  the  first  year  of  their  enlistment  period  was  much 
less  than  the  number  so  serving  during  the  years  1914  and  1915,  and 
it  naturally  followed  that  the  number  of  desertions  during  the  first 
year  of  service  was  less  in  1916  than  in  preceding  years. 

The  percentages  of  desertions  by  branches  of  service  during  the 
fiscal  years  1911-1916  are  shown  in  the  following  table: 


Branches  of  servioe. 

Percentages. 

1916 

1915 

1914 

1913 

1912 

1911 

Hospital  Coips 

4.15 
3.78 
3.53 
3.43 
2.58 
2.48 
2.82 

4.64 
3.72 
3.87 
4.82 
4.08 
2.28 
3.12 

3.34 
3.48 
3.48 
5.20 
2.94 
2.49 
2.68 

4.24 
4.19 
4.53 
6.11 
4.68 
3.95 
3.18 

3.03 
3.38 
2.95 
4.07 
4.26 
2.37 
3.32 

3.10 

Coast  Artlltory  Corps 

2.43 

Cavalry .' \ 

1.92 

Field  Ar^Itary 

2.93 

EiuriiMen 

3.09 

Infantry 

1  85 

All  ot^ent,  Indndlns  onassfRned  recruits 

2.85 

The  Army 

3.10 

3.23 

3.10 

4.15 

3.00 

2.2S 

The  foregoing  statement  shows  a  decrease  in  the  percentage  of  de- 
sertions during  the  last  fiscal  year  over  the  year  1915  in  each  branch 
of  the  service  except  the  Infantry,  in  which  there  is  a  slight  increase 

As  in  the  preceding  reports,  the  percentages  of  desertions  hereinbe- 
fore shown  are  basea  on  the  whole  number  of  enUsted  men  who  were 
in  service  at  any  time  during  the  year,  and  not  on  an  average  enlisted 
strength.  All  the  losses  during  the  year  are  included  in  the  basic 
figures  used^  and  those  figures  represent  the  whole  number  of  enlisted 
men  who  might  have  become  deserters  or  the  whole  number  of  enlist- 
ment contracts  that  might  have  been  terminated  by  desertion  at  some 
time  during  the  year,  it  is  clearly  improi>er  to  use  as  a  basis  for  cal- 
culating the  percentages  of  desertions  a  strength  obtained  by  aver- 
aging tne  number  of  men  in  service  at  the  end  of  each  month  of  the 
year — a  number  that  does  not  include  men  who  went  out  of  service 
during  the  year,  and  even  does  not  include  the  deserters  themselves. 
If,  however,  the  average  enlisted  strength  is  used  as  a  basis,  it  is  found 
that  the  number  of  desertions  from  the  enlisted  force  of  the  Armv 
during  the  year  ended  June  30, 1916,  was  4.07  per  cent  of  the  stren^n 
as  against  4.76  per  cent  during  the  preceding  fiscal  year,  4.55  during 
the  year  1914,  and  5.48  during  the  year  1913. 

An  examination  of  the  returns  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 
1916,  was  made  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  what  organizations 
serving  within  the  continental  limits  of  the  United  States  had  the 
lowest  and  highest  relative  number  of  desertions.  It  should  be  borne 
in  mind  that  m  the  following  paragraphs,  showing  the  results  of  that 
examination,  the  organizations  that  served  apart  or  the  whole  of  the 
year  in  Hawaii,  Alaska,  the  Canal  Zone,  Cnina,  or  the  PhiUppine 
Islands  are  not  taken  into  consideration,  because  in  those  regions  it  is 
unusually  diJfficult  for  a  deserter  to  make  good  his  escape  m>m  mili- 
tary control,  and  consequently  the  number  of  desertions  that  occur 
there  are  so  small  as  to  oe  of  no  importance  for  the  purpose  of  this 
report. 


BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTAKT  GENERAL. 


259 


The  r^ments  serving  in  the  United  States  that  had  the  lowest 
percentages  of  desertions  during  the  year  were  the  Twenty-sixth 
infantry,  Tenth  Cavalry,  and  Twenty-fourth  Infantrv,  the  first- 
mentioned  regiment  being  a  white  organization,  while  the  other  two 
were  colored  organizations.  The  desertions  from  those  regiments 
are  1.46,  1.50,  and  1.81  per  cent,  respectively,  of  the  whole  number 
of  enlisted  men  in  the  service,  or  enlistment  contracts  in  force,  in 
those  r^ments  during  the  year.  The  Tenth  Cavalry  was  one  of  the 
two  regiments  having  the  lowest  percentage  of  desertions  during  the 
years  1910  to  1915,  inclusive,  the  percentages  for  those  years  being 
1.52,  0.78, 1.52, 1.99, 1.42,  and  1.17,  respectively. 

As  was  the  case  during  the  years  1914  and  1915  the  Third  Field 
Artillery  had  the  lowest  percent^e  of  desertions  of  any  regiment  of 
that  arm  serving  in  the  United  States,  the  percentages  of  desertion 
for  that  r^ment  being  3.96  for  the  year  1916,  4.57  for  1915,  and  5.19 
for  1914. 

The  three  r^ments  that  had  the  highest  percentage  of  desertions 
were  the  Twenty-first  Infantry.  First  Cavalry,  and  Eleventh  Infantry, 
the  percentage  of  desertions  trom  those  organizations  being  11.12, 
9.16,  and  6.35  per  cent,  respectively. 

Of  the  white  troops  3.72  per  cent  and  of  the  colored  troops  0.96 
per  cent  were  reported  as  deserters,  as  compared  with  3.10  lor  the 
whole  Army.  The  percentages  for  the  fiscal  year  1915  were:  White 
troops,  3.40,  and  colored  troops,  0.44. 

Tne  following  table  shows  for  each  month  of  the  fiscal  vears  1914, 
1915,  and  1916  the  percentages  of  the  total  nimiber  of  desertions 
occurring  during  each  of  these  years: 


MontbB. 


July 

August.... 
September 
October... 
November 
December. 
January... 


Fiscal  years. 

1 

1916 

1015 

1014 

12.16 

10.30 

0.70 

12.52 

11.41 

10.52 

10.43 

0.56 

8.17 

8.58 

8.12 

8.66 

7.06 

5.80 

6.73 

5.50 

5.70 

6.70 

5.38 

5.00 

5.65 

1 

Months. 


February. 
March.... 

April 

May 

June 


Total. 


Fiscal  years. 


1016 


5.01 
5.87 
6.02 
7.40 
12.68 


100.00 


1015 


5.84 

7.08 

0.43 

10.35 

11.23 


100.00 


1014 


6.02 
8.06 
0.20 
0.31 
11.48 


100.00 


That  nationality  is  not  an  important  factor  in  considering  the  sub- 
ject of  desertions  from  the  Army  was  again  emphasized  by  the  fact 
that  during  the  past  fiscal  year  the  ratio  of  foreign-bom  deserters  to 
the  whole  nimiber  of  deserters  was  approximately  the  same  as  the  ratio 
of  foreign-bom  men  who  have  enlisted  during  tne  past  three  years  to 
the  total  number  of  enlistments  during  that  period. 

Reports  of  return  of  deserters  and  escaped  prisoners  to  military 
control  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  were  received  in 
2,501  cases,  not  including  52  cases  in  which  the  deserters  were  found 
to  be  not  amenable  to  tnal  because  of  the  statute  of  limitation.  Of 
the  2,501  returned  to  military  control  during  the  year,  997,  or  39.86 
per  cent,  surrendered  themselves,  and  1,504,  or  60.14  per  cent,  were 
apprehended.  Of  the  latter  number  706  were  apprehended  by  the 
municipal  police,  390  by  sheriffs  or  other  county  officers,  181  by  pri- 
vate detective  agencies,  122  by  the  military  authorities,  including 


260  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 

those  identified  by  finger-print  records  in  The  Adjutant  General's 
Office,  28  bv  officers  in  charge  of  penal  institutions^  25  by  United 
States  marsnals  and  their  deputies,  13  by  railroad  pohce,  12  by  naval 
authorities,  11  by  civilians  (not  civil  officers),  7  by  State  detectives 
or  police,  5  by  Mexican  authorities,  and  4  by  immigration  officers. 
Of  the  total  number  apprehended  during  the  year  46.94  per  cent  were 
apprehended  by  the  mimicipal  pohce,  25.93  per  cent  by  county 
officers,  10.03  per  cent  by  private  detectives  or  detective  agencies, 
8.11  per  cent  by  the  mihtary  authorities. 

The  disposition  of  the  2,501  men  returned  to  mihtary  control  during 
the  year  is  shown  in  the  foDowing  table: 

Disposed  of  without  trial: 

Ch&rge  removed  as  erroneoiis  under  paragraph  131,  Army  Regula- 
tions       200 

Restored  to  duty 5 

Discharged  under  paragraph  148),  Army  Reflations 123 

Discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  of  disability 1 

Escapeof .' 13 

DiedT. 2 

Dropped,  turned  over  to  Navy 2 

346 

Tried  by  court-martial: 

Acquitted 2 

Convdcted  of  absence  without  leave — 

Not  sentenced  to  discharge 486 

Dishonorably  discharged 84 

Sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  mitigated  by  re'viewing  au- 
thority   1 

Sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  disapproved  by  reviewing 

authority 3 

Sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  suspended  and  restored  to 

honorable  duty 2 

Sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  suspended,  sentence  imcom- 

pleted 4 

Convicted  of  desertion — 

Not  sentenced  to  discharge 77 

Sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  mitigated  by  reviewing  au- 
thority         10 

Sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  disapproved  by  reviewing 

authority 6 

Restored  to  honorable  duty  after  being  sentenced  to  dishonorable 

discharge 59 

Sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  suspended,  sentence  imcom- 

pleted 220 

Dishonorably  discharged  and  confined 1. 032 

1,986 

Reports  of  results  of  trial  not  yet  received 169 

Total 2,501 

It  will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  table  that  of  the  men  tried  for 
desertion  646  have  been  retained  m  service  (61  after  having  been 
sentenced  to  dishonorable  discharge),  224  have  been  sentenced  to 
dishonorable  discharge  with  that  part  of  sentence  suspended  and 
remaining  unexecuted  at  date  of  this  report,  and  1,116  have  been  dis- 
honorably discharged. 

The  lengths  of  sentences  of  confinement  as  approved  in  cases  of 
men  dishonorably  discharged,  not  including  men  restored  to  honorable 
duty  or  serving  under  suspended  sentences  of  dishonorable  dischaige, 
are  shown  in  the  table  following. 


BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  261 

than  3  months 8 

3  to  6  months 226 

7  to  12  months 16 

Leas  than  1  year 250 

1  year 425 

1 J  years 283 

2  years 1 83 

2J  years 24 

3  years 17 

3  J  years 3 

4  years  and  over 7 

1,092 

No  sentence  of  confinement 24 


Total 1,116 

RESTORATION  OF  CITIZENSHIP  AND  REENLISTMENT  OF  MEN  WHOSB 
SERYIGB  DURINO  THE  LAST  FREOEDINO  TERM  OF  ENLISTMENT  WAS 
NOT  HONEST  AND  FAITHFUL. 

Applications  were  received  during  the  year  from  141  deserters  for 
restoration  of  the  rights  of  citizenship  under  the  provisions  of  the 
act  of  Congress  approved  August  22,  1912  (37  Stat.  L.,  356).  Favor- 
able action  was  taken  upon  all  of  these  applications. 

Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  act  cited,  the  enlistment  (under 
certain  conditions)  of  former  soldiers  whose  service  during  their  pre- 
ceding terms  of  enlistment  was  not  honest  and  faithful  was  continued 
during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916.  Of  the  1,431  applications 
for  permission  to  enlist  a^ain  received  during  the  year  from  such 
former  soldiers  99  were  mvorably  considered,  1,182  were  denied, 
either  because  the  offenses  for  whicn  the  soldiers  had  been  discharged 
were  of  such  a  nature  as  to  preclude  their  enlistment  or  because  their 
conduct  while  in  service  or  after  discharge  had  not  been  such  as  to 
warrant  favorable  consideration,  and  150  applications  had  not  been 
finally  acted  upon  because  evidence  or  reports  needed  for  an  intelli- 
gent consideration  of  the  applications  haa  not  been  received  in  this 
office.  During  the  year  45  men  who  had  been  granted  permission 
to  reenlist  (17  of  them  being  former  deserters)  availed  themselves  of 
the  privilege.  In  addition  1  man  (a  former  deserter)  was  reenlbted 
at  the  United  States  Disciplinary  Barracks,  Fort  Leavenworth,  imder 
standing  authority  given  to  the  commandant,  a  total  of  46.  Of 
these,  1  (a  former  deserter)  has  deserted,  1  has  been  discharged  under 
paragraph  148i,  Army  Regulations,  and  44  (17  of  them  former 
deserters)  were  serving  with  their  organizations  on  Jime  30,  1916. 

Of  the  204  former  soldiers  (91  of  them  former  deserters)  referred 
to  in  the  last  annual  report  as  having  enlisted  during  the  fiscal  years 
1914  and  1915  after  a  prior  service  that  was  not  honest  and  faithful,  1 
has  died  while  absent  in  desertion,  37  (13  of  them  former  deserters) 
have  been  dishonorably  discharged,  2  have  been  discharged  without 
honor,  18  (8  of  them  former  deserters)  have  been  discharged  under 
paragraph  148^,  Army  Regulations,  2  (1  of  them  a  former  deserter) 
nave  died  while  in  service,  14  (7  of  them  former  deserters)  have  been 
honorably  discharged — 2  with  the  rank  of  corporal,  14  (9  of  them  for- 
mer deserters)  were  absent  in  desertion  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year 
1916,  1  was  serving  sentence  (dishonorable  discharge  suspended)  for 
desertion,  1  (a  former  deserter)  was  present  awaiting  tnal  for  deser- 


262 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENEBAL. 


tion,  and  114  (52  of  them  former  deserters)  were  on  duty  with  their 
organizations  at  that  time — 16  with  the  rank  of  corporal,  1  with  the 
rank  of  electrician  sergeant,  second  class,  3  with  the  rank  of  sergeant, 
1  with  the  rank  of  first  sergeant,  and  1  with  the  rank  of  sergeant, 
first  class. 

The  total  number  of  these  reenlistments  prior  to  the  dose  of  the 
fiscal  year  1916  is  250. 

In  tabulated  form  the  results  appear  as  follows: 


1914 

1915 

1916 

Totals. 

Raenllsted 

(34) 

93 

(57)  111 

(18) 

46 

(109)250 

Honorably  discharged 

(4) 

10 
1 

31 
1 
fl 
1 
5 

(2)      4 

(»)  w 

(8)    12 

m " 

Died 

T)1«f>OP<Y^blV    d*SCh«ri?«d .  r  .  r  r  -  t  -  -  -  r  r  r  r r  -  -  T 

(13)    37 

Discharsad  without  honor 

2 

Dischareed  undar  oar.  1484.  Armv  Raeulatloiis 

1 

(8)    19 

Died  In  desertion 

Absent  in  desertion,  Jane  30. 1910 

Serving  sentence  (dishonorable  discharge  sospended)  for  deser- 
tion, June  30.  191« 

(5)      9 
1 

(1) 

1 

(10)    U 
1 

Present,  awaituur  trial  for  dwertton.  June  30. 1916 

(1») 

1 
47 

(1)     1 
(69)  158 

Present  for  duty.  June  30,  I91d. , 

(83)    67 

(17) 

44 

Totals .*. 

(34) 

93 

(57)  111 

(18) 

46 

(100)  250 

\*w«/     ^ww 

NoTB.— Figures  in  paranthesai  indicate  nomlMr  of  men  who  were  convicted  of  deMrtion  prior  to 
Ustment. 

DISCHABOES   OF  ENLISTED  MEN   BT  OBDEB. 

Of  the  8,051  discharges  by  order,  as  shown  in  the  table  opposite 
page  24  of  thus  report,  602  (not  including  17  discharged  upon  suigeon's 
certificate  of  disability)  were  discharged  under  the  provisions  of 
para^aph  148^,  Army  Regulations,  which  provides  for  the  discharge 
of  eiuisted  men  who  are  inapt,  or  who  do  not  have  the  required  degree 
of  adaptability,  or  who  have  undesirable  traits  of  character;  5,747 
were  discharged  by  purchase  imder  rules  governing  such  discharge, 
and  the  remaining  1,702  were  discharged  for  vanous  causes,  we 
principal  ones  being  on  ac(K)unt  of  fraudulent  enlistment,  desertion, 
imprisonment  by  the  civil  authorities,  to  enter  the  Soldiers'  Home, 
and  for  the  convenience  of  the  Government. 

Of  the  discharges  by  purchase  ordered,  611  were  ordered  by  the 
War  Department,  2,953  by  the  commanding  general.  Eastern  Depart- 
ment, 132  by  the  commanding  general.  (Antral  Department,  1,251 
by  the  commanding  general.  Southern  Department,  169  by  the  com- 
manding general,  rhilippine  Department,  272  by  the  commanding 
feneral,  Hawaiian  Department,  and  359  by  the  commanding  general^ 
Western  Department. 

Of  the  discharges  imderparagraph  148^  ordered  during  the  year 
276  were  ordered  by  the  War  Department,  137  by  the  commandinfi" 

fenerd,  Eastern  Department,  6  by  the  commandiiLg  general,  Centnu 
>epartment,  71  by  the  commanchng  general.  Southern  Department, 
36  Dy  the  commanding  general.  Western  Department.  2  by  the  com- 
manding general,  Phihppine  Department,  and  44  by  the  commanding 
general,  Hawaiian  Department. 

Under  the  provisions  of  paragraph  139.  Armv  Regulations,  a  com- 
mander of  a  territorial  department  or  moDilizeci  division  is  authorized 
to  discharge  enlisted  men  by  purchase,  on  accoimt  of  desertion  or 
imprisonment  by  civil  court  or  imder  paragraph  148^,  Army  Regu- 
'tions. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  263 

DISCHABOES   ON   SUBGEON's   CERTIFICATE  OF  DISABIUTT. 

It  appears  from  the  official  returns  that  1,329  enlisted  men  of  the 
Regular  Army  were  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  of  disability 
during  the  year.  This  number  is  larger  than  the  nmnber  (1,168) 
discJiarged  during  the  preceding  year,  and  was  also  larger  than  the 
number  (1,004)  dischai^ed  during  the  fiscal  year  1914. 

The  number  of  discharges  for  disability  is  larger  during  the  year 
1916  than  during  any  of  tne  three  precedmg  years,  and  based  on  the 
number  of  enlistment  contracts  in  force  during  the  respective  years, 
the  percentage  is  greater  for  the  year  1916  than  for  either  of  the  three 
preceding  years,  the  percentage  being  1913,  0.99;  1914,  0.80;  1915, 
0.85:  and  1918,  1.06. 

An  examination  of  the  records  shows  that  691  of  the  1,329  dis- 
charges on  surgeon's  certificate  of  disability  during  the  past  fiscal 
year  were  based  on  disabilities  that  existed  prior  to  enlistment.  Of 
the  1,168  men  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  of  disability  during 
the  preceding  year  707  were  discharged  because  of  disability  existing 

Srior  to  enlistment,  and  during  the  year  1914,  out  of  a  total  of  1,004 
ischar^es  of  this  class,  545  were  discharged  because  of  disabilities 
that  existed  prior  to  enhstment.  These  items  in  terms  of  percentage 
for  the  past  three  years  are  as  follows:  1916,  52.0;  1915.  60.6:  and 
1914,  54.2.  The  percentage  of  discharges  on  accoimt  ot  disability 
existing  prior  to  enlistment  was  less  durmg  the  past  year  than  it  was 
during  any  of  the  three  preceding  years. 

THE   ADJUTANT   GENERAL'S   DEPARTMENT. 

The  total  number  of  officers  of  The  Adjutant  General's  Department 
remained  unchanged  during  the  fiscal  year.  Of  the  23  officers  con- 
stituting the  department,  4  are  permanent  and  19  are  detailed  from 
the  line  of  the  Army.  Three  of  the  detailed  officers  were  reheved 
and  were  replaced  by  other  officers  during  the  year.  One  permanent 
officer  of  the  department  was  retired  and  his  place  was  fiUed  by  the 
detail  of  an  officer. 

The  act  of  Jime  3,1916,  provides  for  an  increase  of  27  officers  of  The 
Adjutant  General's  Department,  but  none  of  the  increase  authorized 
was  for  the  fiscal  year  1916. 

THE  BOLTrARY  ACADEMY. 

On  June  30,  1916,  there  were  imder  assi^ment  to  duty  at  the 
United  States  MiHtary  Academy  99  conMnissioned  officers  (including 
7  professors,  2  acting  professors,  and  2  associate  professors),  1  libra- 
rian, 1  master  of  the  sword,  1  teacher  of  music,  4  civilian  instructors  in 
languages,  and  2  civilians  employed  as  instructors  in  fencing,  broad- 
sword exercise,  and  mihtary  gjTunastics.  a  total  of  108.  This  is  a 
decrease  of  7  since  July  1, 1915,  the  date  of  the  superintendent's  report 
for  that  year. 

On  September  1,  1915,  there  were  630  cadets  on  the  rolls,  includ- 
ing 4  Filipino  cadets  and  2  foreign  cadets  from  China.  Between 
September  1,  1915,  and  September  1,  1916,  39  cadets  were  dis- 
charged for  deficiency  in  studies;  1  was  discharged  for  deficiency  in 


264  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAIi. 

conduct:  1  was  discharged  for  deficiency  in  studies  and  in  conduct; 
8  were  oiscliaTged  by  reason  of  physical  disability;  15^  induding  1 
foreign  cadet,  from  China,  resigned;  125,  including  1  Filipino  cadet^ 
were  graduated;  and  1  was  accidentally  drowned.  In  June,  1916, 
158  cadets  were  admitted;  in  July,  1916,  164  cadets,  including  1 
foreign  cadet,  from  Cuba,  were  admitted;  and  in  Auras t^  1916, 
3  were  admitted.  Four  ex-cadets,  who  were  reappointea,  with  the 
approval  of  the  academic  board,  were  also  admitted  in  Aurast..  1916. 

On  September  1,  1916,  the  beginning  of  the  current  academic  year, 
there  were  769  cadets  on  the  rolls,  including  4  Filipino  cadets  and 
2  foreign  cadets — 1  from  China  and  1  from  Cuba.  Those  cadets 
were  divided  among  the  four  classes,  as  follows:  First  class,  141; 
second  class,  156;  third  class,  147;  and  fourth  class,  325. 

The  usual  examination  of  candidates  for  admission  to  the  Military 
Academv  was  held  at  various  military  posts,  beginning  March  21, 
1916.  An  additional  examination  was  held,  beginning  June  6, 
1916,  with  a  view  to  fill  the  102  vacancies  tnat  existed  after  the 
regular  examination,  and  also  to  fill  the  vacancies  (166)  in  the  first 
annual  increment  of  the  increase  in  the  Corps  of  Cadets  provided  for 
by  the  act  of  Congress  approved  May  4,  1916  (Public,  No.  191,  64th 
Cong.).  Inasmuch  as  it  oecame  apparent  that  not  enough  cadets 
to  ffll  the  vacancies  in  the  first  increment  would  be  obtained  from 
this  examination  it  was  decided  to  hold  still  another  examination 
(physical)  on  June  27,  1916,  mental  qualification  being  by  certifi- 
cate only.  The  total  number  of  candidates  designated  for  the  three 
examinations  was  1,228.  Of  that  number,  202  failed  to  report  for 
exanunation:  12  declined  appointment,  their  appointments  were 
canceled  or  they  were  prevented  by  sickness  from  reporting;  109 
failed  to  complete  the  mental  or  physical  examination,  or  both; 
515  were  rejected  u{>on  mental  or  physical  examination,  or  upon  both; 
1  was  refused  adimssion  because  of  cribbing,  and  (at  the  June  27 
examination)  2  qualified  physicall]^  and  failed  to  submit  educational 
certificates.  There  were  no  vacancies  for  58  alternates  and  5  candi- 
dates at  lar^e  who  qualified.  The  remaining  324  candidates  were 
found  qualified  and  were  admitted  to  the  academy. 

The  act  of  Congress  approved  May  4,  1916,  referred  to  above, 
authorized  an  increase  of  664  in  the  Corps  of  Cadets.  It  is  pre- 
scribed that  that  increase  shall  be  divided  into  four  annual  incre- 
ments, each  increment  to  be  as  nearly  equal  as  practicable.  Alter 
the  examination  of  Jime  27  there  were  26  vacancies  in  the  first  incre- 
ment. 

The  number  of  cadets  authorized  for  1916  is  834.  There  were  767 
cadets  on  the  rolls  (excluding  the  two  foreign  cadets)  on  September 
1, 1916,  leaving  67  vacancies  on  that  date.  That  number  has  been 
increased  by  resignations  and  death,  so  that  the  number  of  vacancies 
now  is  75.  The  number  of  cadets  authorized  for  1917  is  1,000;  for 
1918,  l,166j  and  for  1919,  1,332. 

Information  concerning  the  operation  of  the  several  academic 
departments,  the  enlarging  of  the  Militaiy  Academy,  discipline  of 
the  Corps  of  Cadets,  and  other  matters  oi  interest  are  to  be  foimd 
in  the  Annual  Report  of  the  Superintendent  of  the  United  States  Mili- 
tary Academy.  As  it  is  customary  to  print  that  report  with  the 
other  reports  of  the  War  Department,  further  reference  to  those  sub- 
jects is  omitted  from  this  report. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAIi.  265 

BECBUTITNO  FOB  THE   BEOULAB   ABMT. 

The  general  recruiting  detail  for  the  Regular  Army  at  the  begin-' 
ning  of  the  fiscal  year  1916  consisted  of  124  conunissioned  officers 
and  636  enlisted  men.  At  the  end  of  that  year  the  detail  consisted 
of  126  officers  and  1,077  enlisted  men.  Included  in  tiie  number  of 
commissioned  officers  so  detailed  at  the  end  of  the  year  are  66  offi- 
cers regularly  on  duty  at  general  recruit  depots  and  60  officers  on 
duty  at  recruiting  stations.  In  the  last  mentioned  nmnber  are  in- 
cluded 30  retired  officers  detailed  on  active  duty  under  the  provi- 
sions of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  April  23,  1904  (33  Stat.  L., 
264).  Due  to  the  increase  in  the  strength  of  the  Army  authorized 
by  the  joint  resolution  of  Congress  approved  March  17,  1916,  and 
the  act  of  Confess  approved  June  3, 1916,  and  the  consequent  neces- 
sity for  securmg  the  niunber  of  recruits  authorized,  the  recruiting 
personnel  has  been  increased  in  niunber  443,  the  increase  consisting 
of  2  commissioned  officers  and  441  enlisted  men. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  year  84  central  recruiting  stations  were 
maintained,  and  on  June  30,  1916,  there  were  189.  Of  the  latter 
number,  54  were  main  stations,  each  in  charge  of  a  recruiting  officer, 
and  the  remainder  were  stations  auxiliary  to  the  main  stations.  In 
three  recruiting  districts  additional  comnnssioned  officers  are  assigned 
to  assist  the  recruiting  officer  in  charge.  New  York  having  3  and  (3u- 
cago  and  San  Francisco  having  1  each  of  such  additional  officers. 
An  additional  main  station  and  recruiting  district,  with  a  commissioned 
officer  in  charge,  was  also  authorized  at  Houston,  Tex.,  within  the 
fiscal  year  covered  by  this  report,  but  the  station  was  not  fully  opened 
for  business  until  after  the  dose  of  the  fiscal  year.  In  addition  to 
the  main  and  auxiliary  stations,  temporary  stations  were  opened  and 
maintained  after  the  increase  in  the  Army  was  authorized  in  order  to 
canvass  more  thoroughly  the  territory  embraced  in  the  various 
recruiting  districts  within  the  United  States. 

Within  the  fiscal  year  1915  the  largest  number  of  stations  of  all 
kinds — ^main,  auxiliary,  and  temporary — maintained  in  any  one 
month  was  270,  and  the  smallest  number  was  94.  Within  the  fiscal 
year  covered  by  this  report  the  corresponding  numbers  were  366  and 
94,  respectively.  In  this  connection,  it  may  be  remarked  that  prior 
to  the  mcrease  of  the  Army  authorized,  the  average  number  of  stations 
maintained  was  not  increased,  although,  due  to  the  activity  of  the 
officers  and  enlisted  men  on  recruiting  auty,  a  sufficient  number  of 
recruits  were  secured  to  keep  the  Army  filled  to  the  strength  then 
authorized.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  prior  to  the  increase  authorized 
March  17,  1916,  the  number  of  recruits  secured  in  excess  of  the 
number  required  to  fill  existing  vacancies  caused  a  practical  cessa- 
tion of  recruiting  in  some  arms  of  the  service. 

The  practice  maintained  for  several  years  of  sending  applicants  for 
enlistment,  accepted  at  the  recruiting  stations,  to  the  recruit  depots 
for  physical  examination  and  enlistment  was  continued  throughout 
the  past  fiscal  year  with  the  same  satisfactory  results  experienced  in 
preceding  years. 

Included  in  the  term  "reenlistments"  in  this  report  are  those  former 
soldiers  who  enlist  again  within  three  months  of  the  date  of  termina- 
tion of  their  prior  service  and  are  thereby  entitled,  under  existing  law, 
to  three  months'  additional  pay,  on  second  enUstment  and  continuous- 
service  pay  on  any  such  enlistment,  while  under  the  term  "enlist- 


266 


REPORT  OP   THE   ADJUTANT   GENERAL. 


ments"  are  included  men  of  no  previous  service  and  also  those  men 
who  having  had  former  service  did  not  enlist  again  within  three 
months  from  the  date  of  the  termination  of  their  former  service. 

Within  the  fiscal  year  1916  enlistments  and  reenUstments  for  the 
Regular  Army  numbered  27,468,  including  35,450  for  the  line  of  the 
Army,  601  for  the  Hospital  Corps  (now  Medical  Department),  329  for 
the  Quartermaster  Corps,  374  for  other  staff  departments,  and  714 
for  the  Phihppine  Scouts.  The  enlistments  numbered  22,182,  includ- 
ing enlistments  of  3,238  men  with  former  service.  Of  these  enlist- 
ments, 21,002  (2,920  with  former  service)  were  for  the  line  of  the 
Army,  412  (92  with  former  service)  for  the  Hospital  Corps  or  Medical 
Department,  116  (71  with  former  service)  for  the  Quartermaster 
Corps,  201  (66  with  former  eervice)  for  other  staff  departments,  and 
451  (89  with  former  service)  for  the  Philippine  Scouts.  The  reen- 
listments  numbered  5,286,  of  which  4,448  were  for  the  hne  of  the 
Army,  189  for  the  Hospital  Corps  or  Medical  Department,  213  for  the 
Quartermaster  Corps,  173  for  other  staff  departments,  and  263  for  the 
PhiUppine  Scouts. 

With  very  few  exceptions,  rendered  necessary  by  the  demands  of 
regiments  stationed  on  the  Mexican  border,  the  plan  authorized  by 
the  Secretary  of  War  several  years  ago  of  furnishing  recruits  to  organ- 
izations senuannually,  was  adhered  to  throughout  tne  past  fiscal  year. 

The  total  number  of  those  who  apphed  for  enlistment  in  the  Army 
in  each  recruiting  district,  the  number  of  such  applicants  accepted  or 
rejected  in  each  district,  and  the  number  of  accepted  applicants  after- 
ward rejected  at  recruiting  depots  are  set  forth  m  the  following  table: 


lUmiltlindblrtlti. 

Numlwral 

•ass; 

Nombwor 

1 

3C9 
SW 

ta 

i 

i 

ass 

i 
1 

§ 
!;S 

an 
i.om 

i 
1 

i;os6 

'« 

l,OU 
l,4H 

■'i 

1,333 

1,114 

930 

12, 2m 

i 

i;<>ia 

1'W7 

'STB 

,.!S 
!:S 
|;S 

i)iw 

i's 

Ntwirk.K.J 

J" 

«» 

BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


267 


Recruiting  dislricts. 


Philadelphia,  Pa 

Pittsbtuih,  Pa. 

Portland,  Me 

Portland,  Oreg 

Providence,  R.  I 

Richmond.  Va 

Roanoke,  Va. 

St.  Louis,  Mo 

Salt  Lake  City,  Utah 
San  Francisco,  CaL.. 

Savannah,  Qa. 

Scranton,  Pa. 

Seattle.  Wash 

Spokane,  Wash 

Syracuse,  N.  Y 

Terra  Haate,  Ind 

Toledo,  Ohio. 

Wichita,  Kans 

ToUl 


Number  of 

applicants 

accepted. 


837 
353 
176 
353 
289 
2T7 
18« 

1,476 
157 

2,937 
532 
261 
150 
201 
227 
398 
339 
292 


30,993 


Number  of 

applicants 

rejected. 


2,190 

2,173 
576 

1,347 

1,250 
488 
482 

3,865 

864 

12,505 

2,221 
968 
404 
410 

1,171 
723 

1,163 
925 


102,097 


Total  num- 
ber of 
applicants. 


Applicants 
accepted  at 

stations 
andsub8»> 

aoently 

rejected  at 

depots  and 

depot  posts. 


3.027 

2,526 

751 

1,700 

1.539 

765 

068 

5,341 

1,021 

15,532 

2,753 

1,229 

554 

611 

1,396 

1,121 

1,502 

1,217 


133,090 


175 
34 
38 
44 
48 
43 
17 

311 
28 

535 
18 
56 
10 
26 
31 
56 
31 
51 


4,194 


Analysis  of  the  preceding  table  shows  that  23  per  cent  of  those  who 
applied  for  enlistment  at  recruiting  stations  were  accepted  and  that 
13  per  cent  of  the  accepted  apphcants  were  afterward  rejected  at 
depots.  These  iten^s  for  the  preceding  fiscal  year  were  26  per  cent 
and  13  per  cent,  respectively. 

The  following  taole  shows  the  number  of  enlistments  for  the 
Regular  Army  and  the  number  of  applicants  rejected  at  the  recruit 
depots  and  other  military  posts  and  m  the  field  within  the  fiscal  year 
1916: 


station  or  post. 


Number 
enlisted. 


Namber 
ri!)ected. 


Total 
namber 
exam- 
ined. 


Oeoeral  recntitiog  stations. 


Recruit  depots: 
Colnmoos 


B«nieki.0l 
(arrae]cs,M0 


Jeflerson  Barradcs, 
Port  Loan,  Colo... 
Port  McDowed,  CM. 
PortSlocam^N.Y. 


Ohio. 


Total. 


Depot  poets: 

Fort  Bliss,  Tte 


Fort  DooctMLUtah 

Fort  Gcorse  Wr^bt,  Wash,* 

Jackson  Barracks,  L«,* , 

Fort  Lawtoo,  Wash^. 

Fort  Ofdetborpe,  Ga.« 

Fort  Sam  Hooston,  Tex,, 

United  States  Disdpltoarr  Barracks,  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kaos. 
Vancouver  Barracks.  Wssb^ 


Total. 


•  f  •tfrt0f0trtrftrr**»*»**» 


193 


6,611 
6.667 
L234 
Z416 
5,066 


30. 9M 


8 
161 
228 


608 

W7 

29 

370 


Inthefldd -^^ j  ^j^ 

Toeio  Uko  Bit^iafmi  f4  tMi^j  / 


768 

1,080 

328 

549 

1,322 


4.0«7 


1 

1 

6 
26 
10 
54 
19 

6  i 


m 


6,379 
7,747 
1.662 
3,966 
6.388 


2&041 


70 
9 

167 

ra 

278 
657 
206 
36 
327 


2,002 

2.421 

1.348 

136 

In,  141 


•  Ptsront toosil  as  4^v4  j^^M  iUg  H,*^ 


0  i/'fttAAMf*  :4^iJf4  m  4^fi  pff*t  May  1%  1916. 
*  f/it^^j^U'M^i^  M  4*iM  poet  Hm.  Vt,  1914, 


268 


BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL* 


The  foregoing  table  does  not  include  714  enlistments  and  197 
rejections  for  the  PhiUppine  Scouts.  Including  those,  the  aggregate 
number  of  enlistments  for  the  entire  Regular  Army  within  the  &cal 
year  was  27,468  and  the  total  number  olrejections  134,149,  of  which 
102,097  were  rejected  at  the  recruiting  stations,  4,387  at  recruit 
depots,  and  197  for  the  Philippine  Scouts.  This  makes  an  aggregate 
of  161,617  enUstments  and  rejections  for  the  entire  Regular  Army 
withm  the  fiscal  year. 

Of  the  rejected  appUcants,  14,987  were  rejected  because  of  minoriU", 
2.728  because  they  were  aliens,  and  3.537  because  of  illiteracy.  Of 
the  accepted  apphcants  2,196  declinea  to  enlist  at  depots  or  eloped 
en  route  thereto. 

The  race  and  nativity  of  those  enlisted  and  reenlisted  in  the  Army 
within  the  fiscal  year  1916  are  set  forth  in  the  following  table: 


Regular  Army. 

Phflip- 

pine 

Scouts. 

Race  ftDd  nativity. 

• 

Line  of 
Army. 

Staff  de- 
partments, 
not  includ- 
ing Hospi- 
tal Corps 
and  Quar- 
master 
Corps. 

Medical 
Depart- 
ment. 

Quarter- 
master- 
Corps. 

Total. 

^ 

Native  white: 

Enli*>i.ient8 

18,243 
3,306 

190 
187 

367 
146 

96 
166 

18,808 
3,764 

18,808 

Rfff^plfstments 

3,754 

Total 

21.548 

327 

513 

264 

22,652 

22,652 

Forebn  white: 

E^nlistments * 

2,136 
057 

11 
36 

43 
82 

16 
86 

2,206 
761 

2,206 

Reenlistments. ........... 

761 

Total 

2,793 

47 

75 

52 

2.967 

2.967 

Colored: 

Enlistments 

563 
413 

2 
11 

2 
11 

666 

435 

566 

Reenlistinents 

436 

Total 

975 

13 

13 

1,001 

1,001 

Indians: 

EnUstments 

14 

14 

14 

Rf^nit^tments , 

Total 

14 

14 

14 



Porto  Ricans: 

Enlistments 

47 
73 

47 
73 

47 

Reeolistmfnts 

7S 

...... 

Total 

120 

120 

120 

............ 

.......... 

FHiplnos: 

Enlistments 

451 
263 

451 

Reenlistm^nts    ..  ..^... 

^ 

283 

Total 

I 

714 

714 

..........j 

Total  enlistments 

Total  reenlistmenti 

21,002 
4,448 

201 
173 

412 
180 

116 
213 

21,731 
6,023 

451 
263 

22.182 
5,286 

AeKTeeate 

25,450 

374 

GOl 

329 

26,754              714  i        27.4fia 

' 

Analysis  of  the  last  preceding  table  discloses  that  practically  90 
per  cent  of  the  original  enlistments  of  white  soldiers  were  enlistments 
of  natives  of  the  Lnited  States.  Within  each  of  the  three  years  last 
preceding  that  percentage  was  86,  84,  and  87,  respectively. 

The  table  following  shows  the  number  of  enlistments  and  reenlist- 
ments  monthly  in  the  line  of  the  Army  within  the  three  years  ended 
Jime  30,  1916. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  QENKRAL. 


a«9 


ICantlu. 


Jaly 

August 

September. 
October... 
November. 
December. 
January... 
February.. 

March 

Apra 

May 

June 

Total 


Fiscal  year  ended— 


June  30, 1916. 


June  30, 1015. 


Enlist- 
ments. 


1,325 
1,547 
1,582 
1,423 
1,460 
1,441 
1,488 
1,104 
1,961 
2,483 
2,058 
3,130 


21,002 


Reenlist- 
ments. 


820 
744 
688 
688 
390 
213 
125 
227 
110 
246 
109 
88 


4,448 


Total. 


2,145 
2,291 
2,2T0 
2,111 
1,850 
1,654 
1,613 
1,331 
2,071 
2,729 
2,167 
3,218 


25,450 


Enlist- 
ments. 


2,211 
2.664 
2,737 
3,202 
3,329 
3,316 
3,542 
2,761 
2,116 
1,540 
1,463 
1,461 


30,342 


Reenlist- 
monts. 


1,318 

1,439 

1,348 

1,353 

1,249 

1,506 

1,535 

1,074 

1,035 

7W 

705 

724 


14,085 


Total. 


3,529 
4,108 
4,085 
4,555 
4,578 
4,824 

5,  on 

3,835 
3,151 
2,337 
2,168 
2,1HA 


44,4/7 


Jiwe30,l9l4, 


Enllnt- 
menti. 


1,671 
2,0(15 
1,H74 
2,  (MO 
2,454 
3,447 
3,2D5 
2,3H8 
2,311 
2,754 
2,4M 


28,559 


moMtJi. 


431 

mo 

KA7 

l,ao6 

1,0A3 
1,0JI7 

l,(r/7 

1,101 


Total, 


s.nwi 

y.  4*11 

»,44l 

a.iil 

4,^Ml 

4,411 
4,441 
»,il7 

n,m 

»,A11 
5l,f»47 

M  'HA 


The  average  total  monthly  enlistments,  including  reenlmtmi;ni«, 
derived  from  the  foregoing  table  are  as  followH: 

For  the  fiac^  year  1914 %,V0 

For  the  fiac*l  year  191 5 Z,W£ 

For  the  fiacal  yearlSB 2.  Ui 

The  decrease  observed  in  the  numT>er  of  enViAimfmin  an/i  r^uUnf^ 
ments  is  bdieved  to  be  doe  to  the  lo\ifm'\u%  fttnAfn:  Fir^t,  tb«  r4^tnf> 
tion  on  reemitiog  that  prevailed  for  pra/^jr  ally  th^  firnt  two  thirdtt  of 
the  fiscal  ^ear,  due  to  the  fact  that  fiunn/^  that  p^ru//!  th^  ^^fftf 
was  practicaDj  filled.  S'icond,  <\nr\u^  tr.e  la^t  or#^^  tr^fH  ^4  U^n 
fiscal  year  when  rerruj^intr  wjw  ^*irr.'iiA*^/i  ff^  tr*^  purff^M^  ^4  oht^nfh' 
ing  the  additional  rv^^.^-i  provK>>^l  hy  Ui^.  k</><U'v'/f#  tft^^^'n^tft^ 
the  Armv.  labor  cor*^:-'.  ^h  *r.ro';$^r.'V^*»  tr^  f/f^.wrj  w^r^  «i*/fi  ff.at 
aO  who  iesmd  to  cVjur*  '^rr.f^j*',;. rr.^,*.  ,r,  ti.A  \A^  r^'^Uly  o\^*.h  t.f/\  *t 
with  good  wagei.  ^jlta  r^.c^rs.t^ ."  't*ff,^./  V/  ^^jr^  r^z-ri/^*  7  f.,^4, 
the  provkirjCH  /yf  j«w  *r.i>r,  //.-'sr.gf  ^%4^  f*r.  r,^V/j  v^,/,^"*  nrf^'^ 
enlisted  after  ^,r^:y^m  \  Vi/i  i'%^:,  r-Ar,*.  *  ^/  ,^^i  ///•#/  /*^« 
from  the  dai;^  'vf  *r..-  ^  ^''*    -<>r >-->!-   /    *"'.  ^^a^;     r>t   f*  »i:.'f^   ^4 

The  norr/'^r  '/  ""  .-■-  *^'-  4'  ,  '^^^ ,  .^^-^-^  '%f  ',^^'/ ^,&9,  <4  ♦'■^ 
service  w.*"..-,  *:>»  -i?^  .;«^>*-  ^' '-*'•  "*--'  X*'*  -^^  *^.o'tr%  .r,  ^><  jm. 
lowing  tahf 


.'.'', 


*  ^^-^ 


i^m      r 


"■■      > 


»*•■ 


fta^VpWi 


-y 


C 


.»*-* 


• « 


-jC  '        '^ 


270 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


The  relative  increase  or  decrease  in  the  number  of  enlistments  or 
reenlistments  in  the  different  branches  of  the  service  is  more  apparent 
when  the  nimibers  in  the  last  preceding  table  are  reduced  to  percent- 
ages of  the  total  number  of  enlistments  and  reenlistments  lor  each 
year  compared.  For  that  reason  those  percentages  are  shown  in  the 
table  which  follows: 


Bmicfaas  of  swvioe. 


Staff  departments. . . 

Engineers 

Cavalry 

Field  AitiDery 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

Inlantry 

MlsoeUaneoos 

Total 


Percentages  of  total  nomber  of  enlistments  and  reenlistments  daring  the 

fiscal  year  ended— 


Jane  30, 1016. 


Enlist- 
ments. 


2.72 

1.17 

25.70 

4.60 

21.fi0 

25.43 

.04 


81.22 


Re. 
enlist- 
ments. 


2.15 
.27 
8.01 
1.00 
4.66 
7.52 
.17 


TotaL 


4.87 

1.44 

28.77 

5.60 

26.16 

32.05 

.21 


18.78 


100.00 


Jon  1 30, 1015. 


Enlist- 
ments. 


1.68 

1.20 

15.41 

3.48 

15.54 

28.35 

.04 


65.70 


Re- 
enlist- 
mmts. 


4.57 

.62 

4.00 

1.25 

8.40 

14.24 

.32 


34.30 


Total 


6.25 

1.82 

20.31 

4.73 

23.04 

42.50 

.36 


100.00 


Jane  30, 1014 


Enlist- 
ments. 


1.02 

.05 

20.06 

5.05 

15.62 

25.58 

.05 


Re- 
enlfat- 
ments. 


4.35 

.66 

4.21 

1.00 

6.73 

12.38 

.45 


70.13      20.87 


TotaL 


6.37 

1.61 

26.17 

6.14 

22.35 

37.06 

.50 


100.00 


The  comparison  similar  to  that  made  in  previous  reports  of  the 
number  of  reenlistments  in  the  several  branches  of  the  service  with 
the  authorized  strength  of  those  branches  shows  with  greater  accuracy 
the  relative  nimiber  of  reenlistments.  Therefore,  the  following  table 
is  presented  showing  the  nimiber  of  reenlistments  to  each  1,000  of 
the  authorized  enlisted  stren^h  of  the  several  branches  of  the  service 
within  the  three  fiscal  years  last  past: 


Branches  of  service. 


Staff  departments. . . 

Engineers 

Cavalry 

Field  Artillery 

Coast  Artillery  Corps 

Infantry 

Miacellaneoas 

The  Army 


Nomber  of  reenUstments  to 
each  1,000  of  the  anthoriaed 
enlisted  strength  dnrtog 
the  fiscal  year  ended  Jane 
30- 


1016 

lOlS 

1014 

40 

in 

178 

31 

150 

143 

53 

160 

124 

46 

105 

83 

65 

208 

148 

42 

158 

126 

73 

24 

30 

40 

167 

130 

The  marked  decrease  in  the  relative  number  of  reenlistments  in 
each  branch  of  the  service  within  the  past  fiscal  year  is  doubtless 
entirely  due  to  the  fact  that  existing  law,  as  previously  pointed  out, 
precluded  such  reenlistments. 

With  the  view  of  keeping  fully  informed  as  to  the  comparative 
eflBciency  of  each  of  the  vanous  methods  of  advertising  for  recruits, 
the  practice  has  been  continued  of  re(][uirin^  recruiting  officers  at 
stations  to  report  whether  the  applications  Tor  enlistment  made  to 
them  were,  or  were  not,  the  result,  wholly  or  in  part,  of  any  form  of 


KEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTAIYT  GENERAL.  271 

adyertisingy  and,  if  so,  of  what  form.  The  number  of  applications 
reported  to  have  been  the  residt  of  each  of  the  several  methods  of 
aclvertising  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  is  as  follows: 


Methods  of  advertisiDf. 


Bight  of  rarniitizif  flag  and  statloD 

In  parka  and  Muarts 

Recruiting  poston 

Oanvaoe  by  recruiting  parties 

Recruiting  circulars 

Recruiting  booklet.  "The  United  8Utei«  Army  aa  a  Career  " . . . 

Newspaper  advertising 

Special  cireulan  issoed  by  recruiting  officers 

Handbills 

Bleetrte  signs  ra  districts) 

Advertising  cards 

Personal  lelten  fhMn  recruiting  officers 

News  items  in  newspapers 

BasebaU  team  (1  dlstrwt) 

Blidee  is  movittg-piolure  booses  (5  districts) 

Signs  on  elevated  stations  (1  district) 

Postal  oards 

Bookiei,  **  BxpsrlMiee  of  a  Reeruit  in  the  United  SUtee  Army 
Photographs  a  district) 

Total 

NottheiesoltofadTertisIng 

Total  mmber  of  applioants  reported  upon 


Number 
of  applica- 
tions. 


50,011 

25,288 

19,009 

8,9W 

6,970 

4,445 

3,n5 

3,350 

3,253 

500 

500 

480 

446 

416 


115 

» 

10 

5 


128,862 
4,000 


U32,943 


1  Thisnnmber  Is  148  lees  than  the  whole  number  of  aeospted  and  rejected  applicantsshown  by  trlmanthly 
Nperts  of  reemitlng  (p.  87),  no  rsporta  having  been  received  in  that  number  of  caaes. 

Within  the  fiscal  year  covered  by  this  report,  as  in  previous  years, 
the  sight  of  the  recruiting  flag  and  station  proved  the  most  proUfic 
method  of  advertising  for  recruits,  the  park  and  square  parties  and 
the  recruiting  posters  being  second  and  third,  respectively. 

The  recruiting  booklet  issued  in  1914  has  continued  to  be  a  very 
effective  means  of  advertising  and  of  conveying  information  relative 
to  the  advantages  received  from  an  enlistment  m  the  Army.  A  new 
edition  of  this  booklet  has  been  authorized,  amended  to  conform 
with  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  Jime  3,  1916. 

Another  booklet  which  has  been  and  whicn,  it  is  thought,  will  con- 
tinue to  be  a  potent  method  of  advertising  for  the  recruiting  service 
is  the  ''Experience  of  a  Recruit,''  pubfished  by  the  department 
within  the  past  fiscal  year.  This  booklet  relates  m  a  very  readable 
and  attractive  manner  the  experience  of  a  recruit  who  enlisted  at 
Columbus  Barracks,  Ohio,  and  details  ejmlicitly  his  experience  while 
at  the  depot.  The  personal  statement  of  the  recruit  was  so  forceful, 
truthful,  and  favorable  to  the  Army  that  it  was  published  by  the 
department  without  comment. 

Another  publication  prepared  and  issued  in  connection  with 
recruiting  for  the  Regular  Army  is  the  pamphlet  entitled  **  Guide  to 
Civil  Employment  for  Ex-Soldiers."  In  connection  with  the  prepara- 
tion of  this  publication  information  was  obtained  from  each  recruiting 
officer  throughout  the  United  States  relative  to  civil  emplovment 
in  the  respective  recruiting  districts  that  might  be  open  to  former 
Boldiors  of  the  Army  discnarged  with  character  at  least  **Good." 
A  full  list  of  these  employrnonts  arranged  by  States  is  included  in 
the  pubUcation,  together  with  ijistructions  describing  the  method  bv 
whidi  prospective  appUcants,  fonner  soldiers,  may  get  in  touch  witn 
prospective  employers. 


272  BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 

A  copy  of  this  publication  will  be  placed  in  all  permanent  mess  and 
soldiers^  reading  rooms  and  a  copy  will  be  given  to  every  man  leaving 
the  service  whose  character  is  not  less  than  "Good."  This  guide  to 
civil  employment  has  received  favorable  comment  from  all  to  whose 
attention  it  has  been  brought  and  it  is  believed  that  it  will  prove  to  be 
of  great  utilitv  to  former  soldiers  in  enabling  them  to  obtain  emplov- 
ment  and  will  act  as  a  stimulus  to  recruiting  by  pointing  out  to  tne 
prospective  applicant  for  enlistment  the  advantages  possible  for 
vocational  training  in  the  Army  and  assuring  him  that  the  military 
authorities  are  prepared  to  aid  him  in  applving  that  vocational 
training  in  civil  pursuits  after  he  shall  have  left  the  Army. 

Immediately  upon  the  authorization  of  the  increase  in  the  Army 
March  17,  1916,  advertising  for  recruits,  which  prior  to  that  time 
had  been  largely  restricted,  was  greatly  expanded.  As  previously 
stated  many  new  stations  were  opened,  largely  increasing  the  number 
of  the  recruiting  fla^  and  stations.  Special  circulars  were  issued. 
Newspaper  advertising  was  increased.  Additional  booklets  were 
printed  and  the  recruiting  oflBcers  were  instructed  to  work  without 
regard  to  hours  in  the  effort  to  obtain  recruits. 

Under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  June  3,  1916, 
section  27,  tne  President  is  authorized  in  his  discretion  to  utilize 
the  services  of  the  postmasters  of  the  second,  third,  and  fourth  classes 
in  procuring  the  enlistment  of  recruits  lor  the  Army.  For  the 
purpose  of  carryingout  the  provisions  of  this  law  the  matter  has  been 
taken  up  with  the  rost  OflBce  Department  with  the  view  of  securing 
the  cooperation  of  that  department  and  of  the  postmasters  con- 
cerned. 

At  the  date  of  the  preparation  of  this  report  information  is  not 
available  from  which  a  definite  statement  can  be  prepared  showing 
the  expense  of  the  recruiting  service  for  the  fiscal  year  covered  by 
this  report,  but  constant  effort  has  been  maintained  throughout  the 
year  to  minimize  expenses  and  eliminate  all  costs  that  were  not 
absolutely  required  for  the  needs  of  the  service.  Telegraphic  cor- 
respondence as  heretofore  has  been  carefully  scrutinized  with  the 
view  of  reduction  in  tolls.  The  large  number  of  recruiting  stations 
previously  maintained  were  kept  closed  during  the  greater  portion 
of  the  fiscal  jear  and  were  only  reopened  when  the  increase  in  the 
Army  necessitated  such  reopemng  and  a  consequent  increase  in  the 
recruiting  personnel.  Prior  to  that  time  the  number  of  stations  had 
been  reduced  greatly,  with  a  conseauent  reduction  in  rentals,  pay, 
and  allowances  for  the  personnel  ana  other  expenses  incident  to  the 
maintenance  of  stations  and  the  mileage  expenses  of  officers. 

As  in  previous  years,  applicants  for  enlistment  who,  after  having 
been  accepted  at  recruiting  stations  and  sent  to  depots,  fail  througn 
their  own  fault  to  enlist  there,  are  required,  when  such  applicants 
a^ain  apply  at  recruiting  stations,  to  reimburse  the  Government  for 
the  expense  incident  to  tneir  former  application  and  failure  to  enlist* 

REGULAK   ARMY   RESERVE. 

The  act  of  August  24,  1912,  provides  for  two  classes  of  reservists — 
those  furloughed  to  the  Reserve  after  an  active  service  of  four  years, 
or  at  the  discretion  of  the  Secretary  of  War  after  a  service  of  three 
■-ears,  and  those  who  were  honorably  discharged  and  voluntarily 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  273 

enlisted  in  the  Reserve.  Enlistment  contracts  entered  into  prior  to 
November  1,  1912,  did  not  contain,  imder  the  provisions  of  the  law 
referred  to,  any  provision  for  service  in  the  Reserve,  and  consequently 
no  furloughs  to  the  Reserve  could  take  place  prior  to  November  1, 

1915.  For  convenience,  those  furloughed  to  the  Reserve  will  be 
designated  class  A  reservists  and  those  who  voluntarily  enlist  in  the 
Reserve  will  be  designated  class  B  reservists.  While  all  furloughs 
to  the  Reserve  during  the  year  were  made  under  the  provisions  of 
the  act  before  referred  to,  it  is  proper  to  add  that  the  act  of  Jime  3, 

1916,  provides  that  the  enlistment  period  after  November  1,  1916, 
shall  be  seven  years,  three  years  with  the  colors  and  four  years  in  the 
Reserve,  with  a  provision  that  if  a  soldier  is  considered  sufficiently 
trained  he  may  be  furloughed  to  the  Reserve  after  an  active  service 
of  one  year. 

Between  November  1,  1915,  and  June  30,  1916,  the  number  of  men 
furloughed  to  the  Reserve  was  4,626.  Of  those,  1  was  discha^ed  to 
enable  him  to  complete  his  naturalization  as  a  citizen  of  the  United 
States  and  to  accept  employment  under  the  Grovemment,  2  were 
discharged  because  they  had  been  sentenced  to  imprisonment  by  a 
civil  court,  and  2  died  of  disease,  leaving  4,621  class  A  reservists  on 
June  30,  1916. 

Because  of  conditions  along  the  Mexican  border,  on  May  17,  1916, 
the  Wax  Department  directedthat  all  furloughs  to  the  Reserve  at  the 
expiration  of  three  years  active  service,  except  in  the  cases  of  mem- 
bers of  the  Coast  Artillery  Corps,  be  suspended.  Consequently, 
there  were  very  few  furlougns  to  the  Reserve  during  the  last  month 
and  a  half  of  tne  past  fiscfd  year,  and  the  foregoing  figure  does  not 
represent  the  number  that  would  have  been  in  the  Reserve  on  June 
30  last  imder  normal  conditions. 

The  act  of  June  3,  1916,  authorizes  the  payment  of  $2  per  month 
to  reservists  andprovides  for  their  field  training  each  year.  This 
will  enable  the  War  Department  to  keep  in  closer  touch  with  the 
reservists,  and,  as  a  physical  examination  is  provided  during  their 
attendance  at  field  traimng,  the  department  will  also  be  able  to  dis- 
charge the  physically  unfit.  Heretofore  members  of  the  Reserve  were 
carried  as  members  of  the  organizations  in  which  they  were  serving 
at  the  time  of  furlough,  but  now  they  are  transferred  or  assigned  to 
the  arm  or  corps  to  which  they  belonged,  and  their  records  are  sent 
to  the  conmianding  general  of  the  mihtary  department  in  which  they 
elect  to  reside,  fit  the  event  of  mobilization  they  are  directed  to 
report  to  the  commanding  general  of  the  department  in  which  they 
reside  for  assignment  to  organizations.  On  June  28,  1916,  orders 
were  issued  to  the  several  department  commanders  within  the.  con- 
tinental limits  of  the  United  States  to  mobilize  the  Regular  Army 
Reserve,  excepting  members  of  the  Coast  Artillery  Corps,  for  assign- 
ment to  Regular  Army  units  serving  on  the  Mexican  Dorder  in  the 
Southern  Department.  No  figures  are  available  at  this  time  from 
which  the  number  of  reservists  who  responded  to  the  mobilization 
call  can  be  ascertained,  but  it  is  purposea  to  give  such  figures  in  my 
next  annual  report. 

On  June  30,  1916,  the  class  B  reservists  numbered  27  men.  During 
the  year  12  men  enlisted  in  this  class,  and  4  were  dischai^ed  upon 
expiration  of  service,  making  a  net  gain  during  the  year  of  8. 

69176''— WAR  1916— VOL  1 18 


274  BEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 

ENLISTED   RESERVE   CORPS. 

For  the  purpose  of  securing  a  reserve  of  enlisted  men  for  the  En- 

S'neer,  Si^al,  and  Quartermaster  Corps,  and  the  Ordnance  and 
edical  Departments,  additional  to  those  furloughed  to  the  Reserve 
after  completion  of  a  term  of  active  service  in  the  Regular  Army,  an 
Enlisted  Reserve  Corps  was  authorized  by  section  55  of  the  act  of 
Jime  3,  1916.  The  section  referred  to  did  not  become  eflFective  until 
July  1,  1916. 

The  corps  is  to  consist  of  such  nimibers  of  enlisted  men  of  such 
grade  or  grades  as  may  be  designated  by  the  President  from  time  to 
time.  The  enlistments  are  to  be  for  a  period  of  four  years  and  of 
grades  similar  to  those  prescribed  for  the  Regular  Army.  Each  mem- 
ber of  the  corps  will  be  furnished  with  a  certificate  of  enlistment  by 
The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army,  showing  the  rank  and  corps  or 
department  for  which  the  recipient  was  enlisted.  Regulations  nave 
been  prepared  for  the  administration  of  the  corps  and  for  the  guidance 
of  recnutin^  officers  in  procuring  enlistments.  Every  effort  will  be 
made  by  this  office  to  enlist  men  for  the  corps,  and  the  result  of  those 
efforts  will  be  submitted  in  the  annual  report  for  the  fiscal  year  that 
will  end  Jime  30,  1917. 

CAMPS   OP  INSTRUCTION. 

Orders  were  issued  early  in  the  present  calendar  year  to  department 
commanders  in  the  United  States  and  Hawaii  to  make  the  necessary 
preparations  for  holding  cam^  of  instruction  for  officers  and  non- 
commissioned officers  of  the  Organized  Mihtia  and  joint  camps  for 
the  several  arms  of  the  service  of  the  Regular  Army  and  the  Organized 
Militia. 

However,  in  view  of  the  necessity  for  the  dispatching  of  the  greater 
part  of  the  mobile  Army  in  the  United  States  to  the  Southern  De- 
partment, for  duty  on  the  Mexican  border,  and  the  consequent  lack 
of  an  adequate  number  of  officers  and  troops  of  the  Regular  Army  to 
conduct  properly  these  camps,  the  instructions  for  the  holding  of  the 
camps  were  rescinded  with  respect  to  all  departments  in  the  United 
States,  except  the  Eastern  Department.  The  commanding  general 
of  that  department  was  authorized  to  hold  such  camps  for  the  Cavalry 
of  the  Regular  Army  and  Organized  Mihtia  as  were  practicable. 
Under  this  authority  a  camp  of  instruction  for  officers  and  noncom- 
missioned officers  of  the  Oi^anized  Mihtia  was  held  at  Fort  Myer, 
Va.,  May  21-28,  1916,  and  a  joint  camp  of  instruction  for  the  First 
S<juadron,  First  Cavalry,  Vermont  National  Guard  (composed  prin- 
cipally of  cadets  of  the  Norwich  University),  was  held  at  Fort  Ethan 
Allen,  Vt.,  for  about  10  days  beginning  June  4,  1916.  As  the  reports 
of  these  camps  have  not  as  yet  been  received,  no  statement  can  be 
made  at  this  time  as  to  the  nimiber  of  officers  and  noncommissioned 
officers  who  attended  these  camps. 

No  reports  have  been  received  showing  whether  or  not  camps  have 
been  held  in  the  Hawaiian  Department. 

JOINT  COAST  DEFENSE  EXERCISES. 

Joint  coast  defense  exercises,  participated  in  bv  ^e  Regular  Coast 
Artillery  and  the  Coast  Artillery  Militia,  were  '^  ^^^go  held  as 

'allows: 


REPORT  OF  THE   ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  275 

EASTERN    DEPARTMENT. 

Fort  Constitution,  N.  H.  Fort  Williams,  Me. 

Fort  H.  G.  Wright,  N.  Y.  Fort  Greble,  R.  I. 

Fort  Strong,  Mass.  Fort  Andrews,  Mass. 

Fort  Warren,  Mass.  Fort  Screven,  Ga. 

Fort  Howard,  Md.  Fort  Moultrie,  S.  C. 

Fort  Caswell,  N.  C.  Fort  Monroe,  Va. 

WESTERN   DEPARTlfENT. 

Fort  Winfield  Scott,  Cal.  Fort  Worden,  Wash. 

Fort  Roeecrans,  Cal.  Fort  Stevens,  Oreg. 

As  the  reports  of  the  department  commanders  on  these  camps  have 
njt  as  yet  Deen  received  m  the  War  Department,  a  complete  state- 
ment as  to  the  number  of  troops  of  the  Regular  Army  and  of  the 
Organized  Militia  participating  m  them  can  not  be  presented  at  this 
time. 

citizens'  training  CAMPS. 

Owing  to  the  satisfactory  results  obtained  from  camps  of  this  char- 
acter held  in  1914  and  1915,  and  the  enthusiasm  displayed  by  those 
who  participated  therein,  department  commanders  were  authorized 
to  establish  similar  camps  for  1916,  as  follows: 

EASTERN   DEPARTMENT. 

Flattsburg  Barracks,  N.  Y.: 

June  5  to  July  2,  senior  division. 

July  5  to  August  8,  junior  division. 

July  12  to  August  8,  senior  division. 

August  10  to  September  6,  senior  di\4sion. 

September  8  to  October  5,  senior  division. 
Fort  Terry,  N.  Y.:  July  5  to  August  10,  for  students. 

Fort  Wadsworth,  N.  Y . :  Six  camps  of  two  weeks'  duration  each,  commencing  May  28. 
Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. : 

May  3  to  May  30,  senior  division. 

June  3  to  June  30,  senior  division. 

July  5  to  August  8,  junior  division. 

Owing  to  the  smaU  enrollment  for  the  July  camp  at  Fort  Oglethorpe, 
and  the  necessity  for  the  use  of  the  available  Regular  troops  at  other 
points  in  the  department  on  accoimt  of  the  mobilization  of  the 
l^ational  Guard;,  the  department  commander  terminated  the  camp 
for  the  junior  division,  but  all  men  enrolled  were  accepted  for  the 
camps  at  Plattsburg. 

CENTRAL  DEPARTMENT. 

Fort  Benjamin  Harrison,  Ind. : 
July  5  to  Aiigust  4. 
August  7  to  September  6. 
September  8  to  October  5. 

Under  date  of  Jime  19,  1916,  the  commanding  general.  Central 
Department^  was  authorized  to  cancel  the  camps  scheduled  to  be  held 
at  Fort  Benjamin  Harrison  on  account  of  the  lack  of  Regular  troops 
and  the  mobilization  of  the  National  Guard. 

SOUTHERN   DEPARTMENT. 

JPort  Sam  Hoiuton,  Tex.:  June  12  to  July  8. 


Ll 


276 


REPORT   OF  THE   ADJUTANT  GENERAU 


WESTERN    DEPARTMENT. 


Monterey,  Cal.:  July  10  to  August  5. 

American  Lake,  Wash. :  August  14  to  September  9. 

Fort  Douglas,  Utah:  August  21  to  September  16. 

As  most  of  the  reports  of  the  camp  commanders  hare  not  been 
received,  a  compilation  of  the  number  of  troops  of  the  Regular  Army 
and  of  the  numoer  of  civilians  participating  in  the  camps  can  not  be 
presented  in  this  report. 

SMALL-ARMS   FIRING. 

Because  the  regular  target-practice  season  varies  in  the  several 
departments,  ana  in  some  instances  extends  to  the  close  of  the 
calendar  year,  it  is  impracticable  to  make  a  statement  showing  the 
results  of  the  practice  lor  the  year  1916  in  this  report. 

The  numbers  of  qualifications  in  the  several  organizations  of  the 
line  of  the  Army  in  the  grades  of  expert  rifleman,  sharpshooter,  and 
marksman  since  1909  are  shown  in  the  following  table: 


Grades. 


Years. 


1909 


Expert  riflemen 
Shwpsbooters.. 
Marksmen. 


2,875 
9,790 
5,815 


1910 


2.151 
8,857 
5,741 


1911 


1,211 
7,326 
5.196 


1912 


1,312 
9.323 
6,307 


1913 


1,627 

11.144 

7,121 


1914 


2,180 

8,236 

13.423 


1915 


3,599 

7,6es 

2D.995 


Under  paragraph  1345,  Array  Regulations,  as  amended  by  chanfi;es, 
Army  Regulations,  No.  43,  War  Department,  Julv  24,  1916,  an 
enlisted  man  who  qualifies  hereafter  as  an  expert  rineman  is  entitled 
to  $5  a  month,  as  a  sharpshooter  to  $3  a  month,  and  as  a  marksman  to 
$2  a  month,  in  addition  to  his  pay,  from  the  date  of  qualification  until 
the  next  opportunity  to  requaUfy,  or  for  one  year  if  no  opportunity 
for  recjualincation  is  presented  within  that  year,  provided  tnat  during 
that  time  he  does  not  attain  a  higher  qualification  and  that  he  con- 
tinues to  be  a  member  of  an  organization  anned  with  the  rifle,  in  which 
qualification  is  authorized,  or  reenlists  in  such  organization  within 
tnree  months  from  date  of  discharge  therefrom.*' 
•  The  grade  of  expert  revolver  shot  was  established  in  revolver  prac- 
tice by  the  Provisional  Small-Anns  Firing  Manual,  1909,  and  reports 
of  results  of  revolver  firing  in  the  several  organizations  of  the  line  of 
the  Army  during  the  target  years  1910,  1911,  1912,  1913,  1914,  and 
1915,  show,  respectively,  810,  1,050,  1,335,  1,412,  981,  and  1.476 
qualifications  in  that  grade.  A  silver  badge  is  provided  for  each 
original  qualification. 

Paragraph  282,  Small- Arms  Firing  Manual,  1913,  provides  that 
departmental  rifle  and  pbtol  competitions  shall  be  held  in  every 
alternate  vear.  The  Secretary  of  War  has  directed  that  they  be  held 
in  the  oda-numbered  years,  and,  accordingly,  those  competitions  will 
not  be  held  in  the  year  1916. 

There  was  held,  however,  in  the  PhiUppine  Department,  during  this 
year,  a  department  rifle  competition  for  Philippine  Scouts,  the  Secre- 
tary of  War  having  directea  that  such  competition  be  held  in  every 


REPORT   OF   THE   ADJUTANT   GENERAL. 


277 


alternate  year,  commencing  \iHth  the  year  1916.  In  that  competition 
there  were  52  enlisted  and  13  commissioned  competitors,  14  of  whom 
succeeded  in  winning  medals. 

The  Nation^  Board  for  the  Promotion  of  Rifle  Practice  has  arranged 
for  the  holding  of  the  national  matches  at  State  Camp,  Jacksonville, 
Fla.,  to  commence  Friday,  October  20,  1916,  and  has  prescribed  con- 
ditions and  regulations  for  those  competitions.  Those  conditions 
and  regulations,  having  received  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War, 
were  published  in  Bulletin  No.  6,  War  Department,  February  25, 1916. 
However,  by  reason  of  the  exigencies  of  the  service,  it  was  decided  in 
May,  1916,  that  there  would  be  no  participation  therein  by  any 
teams,  oflRcei-s,  or  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular  Armv.  This  decision 
left  to  the  adjutants  general  of  the  several  States  the  matter  of  con- 
ducting the  matches.  Under  date  of  September  13,  1916,  it  was 
decided  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  on  recommendation  of  the  Chief  of 
the  Militia  Bureau,  that  the  National  Matches  be  held  and  that  Col. 
Samuel  W.  Miller,  Infantry,  be  detailed  as  executive  officer  of  the 
matches. 

The  National  Matches  for  the  year  1915,  comprising  the  national 
LDdividual  match,  the  national  pistol  match,  ana  the  national  team 
match,  were  held  at  Jacksonville,  Fla.,  October  18-22,  under  the 
supervision  of  Col.  Richard  M.  Blatchford,  United  States  Infantry, 
as  executive  officer,  and  Capt.  William  C.  Harllee,  United  States 
Marine  Corps,  as  assistant  executive  officer.  The  results  of  those 
matches  have  been  published  in  Bulletin  No.  3,  War  Department, 
February  7,  1916.  In  the  national  team  match  there  were  entered 
2  teams,  1  Cavalry  and  1  Infantry,  from  the  Army,  1  team  from  the 
Marine  Corps,  1  team  from  the  South  Carolina  Mihtary  Academy 
cadets,  and  40  teams  from  the  Organized  MiUtia.  No  teams  were  sent 
from  the  Organized  Militia  of  Cahfomia,  Idaho,  Michigan,  Mississippi, 
Nebraska,  Nevada,  South  Dakota,  Texas,  Virginia,  or  Washington. 

The  competing  teams  were  divided  into  three  classes.  A,  B,  and  C, 
upon  the  basis  of  their  relative  standing  in  the  national  team  match 
of  1913,  and  prizes  were  awarded  to  each  of  the  teams  making  the 
highest  aggregate  scores  in  each  class. 

The  foDfowmg  table  shows  the  winning  teams,  the  scores  made, 
and  the  prizes  won  in  that  competition: 


Prize. 


CLASS  A. 

Unitod  States  Army  Infantry 
United  States  Marine  C  orps. . 
United  States  Army  Cavalry. 
Massachusetts 

CLASS  B. 

Pennsylvania 

Minnesota 

IlUnols 

Wyoming 

CLASS  c. 

Kentucky 

North  Carolina 

New  Mexico , 

Vermont 


3,(4(1  .  National  trophy  and  $450. 
3.013     S3oO. 
3,508     $300. 
3,587     $250. 


3,  .'it  3  I  II nton  trophy  and  $380. 

3,5*2  $250. 

3.5.59  '  $225. 

3,540  ,  $200. 


3,518  ,  Bronie  soldier  of  Marathon  and  $300. 
3,49S  '  $200. 
3.497  I  $175. 
3,493  i  $150. 


278  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL, 

A  bronze  medal  was  also  awarded  to  each  member  of  the  wmning 
teams,  the  medals  for  each  class  being  of  a  different  design. 

The  interest  manifested  by  the  militia  in  the  national  team  matches 
is  shown  by  the  number  of  entries  each  year  since  the  institution  of 
those  matches.  Eleven  State  teams  were  represented  in  1903,  19  in 
1904,  32  m  1905,  37  m  1906,  43  in  1907,  45  in  1908,  43  in  1909,  38  in 
1910  and  in  1911,41  in  1913,  and  40  in  1915.  It  is  observed  that  the 
maximum  number  of  State  teams  represented  was  reached  in  1908. 
There  were  no  national  team  matches  in  1912  and  1914. 

The  first  prize  in  the  national  individual  match — a  gold  medal  and 
$60 — ^was  won  by  Sergt.  James  S.  Stewart,  First  Corps  of  Cadets. 
Massachusetts,  with  a  score  of  365,  and  the  first  prize  in  the  national 

Sistol   match — a  gold  medal  and  $30 — ^was  won  by  First  Ldeut. 
erry  B.  Garland,  Third  Indiana  Infantry,  with  a  score  of  721. 

DEMOBILIZATION  OP  THE   SECOND   DIVISION. 

The  Second  Division,  which  was  mobilized  at  Galveston  and  Texas 
City,  Tex.,  in  compHance  with  orders  issued  by  the  War  Department, 
February  21  and  24,  1913,  was  ordered  demobilized  on  October  18, 
1915.  rrior  to  the  demobiUzation  a  hurricane  occurred  at  the  places 
named  above  which  caused  the  death  of  13  enlisted  men  and  the  de- 
struction of  the  property  of  the  troops  encamped  there. 

Prior  to  the  date  of  demobiUzation,  the  Twenty-seventh  Infantry, 
one  of  the  regiments  of  the  Second  Division,  was  sent  to  the  PhiUp- 
pine  Department  for  station,  in  place  of  the  Twenty-fourth  Infantry, 
retumea  to  the  United  States. 

By  the  date  set  for  the  demobiUzation,  the  remaining  organizations 
of  tne  Second  Division  were,  on  various  dates  in  September  and 
October,  1915,  transferred  to  the  Southern  Department  for  duty 
along  the  border. 

THE   RAID  ON   COLUMBUS,    N.    MEX.,   AND  THE   PUNITIVE   EXPEDITION. 

On  the  night  of  March  8-9,  1916,  the  Mexican  outlaw,  Francisco 
ViUa,  with  a  force  variously  estimated  at  from  500  to  1,000  men, 
crossed  the  border,  in  small  detachments,  about  3  miles  west  of  the 
border  line  gate,  and  concentrated  for  an  attack  on  the  town  of 
Columbus,  N.  Mex.  The  attack  was  made  during  hours  of  extreme 
darkness,  it  being  the  intention  of  Villa,  accordmg  to  information 
obtained  by  the  miUtary  authorities,  to  loot  the  town  after  disposing 
of  the  gamson.  In  the  fight  which  ensued,  7  American  soldiers  were 
killed  and  2  officers  and  5  soldiers  were  wounded;  8  civiUans  were 
killed,  and  2  were  wounded.  Mexican  bandits  killed  in  the  town,  the 
camp,  and  on  the  border  line,  numbered  67  ,  while  the  woimded  and 
captured  numbered  7.  Immediately  after  the  raid,  one  troop  of 
Cavalry  mounted  and  pursued  the  Mexicans.  The  troop  at  the 
border  line  gate  also  mounted  and  struck  the  retreating  Mexicans  in 
the  flank;  the  two  troops  then  joining,  continued  the  pursuit  of  the 
Mexicans  south  of y  the  border  for  12  miles,  discontinuing  the  pursuit 
only  when  the  ammunition  was  exhausted,  and  the  horses  and  men, 
without  water  and  almost  exhausted,  could  continue  no  longer. 
The  bandits,  in  the  meantime,  retreated  in  a  southeasterly  direction. 
The  number  of  Mexicans  killed  in  this  running  fight  is  estimated  to 
be  between  70  and  100:  but  no  accurate  estimate  of  the  number 


BEPORT   OF   THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  279 

wounded  can  be  made.     Much  property  and  many  animals   were 
abandoned  by  the  Mexicans  in  their  flight. 

On  March  10,  1916,  the  conmianding  general,  Southern  Depart- 
ment, was  directed  to  organize  an  adequate  military  force,  under 
the  conmiand  of  Brijg.  Gen.  John  J.  Pershing,  with  mstructions  to 
the  latter  to  proceed  promptly  across  the  border  in  pursuit  of  the 
Mexican  band  of  outlaws  that  had  attacked  Columbus.  Under  these 
instructions,  two  columns  were  organized,  one  being  from  Columbus 
and  the  other  from  Culberson^s  ranch.  The  advance  of  the  Columbus 
colimMi,  consisting  of  7  troops  of  the  Thirteenth  Cavalry,  the  Sixth 
and  Sixteenth  Infantry,  Battery  C,  Sixth  Field  Artillery,  and  Ambu- 
lance Company  No.  7,  started,  on  March  15,  on  the  road  through 
Palordas,  Ascension,  and  CorraUtos,  toward  Casas  Grandes.  Tne 
Culberson  column,  consisting  of  the  Seventh  Cavalry,  10  troops  of 
the  Tenth  Cavalry,  and  Batterj  B,  Sixth  Field  Artillery,  left  the  same 
night  by  the  Ojitas  route,  arriving  at  Colonia  Dublan,  4  miles  ilorth 
of  Plueva  Casas  Grandes.  on  the  night  of  March  17. 

THE   PARRAL   INCIDENT. 

During  the  pursuit  of  Villa  and  his  followers,  Maj.  Frank  Tompkins, 
Thirteenth  Cavalry,  and  Troops  K  and  M  of  that  regiment,  under 
command  of  Col.  W.  C.  Brown,  Tenth  Cavalry,  camped  outside  of 
the  town  of  Parral,  Mexico,  and  sent  a  detachment  of  soldiers  to  the 
town  for  the  purpose  of  purchasing  suppUes,  at  about  11  o'clock  a.  m., 
April  12,  1916.  Maj.  Tompkins  was  cordially  received  by  the  higher 
civil  and  military  officials.  The  Mexican  general,  Lozano,  accom- 
panied Maj.  Tompkins  on  the  way  to  camp.  On  the  outskirts  of  the 
town  groups  of  native  soldiers  and  civilians  jeered,  tlu*ew  stones, 
and  fired  on  the  cohimn.  Maj.  Tompkins  took  a  defensive  position 
north  of  the  railroad,  but  was  soon  flanked  by  Mexican  troops  and 
forced  to  retire.  The  American  troops  continued  to  withdraw,  to 
avoid  further  compUcations,  xmtil  thev  reached  Santa  Cruz,  8  miles 
from  Parral.  Gen.  Lozano  attempted  to  control  his  men  when  the 
fighting  first  began,  but  failed.  The  known  casualties  were:  Two 
American  soldiers  killed,  2  officers  and  4  soldiers  wounded,  1  soldier 
missing;  40  Mexican  soldiers  killed.  The  number  of  Mexican  soldiers 
woimded  is  not  known,  although  it  is  known  that  1  Mexican  civilian 
was  woimded. 

THE   CARRIZAL   INCIDENT. 

Troops  C  and  K,  Tenth  Cavalry,  under  the  command  of  Capt. 
Charles  T.  Boyd,  Tenth  Cavalry,  while  on  their  way  to  Villa  Ahu- 
mada  on  a  scouting  expedition,  reached  the  town  of  Uarrizal,  Mexico, 
on  the  morning  oi  June  21,  1916,  and  permission  was  sought  from 
the  commanding  oflBcer  of  the  Mexican  forces  garrisoning  me  latter 
place  to  pass  tnrough  the  town  in  order  to  reach  Villa  Ahumada. 
Uen.  Gomez,  the  Mexican  commander,  sent  an  oflBcer  of  his  com- 
mand to  the  American  troops,  denying  the  latter  the  permission 
requested.  During  the  conference  Mexican  troops  began  to  move 
toward  the  flanks  of  the  American  troops.  The  latter  assumed  a 
defensive  position,  and  in  the  engagement  which  ensued  Capt. 
Charles  T.  Boyd  and  Lieut.  Henry  K.  Adair,  Tenth  Cavalry,  ana  7 
enlisted  men  were  killed,  and  Capt.  Lewis  S.  Morey,  Tenth  Cavalry, 


280  REPORT  OF  THE  ADJTJTAKT  GENERAL. 

and  9  enlisted  men  were  wounded.  Twenty-three  enlisted  men  of 
the  Tenth  Cavalry  and  1  civilian  interpreter  were  captiired  and  sent 
to  Chihuahua  City,  but  they  were  subsequently  returned  to  the 
United  States,  llie  estimated  number  of  Mexicans  killed,  which 
included  Gen.  Gomez,  is  39;  the  ntunber  of  wounded  is  not  known. 

BANDIT  RAIDS   ACROSS   THE   MEXICAN    BORDER. 

In  addition  to  the  raid  at  Qolumbus,  N.  Mex.,  before  referred  to, 
several  raids  of  more  or  less  impK)rtance  occurred  during  the  period 
covered  by  this  report,  notably  the  raids  at — 

Glenn  Spings,  Tex.,  on  May  5,  1916,  the  casualties  being  3  Ameri- 
can soldiers  and  1  civihan  killed;  3  American  soldiers  wounded.  It 
is  estimated  that  2  Mexican  bandits  were  killed,  but  the  number  ot 
wounded  is  not  known. 

San  Ygnacio,  Tex.,  on  June  15,  1916,  the  casualties  being  4  Ameri- 
can soldiers  killed  and  5  wounded;  6  Mexican  bandits  kill^. 

Near  Fort  Hancock,  Tex.,  July  31,  1916,  casualties  being  1  Ameri- 
can soldier  and  1  civilian  (United  States  customs  inspector)  killed 
and  1  American  soldier  wounded;  3  Mexicans  killed  and  3  captured 
by  Mexican  de  facto  Government  troops. 

GALL   OF   THE    ORGANIZED    MILITIA    AN^    NATIONAL    GUARD    INTO   THE 

SERVICE   OF  THE   UNITED   STATES. 

Having  in  view  the  possibiUty  of  further  aggression  upK)n  the  terri- 
tory of  the  United  States  and  the  necessity  ft?  the  proper  protection 
of  the  Mexican  frontier,  the  President  thought  proper  to  exercise  the 
authority  vested  in  him  by  the  Constitution  and  laws  to  call  out  the 
Organized  Militia;  consequently,  on  May  9,  1916,  he  issued  a  call 
Uu-ough  the  governors  of  the  States  of  Arizona,  New  Mexico,  and 
Texas,  and  directed  the  concentration  of  the  militia  of  those  States 
at  places  to  be  designated  by  the  commanding  general  of  the  Southern 
Department. 

On  the  same  date  San  Antonio,  Columbus,  and  Douglas  were  desig- 
nated as  the  places  of  concentration  for  the  miUtia  of  Texas,  New 
Mexico,  and  Arizona,  respectively,  and  upon  the  arrival  of  the  mihtia 
at  the  designated  places  of  rendezvous  the  necessary  procedure  for 
their  muster  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  under  the  provisions 
of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  January  21, 1903,  as  amenaed  by  the 
act  of  Congress,  approved  May  27, 1908,  was  at  once  entered  upon  and 
vigorously  prosecuted,  the  greater  part  of  the  mihtia  so  called  having 
b^n  duly  mustered  into  service  before  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year. 

It  was  also  directed  by  the  department  that  the  Federal  authorities 
assume  the  duty  of  recruiting  for  the  miUtia  in  the  United  States 
service  and  that  this  office  take  the  necessary  action.  In  accordance 
with  these  directions  the  commanding  general  of  the  Southern  De- 
partment was  ordered,  on  May  27,  1916,  to  detail  such  officers  and 
enlisted  men  from  Texas  mihtia  mustered  into  the  United  States 
service  as  might  be  necessary  to  recruit  the  miUtia  of  Texas  to  full 
strength,  and  similar  orders  with  respect  to  recruiting  the  militia  of 
the  other  States  concerned  were  issued  at  a  later  date.  On  June  3, 
1916,  the  recommendation  of  the  commanding  general  of  the  South- 
em  Department  that  Fort  Sam  Houston  be  designated  as  a  reoroit 
"rendezvous  for  that  purpose  was  approved. 


% 


KEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  281 

In  accordance  with  these  directions  and  orders  the  recruitment  of 
the  militia  called  into  service  as  above  set  forth  has  proceeded  as 
rapidly  as  conditions  permitted  and  is  still  being  prosecuted  at  the 
close  of  the  period  covered  by  this  report. 

The  same  reasons  that  caused  the  President  to  issue  the  call  for 
militia  on  May  9,  1916,  impelled  him  on  Jime  18,  1916,  to  call  into 
the  service  of  the  United  States  a  large  part  of  the  Organized  MiUtia 
and  the  National  Guard  of  the  other  States  of  the  C^nion  and  the 
District  of  Columbia,  the  call  being  duly  issued  on  the  date  last 
mentioned  through  the  governors  of  all  the  States  concerned  and 
the  conmaanding  general  of  the  District  of  Columbia  militia,  a  mobili- 
zation point  for  the  mihtia  of  each  State  and  the  District  of  Colxmibia 
being  designated  in  tho  call. 

In  the  meantime  the  national  defense  act  had  been  approved  June 
3,  1916,  providing  among  other  things  for  the  transition  of  the  Organ- 
ized MiUtia  of  the  several  States  and  the  District  of  Colimibia  to  the 
National  Guard  by  taking  the  oath  prescribed  in  that  act,  and  this 
transition  was  in  progress  in  the  several  States  when  the  call  of  Jime 
18  was  made.  TJpon  tho  arrival  of  the  mihtia  at  the  mobiUzation 
points  or  places  of  rendezvous  designated  the  necessary  procedure 
for  their  induction  into  the  mihtary  service  of  the  United  States 
was  entered  upon  at  once,  those  who  had  qualified  as  members 
of  the  National  Guard  being  accepted  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  June  3. 
1916,  and  the  others  being  mustered  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  January 
21,  1903,  as  amended  by  the  act  of  Congress  approvoa  May  27.  1908. 

It  is  obvious  that  there  is  a  large  amount  of  work  to  be  performed 
and  many  matters  of  detail  involved  in  the  concentration  of  the  mihtia 
at  the  various  mobilization  points,  in  examining  them  individually 
and  inducting  them  into  the  mihtary  service  oi  the  United  States. 
While  necessarilv  this  work  was  not  completed  at  the  close  of  the 
fiscal  year,  satisfactory  progress  therein  had  been  made,  many  of  the 
organizations  had  been  inducted  into  the  Federal  service,  and  the 
work  connected  therewith  remaining  undone  was  well  in  hand  and 
was  being  expedited  by  all  concerned. 

Urged  DV  tnc  importance  of  having  an  adequate  force  on  the  border 
at  the  earnest  practicable  date,  instructions  were  given  on  June  23, 
1916,  to  the  commanding  generals  of  the  Eastern,  Central,  and 
Western  Departments  that  the  moment  any  complete  unit  of  militia 
had  arrived  at  a  State  mobilization  camp  and  the  mustering  officer 
had  reported  that  the  imit  was  reasonably  equipped  for  field  service, 
the  particular  organization  concerned  be  sent  at  once  to  the  point 
on  the  border  designated  by  the  commanding  general  of  the  Southern 
Department. 

On  Jidy  31,  1916,  the  date  of  the  latest  complete  returns  received, 
the  troops  in  the  Southern  Department  consisted  of  2,352  officers  and 
43,338  enhsted  men  of  the  Regular  Army,  and  5,058  officers  and 
102,077  enhsted  men  of  the  National  Guard,  making  a  total  of  7,410 
officers  and  145,415  enhsted  men.  On  the  date  given  there  were 
1,910  officers  and  38,229  enlisted  men  in  mobihzation  camps,  and  128 
officers  and  3,410  enhsted  men  of  ihe  National  Guard  serving  m  the 
Western  Department  not  mcluded  in  the  foregoing  figures,  making 
the  total  strwigth  of  the  National  Guard  in  the  Federal  service  on  the 
dale  JBpationed  7.096  officers  and  143,716  enhsted  men. 


The  practice,  inaugurated  in  February,  1912,  of  separating  as  far  as 
possible  prisoners  convictetl  of  purely  military  offenses  from  those 
convicted  of  statutory  or  common-law  crimes,  with  a  view  to  afford 
the  former  every  opportunity  practicable  to  be  restored  to  an  honor- 
able status,  was  continued  throughout  the  year.    In  furtherance  t^ 


BEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAIi.  283 

this  policy  an  additional  disciplinary  company  was  organized  at  the 
Pacific  Branch  of  the  Disciplmary  Barracks  m  January,  1916.  Up 
to  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  8  disciplinary  companies  and  2  dis- 
ciplinary bands  had  been  organized;  4  companies  (formed  into  a 
battaUon)  and  1  band  at  the  United^States  Disciplinary  Barracks,  3 
companies  and  1  band  at  the  Pacific  Branch,  ana  1  company  at  the 
Atlantic  Branch.  Since  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  a  fourth  company 
has  been  organized  at  the  Pacific  Branch  and  tne  4  companies  at  that 
branch  have  been  formed  into  a  battalion.  The  organization  of  a 
disciplinary  band  at  the  Atlantic  Branch  also  was  authorized  in 
General  Order  No.  29,  War  Department,  dated  July  21,  1916.  Men 
whose  conduct  is  such  as  to  entitle  them  to  ths  privilege  are  assi^ed 
to  these  companies,  in  which  they  receive  a  special  course  in  mihtary 
training  and  instruction  during  one-half  of  each  working  day.  The 
time  thus  devoted  to  mihtary  training  would  other^'ise  be  expended 
by  these  men  at  hard  labor.  After  he  has  been  deemed  to  have  made 
sufficient  progress  in  his  duties  as  a  member  of  the  disciplinary 
oi^anization  the  prisoner  is  permitted  to  file  his  apphcation  for 
honorable  restoration  to  duty.  A  recommendation  is  finally  made 
to  the  Secretary  of  War  in  these  cases  only  after  information  has  been 
obtained  by  the  commandant  from  all  available  sources  relative  to  the 
character  and  habits  of  the  prisoner  before  his  enhstment,  during  his 
enlistment,  and  while  in  confinement.  If  the  prisoner's  conduct  and 
habits  seem  to  have  been  such  as  to  warrant  favorable  action,  his 
honorable  restoration  to  duty  is  recommended.  As  stated  in  a 
subsequent  paragraph,  193  of  the  members  of  these  disciplinary 
organizations  were  honorably  restored  to  duty  in  the  Army  dunng  the 
fiscal  year.  After  having  been  restored  to  duty  the  soldier  is  detailed 
for  duty  at  the  barracks  tor  at  least  three  months,  upon  the  completion 
of  which  period  of  duty  he  is  regularly  assigned  to  an  organization. 

The  Army  appropriation  act  approved  March  4,  1915,  authorized 
the  Secretary  oi  vVar  to  establish  a  system  of  parole  for  prisoners  con- 
fined in  the  United  States  Disciplinary  Barracks  and  its  branches, 
the  terms  and  conditions  of  parole  to  be  such  as  the  Secretary  of  War 
might  prescribe.  As  stated  in  the  last  annual  report,  parole  regula- 
tions were  approved  by  the  Secretary  of  War  and  put  into  effect  May 
18,  1915.  and  one  prisoner  was  released  on  parole  prior  to  the  close  of 
the  fiscal  year  1915.  This  man  was  discharged  from  custody  during 
the  fiscal  year  1916,  while  still  on  parole. 

During  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  228  applications  for 
release  on  parole  were  received  in  this  office.  Of  these,  159  were  ap- 
proved. 57  were  disapproved,  1  was  not  acted  upon  owing  to  the  fact 
that  a  recommendation  that  the  unexecuted  portion  of  the  appli- 
cant's sentence  of  confinement  be  remitted  had  been  approved  prior 
to  the  receipt  of  his  application  for  release  on  parole,  ana  1 1  haa  not 
received  final  consideration  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year. 

During  the  year  156  general  prisoners  were  actu  all v  released  on 

Earole  from  the  United  States  Disciphnary  Barracks  and  its  branches, 
tf  these,  2  violated  the  terms  of  their  parole  and  were  returned  to  the 
barracks  to  serve  out  the  balance  of  tneir  sentence  in  confinement,  7 
others  who  likewise  violated  the  terms  of  their  parole  were  in  escape 
at  the  close  of  the  year,  81  were  discharged  from  custody  while  on 
parole  on  account  of  their  terms  of  confinement  having  expired,  and 
66  were  still  on  parole  on  Jime  30,  1916. 


284  REPOBT  OF  THE   ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 

GENERAL   PRISONERS. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  year  1916  there  were  2,459  general 
prisoners  in  custody.  Of  this  number,  546  were  m  confinement  at 
military  posts;  155  at  the  United  States  Penitentiary,  Leavenworth, 
Kans. ;  982  at  the  United  States  Disciplinary  Barracks,  Fort  Leaven- 
worth, Eans.;  432  at  the  Pacific  Branch,  United  States  DiscipUnary 
Barracks,  Alcatraz,  Cal.;  257  at  the  Atlantic  Branch,  United  States 
Disciplinary  Barracks,  Fort  Jay,  N.  Y. ;  34  at  the  Government  Hos- 

Jital  for  the  Insane  (now  St.  Elizabeths  Hospital),  Washington, 
K  C. ;  and  53  were  in  transit  from  one  place  of  confinement  to  another. 

During  the  fiscal  year  3,011  were  committed  to  confuaement;  34 
escaped  prisoners  were  recaptured;  2,669  were  released  at  expiration 
of  sentence;  58  escaped;  7  died;  213  were  honorably  restored  to  duty; 
and  the  unexecuted  part  of  sentence  was  remitted  in  262  cases;  leaving 
2,295  general  prisoners  in  custody  at  the  close  of  the  year.  Of  this 
number,  205  were  at  military  posts;  225  at  the  United  States  Peni- 
tentiary, Leavenworth,  Kans.;  1,083  at  the  United  States  Disciplinary 
Barracks,  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kans.;  430  at  the  Pacific  Branch, 
United  States  Disciplinary  Barracks,  Alcatraz,  Cal.;  311  at  the 
Atlantic  Branch,  United  States  Disciplinary  Barracks,  Fort  Jay, 
N.  Y.;  33  at  the  Government  Hospital  for  the  Insane  (now  St.  Eliza- 
beths Hospital) ,  Washington,  D.  C. ;  and  8  were  in  transit  from  one 
place  of  confinement  to  another.  Of  the  2,295  general  prisoners 
reported  above  as  in  confinement  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year,  21 
were  on  parole  from  the  United  States  Penitentiarv,  and  26  from  the 
United  States  Disciplinary  Barracks  and  its  branc&es. 

As  in  previous  years,  applications  for  clemency  in  the  case  of  pris- 
oners undei^going  confinement  in  execution  of  sentences  of  general 
courts-martial  added  materially  to  the  correspondence  of  the  office. 
At  the  beginning  of  the  fiscal  vear  87  applications  for  clemency  pre- 
viously made  had  not  received  final  consideration,  they  having  been 
referred  to  the  commanding  generals  of  military  departments  or  else- 
where in  the  course  of  investigation  as  to  the  merits  of  the  cases. 
During  the  year  2,263  applications  for  clemency  were  received,  but 
173  of  these  were  cases  in  which  other  applications  were  pending  at 
the  date  of  their  receipt.  Clemency  was  denied  in  1,515  cases,  the 
unexecuted  parts  of  sentences  were  wholly  remitted  in  201  cases, 
parts  of  the  imexecuted  sentences  were  remitted  in  242  cases,  and  in 
108  cases  reports  were  made  to  the  Department  of  Justice  for  con- 
sideration in  connection  with  applications  for  parole  under  the  act 
of  Congress  approved  June  25,  1910  (36  Stat.  L.,  819>.  One  prisoner 
was  released  prior  to  action  on  the  application  for  clemency  in  his 
case.  At  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  110  cases  had  not  received  final 
consideration,  having  been  referred  to  the  commanding  generals  or 
others,  in  the  course  of  investigation  as  to  the  merits  of  tne  case-,  and 
not  having  been  returned  to  uiis  office  before  the  close  of  the  year. 

The  number  of  cases  received  does  not  represent  the  number  of 
individual  prisoners  by  whom,  or  in  whose  behalf,  applications  for 
clemency  were  made.  In  many  cases  as  soon  as  one  application  is 
denied  another  is  presented,  as  many  as  five  consecutive  applicationa 
having  been  received  during  the  year  in  the  case  of  one  general  prid- 
2t066  cases  act^  u]>on  during  the  year  were  applications 
'  of  1,836  general  prisoners,  as  against  1,928  appUcatioos 


i 


KEPORT  OF   THE   ADJUTANT   GENERAL.  285 

in  the  cases  of  1,754  general  prisoners  acted  upon  during  the  pre- 
ceding year. 

It  has  been  the  poHcy  to  give  special  recognition  on  the  Fourth  of 
Julv  and  Thanksgiving  Day  of  each  year  to  a  limited  number  of  gen- 
oral  prisoners  confined  at  the  United  States  Disciplinary  Barriicks 
and  its  branches  who  have  served  not  less  than  18  montns  of  their 
terms  of  confinement  and  who  have  the  best  records  of  conduct,  and 
in  accordance  with  that  policy  the  unexecuted  portions  of  the  con- 
finement of  8  general  prisoners  were  remitted  during  the  fiscal  year 
ended  June  30,  1916. 

The  commandant  of  each  of  the  barracks  was  authorized  in  De- 
cember, 1915,  to  submit  each  year  recommendations  for  the  pardon 
at  Christmas  time  of  not  more  than  3  general  prisoners,  without 
regard  to  the  restrictions  as  to  length  of  sentences  imposed  by  the 
regulations  with  respect  to  the  pardons  authorized  for  July  4  and 
Thanksgiving  Day.  Accordingly,  the  sentences  of  6  general  pris- 
oners were  remitted  for  Christmas,  1915. 

In  addition  to  the  cases  considered  upon  applications,  the  unex- 
ecuted parts  of  sentences  were  remitted  oy  the  War  Department  for 
administrative  reasons  in  the  cases  of  8  general  prisoners  without 
applications  for  clemency  having  been  made  in  their  behalf. 

Under  the  authority  conferred  upon  the  Secretary  of  War  by  sec- 
tion 1352  of  the  Revised  Statutes  or  the  United  States,  which  author- 
ity was  reaflSrmed  in  the  act  of  March  4,  1915  (38  Stat.  L.,  1074). 
honorably  to  restore  to  duty  general  prisoners  confined  at  the  United 
States  Disciplinary  Barraclcs  and  its  oranches,  193  general  prisoners 
(143  of  them  former  deserters)  were  honorably  restored  to  duty,  and 
under  the  authoritv  contained  in  the  act  of  Xfarch  4,  1915  (38  Stat. 
L.,  1074).  honorably  to  restore  to  duty  general  prisoners  confined  at 
places  other  than  the  DiscipUnary  Barracks  and  its  branchas,  20 
general  prisoners  (12  of  them  former  deserters)  were  honorably 
restored  to  duty  from  confinement  at  military  posts,  a  total  of  213 
general  prisoners  (155  of  them  former  deserters)  honorably  restored 
to  duty  during  the  fiscal  year  1916.  Of  this  total,  126  were  restored 
after  sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  had  been  executed,  and  87 
were  restored  without  having  been  dishonorably  discharged,  the 
execution  of  the  sentence  of  dishonorable  discharge  in  their  cases 
having  been  suspended. 

Of  the  193  general  prisoners  restored  after  confinement  at  the 
Disciplinary  Barracks  or  its  branches,  2  (both  former  deserters) 
have  been  dishonorably  discharged,  2  (1  of  them  a  former  deserter) 
have  been  dischaiwd  under  paraeraph  148^,  Army  Regulations,  7 
(6  of  them  former  deserters)  have  been  honorably  discharged,  15  (13 
of  them  former  deserters)  were  absent  in  desertion  at  the  close  of 
the  fiscal  year  1916,  1  was  present  awaiting  trial  for  desertion,  and 
166  (121  of  them  former  deserters)  were  serving  with  their  organi- 
zations at  that  time — 5  with  the  rank  of  sergeant. 

Of  the  20  general  prisoners  restored  to  duty  after  confinement  at 
a  military  post  other  than  the  Disciplinary  Barracks  or  its  branches, 
1  has  been  dishonorably  discharged,  1  has  been  discharged  under 
paragraph  148^,  Army  Kegulations,  2  (both  former  deserters)  have 
oeen  honorably  discharged,  and  16  (10  of  them  former  deserters) 
were  serving  with  their  organizations  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year — 
1  with  the  rank  of  corpord. 


286 


KEPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 


Of  the  194  general  prisoners  (171  of  them  former  deserters),  re- 
ferred to  in  the  last  annual  report  as  having  been  restored  to  duty 
during  the  fiscal  years  1914  and  1915,  19  (17  of  them  former  deser- 
ters) nave  been  dishonorably  discharged,  8  (7  of  them  former  de- 
serters) have  been  discharged  without  lionor,  6  (all  former  deserters) 
have  been  discharged  under  paragraph  148^^,  Army  Regulations;  1 
(a  former  deserter)  has  been  aischarged  under  paragraph  126,  Army 
Regulations,  as  amended;  1  (a  former  deserter)  has  died,  60  (54  of 
them  former  deserters)  have  been  honorably  discharged — 9  with 
rank  of  corporal  and  5  with  the  rank  of  sergeant,  29  (28  of  them 
former  deserters)  were  absent  in  desertion  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal 
year  1916,  2  (both  former  deserters)  were  present  awaiting  trial 
for  desertion,  and  68  (55  of  them  former  deserters)  were  on  duty 
with  their  organizations  at  that  time — 7  with  the  rank  of  corporal,  2 
with  the  rank  of  sergeant,  and  1  with  the  rank  of  battalion  sergeant 
major. 

The  total  number  of  restorations  to  duty  prior  to  the  close  of  the 
fiscal  year  1916  is  407. 

In  tabulated  form  the  results  appear  as  follows: 


Restored  to  duty. 


Honorably  discharged. 
Died 


Dishonorably  discharged 

Discharged  wlthotit  honor 

Discharged  under  par.  148i,  Army  Repilarioas 

Dischareed  under  par.    126,    Army    Regtilatlons, 

amended. 

Absent  in  desertion,  June  30, 1916 

Present,  awaiting  trial  for  dosertion,  June  30, 1916. . 
Present  for  duty,  June  30, 1916 


as 


Totals. 


1914 


(38)    39 


(21)    22 


(5 

(3) 

(2) 


5 
3 
2 


(4) 
(3)' 


4 

'3 


(38)    39 


ms 


(133)  155 


(33)  38 

(I)  1 

(12)  14 

(4)  5 

(4)  4 


(133)  155 


1916 


(155)  213 


(8)      9 


(2)      3 

(i)***3 


(13)    15 

1 

(131)  182 


(155)  213 


Totali. 


(32ft)  4<r7 


(62)    69 

(I)      1 
(19)    22 

8 
9 


(7) 
(7) 


(1)  1 
(41)  44 

(2)  3 
(186)  250 


(326)  407 


Note.— Figures  in  parentheses  indicate  number  of  men  who  were  convicted  of  desertion  prfor  to  nsio- 
ration  to  duty. 

CURRENT   WORK  OP  THE   ADJUTANT   GENERAL's   OFFICE. 

There  was  an  increase  in  the  volume  of  current  work  of  the  office 
during  the  latter  part  of  the  fiscal  year,  as  compared  with  the  prior 
year.  This  increase  was  caused  by  the  increase  of  the  Army  under 
the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  June  3,  1916,  by  the 
offers  of  service  and  the  correspondence  in  connection  with  the 
troubles  on  the  Mexican  border,  and  by  the  calling  of  the  National 
Guard  into  the  service  of  the  United  States  because  of  those  troubles. 
Notwithstanding  the  vigorous  efforts  of  the  officers  and  clerks,  their 
unceasing  interest  in  the  work,  and  an  extension  by  the  Secretary 
of  War  oi  the  office  hours  in  divisions  in  which  the  work  was  falling 
in  arrears,  it  was  found  to  be  impossible  to  dispose  of  all  cases  re- 
ceived during  the  year  and,  at  the  close  of  office  on  June  30,  1916, 
there  remained  2,775  ca?(*s  undisposed  of.  During  the  fiscal  vcar 
471,655  cases  were  disposed  of — an  average  of  1,546  for  each  working 
day  of  the  vear.  During  the  preceding  fiscal  year  this  average  was 
1,100,  and  Suring  the  fiscal  year  1914  it  was  971  cases. 

The  table  following  shows  either  the  source  of  receipt  or  the  char- 
•w^ter  of  the  cases  received  in  The  Adjutant  General's  Office  during 

^  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  287 

From  the  Anny  at  large 108, 038 

From  the  General  Staff  and  chiefs  of  bureaus  in  the  War  Department 15, 433 

Recruiting  for  the  Army 10, 389 

Whereabouts  of  individual  officers  or  enlisted  men  or  organizations  of  the 

Army 13,883 

Appointments  in  the  Army  or  as  cadets  at  the  Military  Academy 6, 457 

Requests  for  blank  applications  or  other  forms  or  for  printed  orders 13, 811 

Clemency  for  general  prisoners 5, 556 

Applications  for  certificates  in  lieu  of  lost  discharges 4, 569 

Applications  for  removal  of  charges  of  desertion  (art  of  Mar.  2,  1.SR9) 494 

Applications  for  certificates  for  purchase  of  campaign  and  certifi(  ate  of  merit 

badges /. 3,  520 

From  the  Commisrioner  of  Pensions 36, 647 

From  the  Auditor  for  the  War  Department 13,  663 

From  the  Commissioner  of  the  General  I.<and  Office 801 

From  Union  associations  and  volunteer  soldiers'  homen 2, 024 

From  Confederate  associations  and  homes  and  State  pension  oHlr  ial.^ 24, 252 

Notifications  to  the  Auditor  for  the  War  Department  of  desertions  and  dis- 
honorable discharge*  from  the  Army 3,  700 

All  other  cases,  miscellaneous 211, 193 

Total 474,430 

Total  number  of  cases  disposed  of  during  tLe  year 471, 655 

On  hand  June  30.  1916 2,776 

The  foregoing  table  does  not  include  approximately  384,000  re- 
ttims,  muster  rolls,  enlistment  papers,  identification  records,  periodical 
reports,  and  other  similar  records  and  reports  received  and  med  in  the 
omce  during  the  year,  nor  does  it  include  approximately  67,500  copies 
of  department  and  other  general,  special,  and  general  courts-martial 
orders  also  received  in  the  office  during  the  year.  This  represents  a 
total  for  the  fiscal  jear  of  451,500  of  these  papers — an  average  of 
1,480  for  each  workmg  day  in  the  year. 

Mention  was  made  m  the  precedmg  annual  report  of  The  Adjutant 
General  with  regard  to  the  very  largo  number  of  requests  that  are 
made  in  person  or  by  telephone  for  information  from  the  records  and 
which  are  answered  orally  without  any  record  being  made  either  of 
the  request  or  of  the  answer.  The  number  of  such  personal  and  tele- 
phone calls  increased  so  much  during  the  latter  part  of  the  last  fiscal 
year,  principally  in  connection  with  inquiries  as  to  the  whereabouts 
or  status  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  the  National  Guard  called 
into  the  service  of  the  United  States,  that  it  became  necessary  to 
install  an  additional  telephone  in  the  office  of  the  chief  clerk  for  the 

EurpHOse  of  handling  them.     No  count  of  such  requests  has  been  kept 
ut  it  is  certain  that  they  amounted  to  thousands  in  the  course  of 
the  fiscal  year  covered  by  this  report. 

Extra  efforts  were  made  to  keep  the  current  work  of  the  office  as 
nearly  up  to  dat^  as  possible,  but,  notwithstanding  those  efforts,  only 
85.4  per  cent  of  all  cases  received  were  disposed  of  within  24  hours 
from  the  time  they  reached  the  office.  However,  the  cases  that  re- 
quired more  than  24  hours  for  investigation  and  adjudication  or  for 
answer  were  either  routine  matters  of  little  urgency  or  complicated 
cases  or  those  which  required  the  compilation  of  extended  lists  or 
lenethy  answers  to  dispose  of  them. 

it  is  proper  to  remark,  in  connection  with  this  part  of  the  report, 
that  much  that  can  not  be  shown  in  any  statement  of  the  nimibcr  of 
cases  received  and  disposed  of  has  been  added  to  the  work  of  tho 
office.     This  added  work  consists  of  the  keeping  of  rosters  and  ret- 


288  .     REPORT  OF  THE   ADJUTANT  GENERAIi. 

erence  lists  in  order  to  meet  legislative  requirements  concerning  the 
detached  service  of  commissioned  officers  and  the  duration  of  foreign 
service  of  both  officers  and  enlisted  men;  the  keeping  of  records  of 
enlisted  men  while  on  furlough  in  the  Army  Reserve;  tne  printing  and 
distribution  of  all  publications  issued  by  the  War  Department  o^ork 
that  heretofore  has  been  done  by  the  War  College  Division) ;  keeping 
the  records  of  the  Officers'  Reserve  Corps;  the  obtaining,  compiling, 
and  keeping  continually  up  to  date  all  obtainable  information  as  to 
the  names,  ages,  addresses,  occupations,  and  qualifications  for  ap- 
pointment as  commissioned  officers  of  the  Army,  in  time  of  war  or 
other  emergency,  of  men  of  suitable  ages  who.  by  reason  of  having 
received  military  training  in  civil  educational  institutions  or  else- 
where, may  be  regarded  as  qualified  and  available  for  appointment 
as  such  commissioned  officers;  and  the  making  of  other  rosters  and 
lists  in  order  to  comply  with  all  of  the  requirements  of  the  so-called 
'^national  defense  act,     approved  June  3,  1916. 

The  distribution  to  the  Army,  as  prescribed  in  paragraph  803, 
Army  Regulations,  of  general  and  special  orders,  bulletins,  and 
changes  was  continued  tliroughout  the  year.  The  following  table 
shows  the  number  of  copies  of  orders,  bulletins,  and  changes  dis- 
tributed d\u*ing  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916: 

General  orders 714, 360 

Bulletins 462.500 

Special  orders,  full  copies 95, 000 

Spe<*ial  orders,  extraits 91. 200 

Special  orders,  bulletined 85, 120 

Recruiting,  enlistment,  and  m«3t  ellaneoiis  circulars 61. 120 

Changes,  Army  Regulations,  manuals,  et^- 661, 650 

During  the  fiscal  year  7,526,662  blank  forms  and  206,592  books, 
manuals,  etc.,  were  distributed  to  the  Army  by  this  office,  either 
directly  or  to  the  proper  officei's  of  the  military  aivision  and  depart- 
ments for  distribution  by  them,  or  were  sold  to  the  Organized  Militia 
of  the  several  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia. 

The  distribution  of  War  Department  public  documents  was  trans- 
ferred from  the  War  College  Division,  General  Staff,  to  this  office 
under  the  provisions  of  Paragraph  I,  General  Orders,  No.  21,  War 
Department,  June  16,  1916. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing,  approximately  9,765,000  circulars, 
containing  descriptions  of  deserters  irom  the  Army,  were  distributed 
during  the  year.  Tlie  data  for  those  circulars  were  prepared  in  this 
office  and  the  circulars  were  distributed  to  police  officials,  United 
States  marshals  and  their  deputies,  comity  officers,  established  detec- 
tive agencies,  and  others,  in  connection  with  the  descriptive  cir- 
culars, approximately  46,000  lists  containing  the  names  of  deserters, 
with  circiuar  numbers,  who  had  been  returned  to  military  control, 
were  mailed  to  the  recipients  of  the  circulars. 

IDENTIFICATION   SYSTEM. 

The  use  of  finger  prints,  photographs,  and  personal  descriptions  as 
a  means  of  personal  identification  of  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular 
Array  was  continued  throughout  the  year.  At  the  close  of  the  year 
354,296  finger-print  records  had  been  received  in  this  office,  107,931 
of  those  records  having  been  made  in  cases  of  reenlistment,  in  which 
records  made  during  the  previous  service  of  soldiers  were  on  file. 


REPORT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL.  289 

As  has  been  indicated  in  previous  annual  reports  of  this  office,  it  b 
desirable  to  obtain  finger-print  records  of  men  claiming  prior  service, 
unless  it  is  known  positively  at  the  post  at  which  tne  man  seeks 
recnlistment  that  he  is  the  former  soldier.  This  is  necessary  in  detect- 
ing cases,  several  of  which  have  been  discovered,  in  which  a  man  with 
a  discharge  certificate  in  his  possession  claimed  the  service  represented 
by  and  enlisted  under  the  name  appearing  in  that  certificate,  although 
wnen  his  finger-print  record  was  receiv^  in  this  office  it  was  estab- 
lished beyond  doubt  that  he  was  not  the  man  he  claimed  to  be,  but 
was  an  impostor.  On  June  30, 1915,  this  office  had  on  file  the  finger- 
print records  of  246,365  individuals  who  were  then  or  had  been 
previously  enlisted  in  the  Regular  Army. 

Dming  the  fiscal  year  414  cases  of  fraudulent  enlistments  of  former 
deserters^  general  prisoners,  and  others  were  discovered  through  the 
finger-pnnt  system.  Of  these  414  cases,  17  had  withdrawn  from  miU- 
tary  control  when  the  identity  was  established.  Of  the  remaining 
397  cases,  58  were  held  in  service,  229  were  dishonorably  discharged 
and  confined  for  various  periods  by  sentences  of  courts-martial,  67 
were  discharged  under  paragraph  148^,  Army  Regulations,  5  were 
dropped  from  the  rolls  of  the  Army  and  delivered  to  the  naval 
autnorities,  either  as  deserters  from  the  Navy  or  Marine  Corps,  and  in 
38  cases  no  report  of  final  disposition  has  been  received. 

By  means  oi  this  system  this  office  has  identified  also  dead  men  who 
were  former  soldiers  and  whose  identity  could  not  be  satisfactorily 
established  in  any  other  way,  as  well  as  civil  offenders  who  sought  to 
evade  arrest  for  their  crimes  by  enlisting  in  the  Army  under  assumed 
names,  and  soldiers  who  left  impressions  of  their  fingers  while  in  the 
act  of  conmiitting  some  serious  offense.  As  stated  in  previous  reports 
the  use  of  finger-print  records  undoubtedly  has  deterred  many 
criminals  from  enlisting  in  the  Army  for  the  purpose  of  escaping 
detection  and  arrest,  fi  the  civil  authorities  have  reason  to  suspect 
that  an  offender  wanted  by  them  has  enlisted  in  the  Army  and  will 
send  his  finger  prints  to  this  office,  it  can  be  determined  promptly 
Avhether  or  not  such  pereon  has  enlisted,  thereby  enabling  the  civil 
authorities  to  apprehend  persons  wanted  by  them  and  materially 
aiding  the  War  Department  in  carrying  out  its  poUcy  of  preventing 
imdesirable  pei^ons  from  serving  in  the  Army. 

The  following  cases  are  cited  as  examples  of  the  utihty  of  the 
finger  prints  in  identifying  dead  men  or  malefactors  whose  identity 
could  not  be  established  otherwise: 

A  man  was  killed  by  a  train  in  Iowa;  his  finger  prints  were  taken 
and  they  finally  reacned  this  office.  The  man  was  found  to  be  a 
former  soldier.  A  somewhat  similar  case  was  that  of  a  man  killed 
by  an  elevated  train  in  New  York  City.  His  features  were  so  muti- 
lated that  they  were  beyond  recogmtion.  His  finger  prints  were 
taken,  and  after  they  reached  this  office  it  was  discovered  that  hb 
was  a  former  soldier.  The  body  of  a  man  killed  during  the  storm  at 
Galveston  was  supposed  to  be  that  of  a  soldier.  The  remains  were 
so  badly  mutilated,  however,  that  recognition  was  impossible,  but 
after  his  finger  prints  were  taken  and  forwarded  to  tnis  office  his 
identity  was  established  beyond  all  doubt. 

A  soldier  who  broke  into  and  robbed  a  tailor  shop  left  finger  prints 
on  a  pane  of  glass  he  broke.    The  glass  was  sent  to  this  office,  and 

69176'— WAB 1916— VOL  1 19 


290  KEPOBT  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL, 

by  comparing  the  impression  on  the  glass  with  records  in  this  office 
his  identity  was  established. 

In  addition  to  the  finger-print  records  of  the  enlisted  men  of  the 
Regular  Army  received  during  the  year,  finger-print  records  of  mem- 
bers of  the  National  Guard  oi^anizations  have  been  received  and  filed 
in  The  Adjutant  General's  (Sfice.  Records  from  but  few  of  those 
organizations  had  been  received  before  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year, 
but  it  is  expected  that  complete  data  on  this  subject  can  be  fumishea 
in  the  next  annual  report. 

INDEX-BECOKD   OARD  WOKK. 

The  index-record  card  work  performed  during  the  fiscal  year  con- 
sisted in  the  reproduction  of  511,807  Confederate  individual-service 
record  cards  of  the  Civil  War.  This  work  is  being-  prosecuted  as 
rapidly  as  the  current  work  of  the  office  will  permit. 

The  whole  number  of  index-record  cards  prepared  up  to  and  in- 
cluding June  30,  1916,  comprised  51,721,759  mihtary  cards  and 
8,655,868  medical  cards,  a  total  of  60,377,627  cards.  The  foregoing 
figures  do  not  include  the  medical  cards  (approximately  2,312,00^ 
pertaining  to  the  Regular  Anny.  These  cards  are  not  made  in  this 
office,  but  are  received  in  the  Surgeon  General's  office  from  the  field 
and  transmitted  to  this  office  after  they  become  noncurrent. 

The  total  number  of  index-record  cards  prepared  up  to  Jime  30, 
1916,  includes  8,204,360  Confederate  mihtary  cards  and^ 740,781  Con- 
federate medical  cards.  These  cards  were  prepared  in  the  process 
of  compilation,  pursuant  to  law,  of  the  roster  oi  officers  and  enhsted 
men  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  Armies,  and  represent  entries  on 
the  records  and  not  the  number  of  diflferent  individuals. 

OFFICIAL    RECORDS    OF    THE    UNION    AND    CONFEDERATE    ARMIES. 

Eight  sets  of  the  Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate 
Armies,  consisting  of  1,024  books  and  1,424  atlas  plates,  were  dis- 
tributed during  the  fiscal  year  to  Senators,  Representatives,  and  Dele- 
gates of  the  Fifty-seventh  Congress,  and  to  permanent  libraries  and 
educational  institutions  designated  by  those  Senators,  Representa- 
tives, and  Delegates  under  the  provisions  of  the  act  of  Congress 
approved  March  3,  1903.     (32  Stat.  L.,  1145.) 

Thirty-nine  volumes  of  that  publication  were  sold  by  The  Adjutant 
General  s  Office  during  the  fiscal  year,  the  prices  of  the  volumes 
aggregating  $27.10. 

ROSTER   OF   OFFICERS   AND   ENLISTED   MEN   OF  THE   UNION   AND   CON- 
FEDERATE  ARMIES. 

The  compilation  of  the  Confederate  part  of  the  '*  Complete  Roster 
of  Officers  and  Enhsted  Men  of  the  Union  and  Confederate  Armies^** 
authorized  and  required  t^  be  compiled  by  a  provision  contained  m 
the  act  of  ConOTess  approved  February  25,  1903  (32  Stat.  L.,  884), 
was  continued  auring  tne  year  as  rapidly  as  the  condition  of  the  cur- 
rent business  would  permit.  The  le^slation  under  which  the  com- 
pilation is  being  made  does  not  require  or  authorize  the  pubUcatioQ 
of  the  proposed  roster,  but  Congress  no  doubt  intended  that  the 


BEPOBT   OF   THE  ADJUTANT  GENEKAL.  291 

authority  for  its  publication  should  be  given  when  the  work  of  com- 
pilation shall  have  been  completed  or  shall  have  been  sufficiently 
advanced  to  justify  the  beginning  of  the  pubhcation. 

The  compilation  of  the  Union  part  of  the  roster  is  comparatively 
complete,  and,  as  stated  in  previous  annual  reports,  if  the  publication 
is  authorized  by  (Congress,  the  preparation  oi  printer's  copy  for  the 
part  relating  to  Union  volunteer  troops  can  be  begun. 

The  compilation  of  the  (Confederate  part  will  not  be  completed  for 
any  one  State  until  the  carding  of  all  the  Confederate  hospital  records 
shall  have  been  completed. 

COLLECTION   OF   BEVOLUTIONARr   WAR   RECORDS. 

The  provision  of  the  act  of  Congress  approved  March  2,  1913  (37 
Stat.  L.,  723),  which  authorized  and  directed  the  Secretary  of  War 
to  collect  or  copy  and  classify,  with  a  view  to  publication,  the  scat- 
tered military  records  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  has  been  complied 
with  as  far  as  practicable  with  the  money  appropriated  for  that  pur- 

{)ose.     The  entire  smn  of  $25,000  appropriated  by  that  act  for  col- 
ecting  or  copying  the  records  has  been  expended  and  that  part  of 
the  work  was  completely  suspended  early  in  June,  1915. 

The  total  niunber  of  records  copied  is  30,522,  of  which  19,796  are 
from  Massachusetts,  6,122  from  Virginia,  4,073  from  North  Carolina, 
527  from  Connecticut,  2  from  Kentucky,  and  2  from  the  District  of 
Columbia. 

The  collection  of  Revolutionary  War  military  records  in  the  pos- 
session of  the  War  Department,  including  the  records  copied  as  indi- 
cated above,  is  so  far  from  complete  that  it  is  now  impracticable  to 
arrange  them  for  pubhcation. 

MEDALS   OF  HONOR. 

During  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  there  were  9  medals 
of  honor  issued  by  the  War  Department.  All  of  them  were  issued 
to  replace  medals  of  the  old  design.  The  whole  number  of  awards  of 
the  congressional  medal  of  honor  up  to  and  including  June  30,  1916, 
was  2,622,  the  same  number  as  shown  in  the  last  report.  Medals 
of  honor  are  issued  by  the  War  Department  imder  the  provision  of 
the  act  of  Congress  approved  April  23,  1904  (33  Stat.  L.,  274). 

The  act  of  June  3,  1916,  provided  for  the  appointment  of  a  board 
of  five  general  officers  on  the  retired  list  of  the  Army  for  the  purpose 
of  investigating  and  reporting  upon  past  awards  of  the  so-called  con- 
gressionalmedal  of  honor  by  or  through  the  War  Department,  with 
a  view  to  ascertain  what,  if  any,  medals  of  honor  have  been  awarded 
or  issued  for  any  cause  other  than  distinguished  conduct  by  an  officer 
or  enlisted  man  in  action  involving  actual  conffict  with  the  enemy. 
The  act  provides  further  that  in  any  case  in  which  the  board  shall 
find  and  report  that  said  medal  was  issued  for  any  cause  other  than 
distinguished  conduct  by  an  officer  or  enlisted  man  involvinjj  actual 
conffict  with  the  enemy,  the  name  of  the  recipient  of  said  medal  shall 
be  stricken  permanently  from  the  official  medal  of  honor  Ust,  and  it 
shall  be  a  misdemeanor  for  any  person  whose  name  has  been  stricken 
from  said  Ust  to  wear  or  pul)licly  display  said  medal,  and  if  such  per- 


292  BEPORT  OF  THE   ADJUTANT  GENERAL. 

son  is  in  the  Armv,  he  shall  be  required  to  return  the  medal  to  the 
War  Department  for  cancellation.  Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the 
act  cited  Special  Orders,  No.  136,  War  Department,  June  10,  1916, 
was  issued  convening  a  board  of  officers  composed  of  Lieut.  Gen. 
Nelson  A.  Miles.  Lieut.  Gen.  Samuel  B.  M.  Young,  Maj.  Gen.  Joseph 
P.  Sanger,  Brig.  Gen.  Butler  D.  Price,  and  Brig.  Gren.  James  N. 
AUison. 

MEDAL   OF   HONOR    ROLL. 

The  act  of  Congress  approved  April  27,  1916,  established  the  "Army 
and  Navy  medal  of  honor  roll,"  and  provides  for  the  issue  of  suitabfe 
certificates  to  persons  who  have  received  the  medal  for  distinguished 
and  hazardous  deeds  beyond  the  call  of  duty,  performed  in  action, 
and  grants  a  special  pension  of  $10  a  month  for  life  to  all  such  nersons. 
Between  the  date  of  the  passage  of  the  act  and  the  dose  of^the  fis- 
cal year  certificates  had  been  issued  by  the  War  Department  to  121 
former  officers  .ind  enlisted  men  of  the  Army. 

CAMPAIGN,    CERTIFICATE   OF  MERFf,    AND    SERVICE   BADGES. 

A  simimary  of  the  campaigns  for  which  the  issue  of  campaign 
badges  has  been  authorized  is  published  in  General  Orders,  No.  129, 
War  Department,  August  13,  1908.  The  issue  of  those  badges,  which 
are  intended  *Ho  commemorate  services  which  have  been  or  shall 
hereafter  be  rendered  in  campaign,"  was  authorized  by  Genernl  Or- 
ders, No.  4,  War  Department,  January  11,  1905. 

During  the  past  fiscal  year  181  names  were  added  to  the  lists  of 
officers  and  enlisted  men  who  were  found  to  be  entitled  to  campaign 
badges,  making  a  total  of  42,881  badges  issued  to  officers  and  enlisted 
men  found  to  be  entitled  to  those  badges.  Of  these  31,685  were 
Philippine  campaign  badges,  7^259  Spanish  campaign  badges,  1,629 
China  campaign  badges,  1,859  Indian  campaign  badges,  ancr449  CivU 
War  campaign  badges. 

Campaign  badges  are  a  part  of  the  uniform ;  they  are  sold  to  officers 
and  issued  to  enlisted  men  in  service  by  the  Quartermaster  Corps,  on 
data  furnished  by  Tlie  Adjutant  General's  Office. 

It  was  decided  by  the  Secretary  of  War  in  1908  that  campaign 
badges  may  be  issued  to  members  of  the  Organized  Militia  who  are 
entitled  to  wrnr  the  uniform  of  the  Army  and  whose  service  conforms 
to  the  requirements  of  General  Orders,  No.  129,  before  cited.  Since 
the  date  of  that  decision.  May  26,  1908,  data  have  been  furnished  to 
the  Quartermaster  General  of  the  Army  in  the  cases  of  approximately 
2,015  members  of  the  Organized  Militia  who  made  applications  for 
campaiojn  badges. 

In  addition  to  the  campai^i  badges  before  referred  to,  the  issue  of 
a  service  badge  was  autlionzed  for  service  in  the  Army  of  Cuban 
Pacification  by  General  Orders,  No.  96,  War  Department,  May  11, 
1909.  Data  fiavc  been  furnished  to  the  Quartermaster  General  of 
the  Army- in  the  cases  of  6,248  applications  for  those  badges  since 
tlie  date  of  the  order  authorizing  their  issue. 

By  authority  of  the  President,  the  issue  of  an  "Armv  of  Cuban 
Occupation  Badge '^  was  provided  for  in  General  Orders,  No.  40,  War 
Department,  June  28,  1915.    The  badge  is  for  issue  to  officers  and 


REPOBT  OF   THE   ADJITTAKT  GKiiKRAU  29JI 

enlisted  men  who  rendered  service  with  the  Annv  of  Cuban  OiTupatiuu 
between  July  18,  1898,  and  May  20,  1902.  Yhe  onler  CiiuetNrning 
these  badges  was  not  distributea  generally  until  July,  1915,  Patik 
have  been  furnished  to  the  Quartermaster  General  m  the  oast^  of 
3,134  appUcations  for  these  badges  during  this  fiscal  year. 

The  issue  of  a  certificate  of  merit  badge  and  ribbon  an  a  part  of 
the  imiform  to  each  oflScer  and  enhstod  man  in  the  service  having  a 
certificate  of  merit  was  authorized  in  General  Orders,  No.  4,  War 
Department,  January  11,  1915,  as  amended  in  Genertu  Ordow,  No. 
129,  War  Department,  August  13,  1908.  At  the  close  of  this  iiuoal 
year  237  certificates  of  merit  badges  had  been  issued. 

In  order  that  former  officers  and  soldiers  now  in  civil  life  might  be 
able  to  obtain  the  campaign  badges  and  certificate  of  merit  badges  to 
which  they  would  have  been  entitled  if  they  were  still  in  service,  an 
arrangement  was  made  with  the  United  States  Mint  at  Phila(le)|)hiA 
by  wmch  these  badges  would  be  furnished  by  the  mint  at  a  nominal 
cost,  covering  expense  of  manufacture,  upon  receipt  of  certilicate* 
from  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army  in  verification  of  the  <  lainw. 

This  arrangement  was  completed  in  December,  1913.  and  since 
that  date  19,417  appUcations  for  campaign  bailges  ana  the  Army 
of  Cuban  Pacification  badge  have  been  receiveu  in  tliis  oflico.  In 
16,551  of  these  cases  the  service  was  verified  and  certificaten  were 
issued  accordingly,  and  in  2,866  cases  the  appli<tatiorm  were  denied. 
The  campaigns  and  service  for  which  the«e  certificat/i«  W(*rft  issued 
are  as  follows:  Civil  War,  5,498;  Spanisli  War,  4,056;  i'hiUppine 
insurrection,  4,838;  Indian  wars,  778;  diina  cmnpuign,  321;  Army 
of  Cuban  Pacification,  190;  Army  of  Cuban  Occupation,  870,  la 
addition  to  these,  ccrtificaU-s  for  purcha-^e  of  r:«rtificate  of  i/*mt 
badges  were  issued  in  17  cahCM. 


The  "Philippine  hfrvw^.  medsd/*  authorizifd  by  tJie  a/^:t  of  (U/fi'/f^^tm 
approved  June  2^i,  U/f,  ^Zi  Sut,  L,,  62Jy,  ii»  h»ju4  "U;  ea/h  of  Uuj 
sev^al  officerb  niid  *ft  '*i-*j4  u  *^u  ntA  itL".A\\t-^.  of  Mi'  }j  «ui  /.;ay  f^  d-aid^ 
who,  having  roJ'ir.*.*-*f<  'i  st'  '\  *".,  't'\  •.(  d*'r  *h*'  *  >-:i^.  of  t/i<;  iV-^.^i'-ut 
for  the  War  w>h  ^.'^t^u,  >■>  ?   - ',  -r'  y,u'l  »;.*;  U^rtt  «  of  v.,*'.s  *-?.;--!  •  ^nt 

to    help    to    fcUf^rr*-!?*     \uK     V         '>\.   '>:     \ur.  '*rt^AU*>U.     %aA     Vv;iO    1s^'/u<J^ 

?uently  rec<:>v*:';   a.'-   w^'.^a^'/^,  '..a^  ,  iac/*:  fro;',   um  hruri  *A   tii« 
'nited  Stat**,  ^n  v  .o  ',  • -,  •/r,'^/  V/  ^  ^'  u  ',  v  ;.*/;", 

nisbed  by  T:*e     -  ^.\k.*.*  ^>*''>-f.- 

Up  to  aiid  ii*''i  -'  *'Y '" *■'•>  ^ '    - '^    ^  • ' ^ ' *"'  *' '''  ^  *>^  * ''-*'* '-^'f  or  i>X 

service  Up'ilj  ir5:**'i      ,,,*-  <;'>:**»    .--       r*-     v-,..//,    irw   .'  ^'  '     «kc  V/  ^  ^A**/!" 

iz^  the  istfu^  of  v;.«s*  u>  -^ .  «.',  •/«  <-•  i  .-  */ .  V  •>  A  '.^ ,  •  !",♦  0*f' *<-f  J  • 
Office  ifj  7,47^  'a«««  Jy.*  -  y  '-.  **  vw?-  '.>/  .,,  ^  <  *f  ».-  .jcj  e*fc*>-f'j*-"t# 
were  madi^  ii.  Vi   *<--»:>        ^^  '//  «.    >/ >-  '^  t,%$i  «,/ r.*  x.-.,^,'**  f*/r 

PhilippijJ^  b*^    i'>    ,   >','  1     '♦/«        ■'     <:!  '*'<  *    *-  A*'  •       ^r*.'    *A      '**    i^-^-^iri*^ 

tion  uefo«  ^jU,^.     ii  t  ,/^*-  /     .'  >  '  ^^^^     .*  ,>  *  ».'*  r  *-■  *ov' ',  v^  *^ 

IBSUe  of  tij<;  l«».^ 


294  REPORT  OF  THE   ADJUTANT   GENERAL. 

CIVILIAN  EMPLOYEES  OF  THE  ADJUTANT  GENERAL'S  OFFICE. 

The  number  of  employees  authorized  by  law  for  The  Adjutant 
General's  OflBce  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  was  the 
same  as  the  number  authorized  during  the  preceding  year,  although 
after  the  close  of  the  last  fiscal  year  Congress  provided  for  an  increase 
in  the  force  proportionate  to  the  increase  in  the  Regular  Arraj 
for  the  fiscal  year  1917,  authorized  bv  the  act  of  June  3,  1916.  This 
addition  to  the  force  is  required  to  handle  the  large  amount  of  ad- 
ditional work  that  will  fall  upon  this  office  as  the  result  of  the  re- 
organization and  increase  of  the  permanent  military  establishment 
provided  by  the  act  of  June  3,  1916,  and  the  new  duties  devolving 
upon  the  office  as  the  result  of  certain  provisions  of  that  act,  and  was 
not  required  to  meet  the  temporary  increase  in  the  work  caused  by 
the  conditions  along  the  Mexican  border  and  the  induction  of  the 
Organized  Militia  into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  The  officers 
of  Tlie  Adjutant  General's  Department  on  duty  in  the  War  De- 
partment and  the  civilian  employees  of  the  office  would  have  been 
able  to  handle  this  last-mentioned  additional  work  through  an  ex- 
tension of  office  hours,  but  they  could  not  be  expected  to  handle  the 
enoraious  increase  in  the  amount  of  work  occasioned  by  the  increase 
in  the  Regular  Army  and  the  conditions  along  the  Mexican  border. 
Since  last  March  part  of  the  force  has  been  working  beyond  the 
regular  office  hours— often  far  into  the  night — to  the  limit  of  their 
endurance.  It  mattered  not  whether  the  hours  had  been  long  and 
the  work  exacting,  the^^  all — officers,  clerks,  and  messengers — re- 
sponded promptly  and  without  complaint  when  called  upon  to  work 
longer  hours  in  order  to  handle  the  current  work.  I  fully  appreciate 
the  fact  that  it  was  their  unselfish  loj^alty  and  devotion  to  duty 
that  prevented  the  work  of  the  office  from  falUng  hopelessly  in 
arrears,  and  I  desire  to  take  tliis  opportunity  to  extend  my  thanks 
to  each  officer,  clerk,  and  subclerical  employee  for  the  assistance  each 
has  rendered. 

Not  including  1  clerk  who  entered  the  miUtary  service  of  the 
United  States  as  a  captain  of  a  National  Guard  organization,  and  5 
clerks  of  short  service  who  were  transferred  to  other  branches  of  the 
Government  service,  32  vacancies  occiu*red  in  the  clerical  force  of  tliis 
office  during  the  fiscal  year  covered  by  this  report,  20  by  resignation 
and  12  by  oeath.  The  average  age  of  those  who  died  was  a  Utue  over 
70  and  the  average  length  of  their  service  was  over  34  yedrs.  The 
average  length  of  service  of  those  who  resigned  was  a  Uttle  more  than 
8  years.  Classified,  by  salaries,  those  vacancies  were  as  follows:  1  at 
$2,000,  1  at  $1,800,  2  at  $1,600,  2  at  $1,400,  14  at  $1,200,  and  12  at 
$1,000 — an  annual  average  salary  of  $1,206. 

H.  P.  McCain, 
Tlie  Adjutant  General. 

The  Secbetaey  of  War. 


REPORT  OF  THE  INSPECTOR  GENERAL. 


295 


REPORT  OF  THE  INSPECTOR  GENERAL. 


War  Department, 
Office  of  the  Inspector  General, 

Washington^  September  0^,  1916. 

Sir:  The  following  is  a  report  relative  to  the  work  of  the  In- 
spector General's  Department  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30» 
1916. 

personnel  of  the  department. 

The  oflScers  of  the  permanent  corps  remain  as  stated  in  my  last 
annual  report,  namely,  one  brigadier  general  and  one  colonel.  Three 
colonels,  four  lieutenant  colonels,  and  nine  majors  served  as  in- 
sp)ectors  general  during  the  fiscal  year  under  the  act  of  February  2, 
1901;  and  four  acting  inspectors  general,  consisting  of  one  colonel, 
one  lieutenant  colonel,  and  two  majors  were  doing  duty  in  the  de- 
partment under  the  act  of  June  23,  1874. 

Without  exception,  these  officers  performed  their  varied  and 
numerous  duties  in  an  intelligent,  fearless,  and  zealous  manner. 

Under  the  national  defense  act,  approved  June  3,  1916,  the  In- 
spector General's  Department  is  to  consist  of  1  Inspector  General 
with  the  rank  of  brigadier  general,  4  inspectors  general  with  the 
rank  of  colonel,  8  inspectors  general  with  the  rank  of  lieutenant 
colonel,  and  16  inspectors  general  with  the  rank  of  major — an  in- 
crease of  1  colonel,  4  lieutenant  colonels,  and  7  majors.  Under  the 
same  act  this  increase  is  to  be  made  in  five  annual  increments,  and 
the  first  increment,  which  has  now  become  available,  is  to  consist 
of  1  lieutenant  colonel  and  1  major. 

This  increase,  it  is  believed,  will  be  sufficient  for  the  additional 
work  of  inspection  resulting  from  the  increase  of  the  Regular  Army. 
Whether  it  will  suffice  for  the  inspection  of  the  National  Guard,  im- 
posed upon  this  department  by  the  above  act,  can  not  at  this  time  be 
stated. 

In  this  connection,  I  wish  to  point  out  the  importance  of  placing 
all  the  inspections  of  the  Regular  Army,  other  than  those  made  by 
commanding  officers,  including  inspections  of  civil  institutions  of 
learning,  where  officers  of  the  Army  are  detailed  as  military  instruc- 
tors, under  the  control  of  the  Inspector  General's  Department,  and 
providing  a  personnel  sufficient  in  strength  to  perform  these  duties. 

inspections. 

During  the  past  fiscal  year  the  inspection  of  the  Military  Estab- 
lishment, though  not  entirely  completed,  was  approximately^  so.  In 
some  of  the  geographical  departments  the  remaining  inspections  had 

297 


298  EEPOET  OF   THE  INSPECTOB  GENERAL. 

been  arranged  for  and  in  some  cases  were  under  way  when 
emergency  orders  were  received  for  the  immediate  inspection  of  the 
mobilization  camps  of  the  National  Guard,  which  had  been  callcNl 
into  the  service  of  the  United  States.  This  was  the  latter  part  of 
June,  at  the  very  close  of  the  fiscal  year. 

The  prescribed  inspections  embraced  every  phase  of  military  affairs, 
and  included  military  posts,  stations,  and  commands;  camps  of  ma- 
neuver and  instruction;  the  staff  offices  at  department  headquarters; 
the  Military  Academy  and  the  service  schools ;  the  armories,  arsenals, 
general  hospitals,  and  the  depots  of  the  supply  departments;  the 
recruit  depots  and  main  recruiting  stations;  the  Disciplinary  Bar- 
racks and  its  branches;  the  numerous  required  inspections  of  Army 
transports  upon  arrival  at  or  departure  from  ports;  the  cable  boats, 
mine  planters,  and  the  harbor  boats  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps; 
and  the  biennial  inspection  of  such  national  cemeteries  and  ungarri- 
boned  posts  as  became  due  during  the  year.  Also  included  in  the 
work  of  the  fiscal  year  were  the  inspections  of  the  Soldiers'  Home, 
District  of  Columbia,  and  of  the  headquarters  and  10  branches  oi 
the  National  Home  for  Disabled  Volunteer  Soldiers  located  in  va- 
rious parts  of  the  country.  The  usual  inspections  of  the  money 
accountability  of  all  disbursing  officers  of  the  Army  and  the  very 
numerous  inspections  of  unserviceable  property  presented  for 
condemnation,  were  also  made  during  the  year. 

The  irregularities  and  deficiencies  noteci  in  these  inspections  were 
reported  in  due  and  prescribed  form,  and  the  necessary  steps  were 
promptly  taken  to  secure  proper  and  speedy  remedial  action. 

In  addition  to  the  large  number  of  regularly  prescribed  inspections 
enumerated  above,  the  officers  of  the  Inspector  General's  Depart- 
ment made  during  the  year,  under  orders  from  the  War  Department 
or  of  department  commanders,  many  special  investigations,  involving 
much  time  and  labor,  and  they  assisted  in  the  annual  tactical  inspec- 
tions of  troops  devolving  upon  department  and  brigade  commanders 
under  paragraphs  193  and  194,  Army  Regulations. 

NEW   DUTIES  ASSIGNED  TO  THE  DEPARTMENT. 

The  national  defense  act,  approved  Jime  3,  1916,  adds  some  new 
duties  to  be  performed  by  the  Inspector  General's  Department,  to 
wit: 

Sec.  67.  •  •  •  The  governor  of  each  State  and  Territory  and  the  cora- 
mnnding  general  of  the  National  Guard  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  shall 
appoint,  designate,  or  detail,  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War, 
an  officer  of  the  National  Guard  of  the  State,  Territory,  or  District  of  Colum- 
bia who  shall  be  regarded  as  property  and  disbursing  officer  for  the  United 
States.  •  •  •  Provided  further,  That  the  Secretary  of  War  shall  cause  aa 
Insi)ectlon  of  the  accounts  and  records  of  the  property  and  disbursing  officer 
to  l>e  made  by  an  Inspector  general  of  the  Army  at  least  once  each 
year:     •     •     • 

Sec.  93.  The  Secretary  of  War  shall  cause  an  inspection  to  be  made  at  least 
once  each  year  by  inspectors  general,  and  if  necessary  by  other  officers,  of  the 
Regular  Army,  detailed  by  him  for  that  purpose,  to  determine  whether  the 
amount  and  condition  of  the  property  in  the  hands  of  the  National  Guard  la 
satisfactory;  whether  the  National  Guard  is  organized  as  hereinbefore  pre- 
scribed; whether  the  officers  and  enlisted  men  possess  the  physical  and  other 
qualifications  prescribed;  whether  the  organization  and  the  officers  and  en- 
listed  men   thereof  are  sufficiently   armed,   uniformed,   equipped,   and   being 


REPORT  OF   THE  INSPECTOR  GENERAL.  299 

trained  and  instructed  for  active  duty  in  the  field  or  coast  defense,  and  whether 
the  records  are  being  kept  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  this  act. 
The  r^;x>rts  of  such  inspections  shall  serve  as  the  basis  for  deciding  as  to  the 
issue  to  and  retention  by  the  National  Guard  of  the  military  property  provided 
for  by  this  act,  and  for  determining  what  organizations  and  individuals  shall 
be  considered  as  constituting  parts  of  the  National  Guard  within  the  meaning 
of  this  act 

The  act  says  that  these  inspections  of  the  National  Guard  shall  be 
made  by  inspectors  general,  and  if  necessary  by  other  officers,  of  the 
Kegular  Army  detailed  for  that  purpose.  The  presumption  is  that 
the  detail  of  other  officers  will  not  be  necessary  except  when  an  in- 
spector general  is  not  available  to  make  the  inspection. 

When  the  National  Guard  was  called  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States  on  June  18,  1916,  inspections  were  at  once  begun  by  officers  of 
the  Inspector  General's  Department.  These  inspections  had  for  their 
objects  the  following:  The  determining  of  the  suitability  of  the 
camps,  sanitary  condition,  care  of  sick,  water  supply,  drainage,  the 
efficiency  of  service  of  supply;  and  also  inspections  were  made  of 
the  organizations  of  the  National  Guard  on  the  following  points, 
to  wit : 

Law  complied  with  as  to  organization. 
Food  and  preparation  of  same. 

c)  Physical  condition  of  men  and  officers. 

d)  Typhoid  immunization  and  smallpox  vaccination. 
[e)  Equipment:  Organization,  individual,  and  camp. 
(/)  Fitness  and  sufficiency  of  uniform. 


;?! 


[g)  Clothinff  (shoes,  special). 

h)  Wheeled  transportation,  including  ambulances. 

i)  Pack  transportation. 


(j)  Officers'  mounts. 

1% 


)  Field  return  of  command. 

Some  of  these  inspections  were  made  in  the  last  fiscal  year,  but 
most  of  them  were  not  made  until  after  its  close. 

The  considerable  increase  in  the  numerical  strength  of  the  Regular 
Army  provided  for  by  the  national  defense  act  of  June  3,  1916,  does 
not  impose  any  new  duties  upon  the  Inspector  General's  Department, 
but  it  does  add  very  materially  to  the  work  it  has  to  do.  As  shown 
above,  however,  new  duties,  as  well  as  much  additional  work,  are 
added  in  connection  with  the  inspection  of  the  National  Guard  and 
of  the  accoimts,  etc.,  of  the  National  Guard  property  and  disbursing 
officers. 

INSPECTOR  general's  OFFICERS'  RESERVE  CORPS. 

The  War  Department  has  authorized  the  appointment  of  16  majors 
in  the  Inspector  General's  Reserve  Corps,  authorized  by  the  act  of 
June  3,  1916.  All  applicants  for  examination  for  appointment  to 
these  positions  must  have  had  at  least  one  year's  active  service  as  an 
officer  with  some  branch  of  the  Armv,  the  Volunteers,  or  the  Na- 
tional Guard  in  the  service  of  the  United  States.  Applicants  must 
be  under  45  years  of  age,  and  must  show  themselves  qualified  for  the 
position.  Complete  details  as  to  the  examinations  required  are  given 
in  General  Orders,  No.  32,  War  Department,  1916,  which  may  1^  ob- 
tained from  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 


300  REPORT  OF   THE  INSPECTOR  GENERAL. 

CLERKS  FOR  THE  INSPFXTOR  GENERAL's  OFFICE. 

In  order  to  keep  up  with  the  current  work  the  present  force  of 
clerks  in  the  Inspector  General's  Office  has  for  some  time  past  been 
compelled  to  work  overtime  every  day  and  is  still  doing  so.  A  ^reat 
amount  of  additional  work  will  soon  be  imposed  upon  these  clerks 
by  the  new  duties  assi^ed  to  this  department  by  the  national  defense 
act  of  June  t3,  1916;  mdeed,  the  additional  work  has  already  begun 
to  come  in,  and  it  will  continue  to  come  in  in  increasing  volume.  An 
estimate  for  the  minimum  number  of  clerks  that  will  be  required 
to  do  the  work  has  been  submitted,  and  it  is  hoped  that  it  will  receive 
favorable  consideration. 

DISCIPLINE. 

Discipline,  generally,  throughout  the  Army,  so  far  as  reported, 
has  been  good. 

INSTRUCTION. 

The  troops  appear  to  be  generally  well  instructed.  No  serious 
criticisms  have  been  made. 

It  has  been  reported  that  the  work  of  the  mobile  troops  in  field 
training  has  been  satisfactory;  that  the  officers  and  men,  generally, 
in  camps  of  instruction,  were  eager  to  learn. 

In  bayonet  combat  and  fencing  it  was  reported  that  the  mobile 
troops  show  marked  improvement,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that 
the  fencing  outfits  are  still  criticized  as  unsatisfactory.  It  is  stated 
that  many  organizations  have  abandoned  the  outfits  supplied  them 
and  have  improvised  substitutes. 

As  a  general  thing,  earnest  effort  has  been  made  by  troops  to 
acquire  efficiency  in  signaling  with  the  flag  and  general  service  code, 
and  to  attain  the  standard  prescribed  by  paragraph  1562,  Army 
Regulations,  but  it  has  been  reported  that  the  effort  has  not  been 
generally  successfid.  The  success  in  mastering  the  semaphore,  it  is 
stated,  has  been  much  more  encouraging. 

It  appears  that,  as  a  rule,  the  work  of  garrison  schools  for  officers 
at  the  various  posts  has  been  satisfactorv,  but  in  post  schools  for 
enlisted  men,  in  many  instances,  the  results  have  not  been  satisfac- 
tory. 

In  the  Philippine  Department  the  consensus  of  opinion  among 
Infantry  officers  is  that  the  present  allowance  of  ammunition  is  not 
sufficient  to  permit  the  thorough  training  of  companies  in  combat 
practice.  The  opinion  seems  to  be  that  an  increase  of  about  100 
rounds  per  man  in  the  annual  allowance  would  be  of  great  benefit 
in  the  more  thorough  training  of  organizations. 

SERVICE    SCHOOLS. 

Since  the  Spanish- American  War  both  the  development  and  the 
benefit  to  the  Army  of  the  service  schools  have  been  striking.  These 
schools  could,  however,  be  better  coordinated,  and  it  is  believed  in 
such  coordination  is  to  be  found  a  great  possibility  for  the  further 
increase  of  their  usefulness. 


BEPOBT  OF   THE  INSPECTOB  GENERAL.  299 

trained  and  instructed  for  active  duty  in  ttie  field  or  coast  defense,  and  whether 
the  records  are  being  kept  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  this  act. 
The  reports  of  such  inspections  shall  serve  as  the  basis  for  deciding  as  to  the 
issue  to  and  retention  by  the  National  Guard  of  the  military  property  provided 
for  by  this  act,  and  for  determining  what  organizations  and  individuals  shall 
be  considered  as  constituting  parts  of  the  National  Guard  within  the  meaning 
of  this  act 

The  act  says  that  these  inspections  of  the  National  Guard  shall  be 
made  by  inspectors  general,  and  if  necessary  by  other  officers,  of  the 
Regular  Army  detailed  for  that  purpose.  The  presumption  is  that 
the  detail  of  other  officers  will  not  be  necessary  except  when  an  in- 
spector general  is  not  available  to  make  the  inspection. 

When  the  National  Guard  was  called  into  the  service  of  the  United 
States  on  June  18, 1916,  inspections  were  at  once  begun  by  officers  of 
the  Inspector  General's  Department.  These  inspections  had  for  their 
objects  the  following:  The  determining  of  the  suitability  of  the 
camps,  sanitary  condition,  care  of  sick,  water  supply,  drainage,  the 
efficiency  of  service  of  supply;  and  also  inspections  were  made  of 
the  organizations  of  the  National  Guard  on  the  following  points, 
to  wit : 

a)  Law  complied  with  as  to  organization. 

b)  Food  and  preparation  of  same. 

c)  Physical  condition  of  men  and  officers. 

d)  Typhoid  immunization  and  smallpox  vaccination. 
^e)  Equipment:  Organization,  individual,  and  camp. 
7)  Fitness  and  sufficiency  of  uniform. 
[g)  Clothing  (shoes,  special). 
(A)  Wheeled  transportation,  including  ambulances. 
(i)  Pack  transportation. 

l)  Officers'  mounts. 
)  Field  return  of  command. 

iome  of  these  inspections  were  made  in  the  last  fiscal  year,  but 
most  of  them  were  not  made  until  after  its  close. 

The  considerable  increase  in  the  numerical  strength  of  the  Regular 
Army  provided  for  by  the  national  defense  act  of  June  3,  1916,  does 
not  impose  any  new  duties  upon  the  Inspector  General's  Department, 
but  it  does  add  very  materially  to  the  work  it  has  to  do.  As  shown 
above,  however,  neV  duties,  as  well  as  much  additional  work,  are 
added  m  connection  with  the  inspection  of  the  National  Guard  and 
of  the  accounts,  etc.,  of  the  National  Guard  property  and  disbursing 
officers. 

iNSPEcrroR  general's  officers'  reserve  corps. 

The  War  Department  has  authorized  the  appointment  of  16  majors 
in  the  Inspector  General's  Reserve  Corps,  authorized  by  the  net  of 
June  3,  1916.  All  applicants  for  examination  for  appointment  to 
these  positions  must  have  had  at  least  one  year's  active  service  as  an 
officer  with  some  branch  of  the  Army,  the  Volunteers,  or  the  Na- 
tional Guard  in  the  service  of  the  United  States.  Applicants  must 
be  under  45  years  of  age,  and  must  show  themselves  qualified  for  the 
position.  Complete  details  as  to  the  examinations  required  are  given 
m  General  Orders,  No.  32.  War  Department,  1916,  which  may  be  ob- 
tained from  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 


302  BEPORT   OF   THE  INSPECTOR   GENERAL. 

COOPERATION  OF  ARMS  OF  THE  SERVICE. 

The  war  abroad  has  accentuated  the  importance  of  close  coopera- 
tion between  the  different  arms,  especially  between  Infantry  and 
Field  Artillery.  Although  the  necessity  of  officers  familiarizing 
themselves  with  the  duties  of  arms  other  than  their  own  has  been 
realized  in  our  service,  it  is  believed  that  the  steps  thus  far  taken 
have  been  along  theoretical  rather  than  practical  lines. 

It  is  believed  that  at  stations  in  which  organizations  of  two  or 
more  arms  are  serving  officers  should  be  required  to  familiarize  them- 
selves with  the  powers  and  limitations  of  arms  other  than  their  own 
through  actually  accompanying  units  of  such  arms  during  small 
maneuvers,  target  practice,  etc.  Selected  officers  of  Cavalry  and  In- 
fantry should  also  be  detailed  for  a  period  of  a  month  or  six  weeks 
at  the  School  of  Fire  for  Field  Artillery. 

COLONIAL  REGIMENTS. 

The  department  inspector  of  the  Philippine  Department  reports 
that  the  officers  of  that  department  are  about  unanimous  in  the 
belief  that  the  system  of  colonial  regiments  now  in  vo^e  is  not 
desirable,  the  general  opinion  among  them  being  that  it  is  very 
injurious  to  the  discipline,  the  training,  and  the  general  efficiency 
of  organizations  on  foreign  service.  It  is  said  that  this  system  of 
a  constantly  changing  personnel  compels  a  feeling  of  uncertainty 
and  lack  of  settled  policy  that  is  very  narmful  and  is  destructive  of 
organization  esprit. 

RECRUITS. 

No  complaint  has  been  received  of  the  quality  of  the  recruits 
received  during  the  year. 

The  following  extract  from  the  report  of  the  last  annual  inspection 
of  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  relative  to  the  training  of  recruits,  is  in- 
teresting and  instructive : 

Under  a  system  Inaiiiairated  in  this  recclmeut  [Eleventh  Cavalry]  about  two 
years  ago,  aU  the  recruits  for  the  regiment  are  turned  over  to  one  troop  for 
training  before  being  permanently  assigned  to  troops.  The  present  recruit 
troop  is  Tnx)p  H,  under  the  command  of    •     ♦     •,  Eleventh  Cavalry. 

At  the  time  of  my  visit  a  class  of  recruits  had  Just  completed  three  months' 
training  and  was  ready  to  be  turned  over  to  the  other  troops  for  permanent 
assignment.  A  careful  inspection  of  the  work  of  these  recruits,  mounted  and 
dismounteil,  demonstrated  beyond  question  that  this  method  of  training  recruits 
is  the  proper  one.  Their  knowledge  of  the  duties  of  a  soldier  is,  I  believe, 
above  that  of  the  average  enlisted  man  of  a  year's  training  assigned  to  a  troop 
in  the  ordinary  way.  Tlieir  proficiency  In  riding  and  handling  their  arms 
mounted  was  especially  noticeable. 

QUARTERMASTER    CORPS. 

There  have  been  no  complaints  as  to  the  adequacy  of  the  ration 
allowance  and  but  few  as  to  the  quality  of  the  ration  or  other  com- 
missary supplies. 

The  system  of  fuel  supply  has  been  reported  as  cumbersome  and 
as  iuAohing  much  office  work.    Inspection  reports  show  numerous 


REPORT  OF   THE  INSPECTOR  GENERAL.  303 

complaints  of  the  inadequacy  of  the  fuel  allowances  properly  to  heat 
public  buildings.  This  is  especially  the  case  on  the  western  coast, 
and  it  has  been  urged  that  fuel  allowances  for  the  Western  Depart- 
ment be  further  considered  with  a  view  to  its  special  needs,  since 
climatic  conditions  there  differ  so  radically  from  other  sections  of 
the  country  in  the  same  latitude. 

UNIFORMS. 

While  changes  in  imiform  are,  in  general,  imdesirable,  and  are 
so  regarded  in  the  service,  it  is  believed  that  certain  changes  in  the 
service  coat  are  both  desirable  and  necessary. 

The  service  uniform  should  be  designed  for  service  in  the  field 
rather  than  in  garrison.  The  discontinuance  of  the  sweater  makes 
it  necessary  to  take  the  service  coat  into  the  field.  For  service 
in  the  field  a  coat  must  be  loose  at  the  neck  and  in  general  must  be 
so  cut,  including  a  slit  in  the  back  of  the  skirt,  as  to  permit  freedom 
and  ease  of  movement.  That  the  present  service  coat,  with  its  close- 
fitting  collar  and  rigid  cut,  is  unsuitable  for  hard  work  or  even 
moderate  exercise  must  be  admitted. 

From  an  examination  of  the  present  field  uniform  of  other  coun- 
tries it  is  apparent  that  a  suitable  coat  for  field  work  can  be  given  a 
military  appearance  quite  as  formal  and  as  pleasing  as  that  of  our 
present  service  coat. 

It  is  recommended  that  a  suitable  service  coat  be  designed  and 
adopted. 

The  opinion  throughout  the  line  of  the  Army  seems  to  be  in  favor 
of  a  shirt  that  opens  all  the  way  down  the  front.  It  is  believed  that 
this  change  in  the  shirt  will  add  to  the  comfort  of  the  men,  in  warm 
weather  especially. 

ORDNANCE  DEPARTMENT. 

The  war  abroad  has  developed  or  emphasized  the  importance  of 
new  articles  of  arms  and  equipments,  besides  improvements  in  the 
old.  The  larger  types  of  field  guns  and  howitzers ;  trench  mortars  of 
the  larger  types,  as  artillery,  and  of  the  smaller  types,  as  infantry 
weapons;  new  types  and  methods  of  employment  oi  machine  guns, 
hand  grenades,  steel  caps,  etc.,  and  the  use  of  and  protection  against 
gas,  are  all  matters  which  claim  our  serious  attention.  The  develop- 
ment and  manufacture  of  new  materiel  of  these  kinds  which  are  being 
undertaken  by  the  Ordnance  Department  should  be  accompanied  by 
practical  tests  and  instruction,  which  can  only  be  obtained  by  putting 
the  new  materiel  in  service  as  rapidly  as  it  can  be  developed  ana 
supplied. 

REPAIR   SHOPS — QUARTERMASTER   AND   ORDNANCE. 

Large  quantities  of  quartermaster  and  ordnance  property  are  un- 
doubtedly lost  to  the  Government  through  the  lack  of  proper  and 
timely  repairs.  This  loss  is  due,  it  is  believed,  to  a  variety  of  such 
causes  as  lack  of  facilities  in  organizations  for  making  proper  re- 

1)airs;  lack  of  skill  by  organization  mechanics;  and,  to  some  extent  at 
east,  lack  of  care  and  attention  on  the  part  of  organization  com- 


304  REPORT   OF   THE  INSPECTOR   GENERAL. 

manders.  Losses  due  to  lack  of  proper  and  timely  repairs  are  espe- 
cially apparent  in  all  articles  of  canvas,  webbing,  and  leather.  In 
addition,  in  the  Field  Artillery  the  lack  of  timely  repairs,  made  by 
expert  mechanics,  to  the  materiel  results  in  greatly  increased  ultimate 
expenditures. 

If  suitable  quartermaster  and  ordnance  repair  shops  were  estab- 
lished at  all  points  at  which  a  regiment  or  more  is  stationed  it  is 
believed  that  a  substantial  saving  could  be  effected.  Such  shops 
should  be  equipped  with  all  necessary  machinery  and  should  be  pro- 
vided with  expert  mechanics  as  foremen,  the  greater  part  of  the  actual 
labor  of  repair  being  done  by  the  organization  mechanics. 

TRANSPORTATION  FOR  SANITARY  TROOPS. 

There  is,  no  doubt,  a  universal  recognition  in  the  Army  of  the  ad- 
visability, if  not  the  absolute  necessity,  of  providing  motor  transpor- 
tation for  sanitary  troops.  Probably  the  necessities  attendant  upon 
the  present  mobilization  of  a  large  number  of  troops  upon  the  Mexi- 
can border  will  result  in  causing  motor  transportation  for  the  sanitary 
troops  to  be  supplied. 

FIELD  TRAINS. 

It  is  believed  that  the  field  trains  have  been  too  greatly  reduced. 
In  fixing  the  allowances  of  wagons,  etc.,  for  field  trains  the  primary 
object  is,  of  course,  mobility,  but  it  is  to  be  remembered  that  mobility 
may  be  as  readily  reduced  by  too  great  a  reduction  in  the  number  of 
wagons  allowed  as  by  too  great  an  increase  in  field  trains.  An  unwar- 
ranted reduction  in  wagons  tends  to  overloading  in  spite  of  honest 
efforts  to  enforce  the  regulations. 

When  our  Army  is  compared  to  those  of  other  nations  the  paucity 
of  trained  soldiers  affords  a  striking  illustration  of  the  necessity  or 
preserving  the  health  and,  in  so  far  as  possible,  the  comfort  of  our 
men  when  in  the  field.  To  this  end  it  is  believed  that  the  surplus 
kits  should  be  carried  in  the  field  trains,  as  was  formerly  the  regu- 
lation. In  so  far  as  concerns  the  Infantry,  it  is  essential  that  at  least 
a  st)are  pair  of  shces  be  carried  in  the  field  trains. 

On  account  of  the  general  lack  of  ability  in  cooking  among  our 
prople,  it  is  particularly  necessary  to  avoid  individual  cooking  in  our 
service.  It  is  believed  that  in  the  early  stages  of  the  present  war  in 
Europe,  rolling  kitchens  were  frequently  kept  with  their  organiza- 
tions until  the  arrival  of  the  units  upon  the  actual  battlefield. 

It  is  understood  that  several  types  of  rolling  kitchens  are  now 
under  test  in  the  Southern  Department,  and  that  the  issue  of  kitchens 
to  all  organizations  of  the  mobile  forces  only  awaits  the  determma- 
tion  of  the  most  suitable  type.  It  is  recommended  that  this  be 
expedited  and  that  coincident  with  the  supply  of  the  kitchens,  regu- 
lations be  issued  providing  that  such  kitchens  shall  habitually  ac- 
company their  units  on  the  march. 

PUBLIC  ANIMALS. 

The  requirements  of  active  service  on  the  border  have  resulted  in 
having  quite  a  number  of  public  animals  inspected  and  condemned* 


BEPOBT  OF   THE  INSPEGTOB  GENEBAL.  305 

The  data  called  for  on  descriptive  cards  of  public  animals  are 
said  often  to  be  incomplete,  owing  largely  to  lailure  on  the  part 
of  purchasing  officers  to  cause  proper  entries  to  be  made  on  the 
cards. 

REMOUNTS. 

The  following  extract  from  the  report  of  the  last  annual  inspection 
of  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  relates  to  the  training  of  remounts,  and 
is  reproduced  as  being,  as  is  believed,  worthy  oi  consideration : 

All  remounts  for  the  regiment  [Eleventh  Cavalry]  are  now  turned  over  to 
one  troop  (Troop  O)  to  be  trained  for  six  months  before  being  assigned  to 
troops.  The  remounts  now  at  the  post  have  been  under  training  for  three 
months.  The  remounts,  with  one  or  two  exceptions,  appear  to  be  of  a  good 
type.  They  are  somewhat  light  in  weight,  but  this  defect  may  disappear 
after  a  year's  training. 

The  system  of  turning  the  remounts  over  to  one  troop  for  training  is,  I 
believe,  the  proper  one  to  secure  the  l>est  results. 

First  Lieut  ^  *  *,  Eleventh  Cavalry,  is  at  present  In  conunand  of  the 
remount  troop  and  is  accomplishing  excellent  work.  His  own  opinion  of  these 
remounts  is  as  follows: 

"The  horses  are  very  quiet  and  gentle;  they  show  a  very  good  degree  of 
suppleness  and  activity,  and  they  jump,  freely  and  willingly,  small  hurdles 
and  ditches  of  any  character.  I  believe  that  by  the  end  of  another  three 
months,  when  they  are  turned  in  to  the  other  troops,  they  will  be  as  weU 
trained  as  is  necessary  for  troop  horses,  and  very  much  better  than  the 
average  troop  mount." 

After  witnessing  the  work  of  these  remounts,  I  confirm  the  above  estimate. 

FARRIERS^  AND  HORSESHOERs'  SCHOOL. 

The  following  extract  relative  to  the  establishment  of  a  post 
farriers'  and  horseshoers'  school,  which  it  is  reported  has  been  of 
great  value,  is  also  from  the  report  of  inspection  of  Fort  Oglethorpe, 
Ga.,  viz: 

Without  interfering  with  the  other  instruction  of  the  regiment  [Eleventh 
Cavalry]  a  farriers'  and  horseshoers'  school  has  been  established  under  the 
direction  of  ♦  ♦  ♦,  Eleventh  Cavalry,  assisted  by  the  two  veterinarians  of 
the  r^ment  The  class  consists  of  24  farriers  and  24  horseshoers,  the  regu- 
lar horseshoer  and  farrier  from  each  troop,  with  an  apprentice  from  each 

troop. 

After  a  thorough  investigation  of  this  class,  including  the  Inspection  of  the 
work  and  examination  of  the  men  as  to  their  theoretical  and  practical  knowl- 
edge, I  am  of  the  opinion  that  this  school  is  of  great  value  to  the  regiment 
It  systematizes  horseshoeing  and  treatment  of  diseases,  and  stimulates  the 
interest  of  officers  and  men  in  these  two  important  subjects. 

PUBLIC   FUNDS. 

As  a  general  rule  the  inspections  of  the  accounts  of  disbursing 
officers  of  the  Army  have  shown  that  the  public  funds  have  been 
honestly  and  efficiently  administered. 

POST  EXCHANGES. 

It  has  been  reported  that  frequent  irregularities  of  a  more  or  less 
serious  nature  have  been  discovered  in  the  inspection  of  post  ex- 
changes, and  these  were  almost  in  every  instance  made  possible  by 
failure  on  the  part  of  exchange  officers,  auditors,  and  exchange  coun- 

69176**— WAR  1916— VOL  1 20 


306  KEPOBT  OF   THE  INSPECTOB  GENERAL. 

cils  to  properly  perform  their  duties.  The  financial  losseG,  in  every 
case  where  they  could  be  definitely  determined,  were  recommended  to 
be  charged  against  the  officers  whose  negligence  was  proven ;  in  other 
cases  wnere  negligence  was  found  it  was  recommended  that  it  be 
noted  on  the  efficiency  records  of  the  delinquent  officers. 

PAPER  WORK. 

Generally  speaking,  business  is  so  conducted  as  to  reduce  paper 
work  to  a  minimum  and  simplify  administration  so  far  as  is  pr^- 
ticable  under  the  Government  system  of  transacting  business.  Not- 
withstanding this  fact,  paper  work  in  the  Army  still  appears  to  be 
excessive,  as  always  heretofore. 

PRISONERS. 

The  system  of  parole  of  general  prisoners  and  of  probation  of 
garrison  prisoners  appears  to  have  been  generally  carried  out,  and 
apparently  with  good  results. 

ARMY  TRANSPORTS. 

Reports  show  that  the  trans-Pacific  transport  service  has  been  effi- 
cientlv  conducted;  no  complaints  of  any  consequence  have  been  re- 
ceived relative  to  any  of  the  departments  of  this  service,  but  on  the 
contrary  commanding  officers  of  troops  have  generally  commended 
the  efficiency  and  courtesy  of  the  ships  officers,  the  cleanliness  of  the 
ships,  and  the  excellence  of  the  accommodations  and  food.  The 
life-saving  apparatus  is  reported  as  ample  and  of  the  latest  pattern. 

DISCIPLINARY  BARRACKS. 

At  the  inspections  of  the  Disciplinary  Barracks  and  its  branches 
the  disciplinary  companies  were  found  to  be  well  instructed  and  well 
trained,  and  affairs  were  in  excellent  condition. 

RECRUIT  DEPOTS. 

At  the  various  recruit  depots  it  was  found  that  the  instruction  of 
recruits  was  carried  out  in  conformity  with  War  Department  regula- 
tions prescribed  therefor,  and  the  results  obtained  were  good.    The 
depots  appeared  to  be  carefully  and  efficiently  administered. 
Very  respectfully, 

E.  A.  Garlington, 
Inspector  GeneraL 
The  Secretary  op  War. 


REPORT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 


807 


REPORT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 


September  14,  1916. 

Sm:  I  submit  the  following  report  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General's 
Department  for  the  year  enmng  Jxme  30,  1916. 

REORGANIZATION  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL'S  DEPARTMENT. 

The  recently  enacted  national  defense  act  (sec.  8)  reorganized  the 
department  by  adding  thereto  2  judge  advocates  with  the  rank  of 
colonel,  4  judge  advocates  with  tne  rank  of  lieutenant  colonel,  and 
13  judge  aavocates  with  the  rank  of  major,  these  increases  to  be  made 
in  five  annual  increments,  as  nearly  as  practicable  one-fifth  of  the 
total  increase  in  each  graae  to  be  added  each  year.  The  vacancies 
created  or  caused  by  the  act  distribute  themselves  under  this  rule 
as  follows: 


Original  yacanctos: 

Colonels 

LIeat€oant  oolonals. 
Mi^Ofs. 


Appointmeot  of  mi^on  to  fin  Increments. 


1916 


1 
3 


1917 


1 
1 

a 


1918 


1919 


1 
1 
2 


1920 


1 
8 


The  additional  lieutenant  colonelcy  corresponding  to  this  year's 
increment  was  filled  by  the  promotion  of  Maj.  Walter  A.  Bethel, 
the  senior  officer  of  his  grade.  The  four  vacancies  in  the  grade  of 
major  corresponding  to  this  year's  increment  have  not  yet  been  filled. 

Additions  to  the  clerical  force  of  the  Judge  Advocate  GeneraVs 
Office  of  one  clerk  class  3,  and  two  clerks  class  1,  with  an  additional 
messenger,  are  authorized  by  the  act  of  September  9,  1916. 

REVISED   ARTICLES   OF  WAR. 

A  project  of  revision  of  the  Articles  of  War  which  has  been  pending 
before  tne  War  Department  since  December  of  1903,  and  before  Con- 
gress since  April  of  1912,  was,  with  amendments  of  the  original  proj- 
ect, enacted  mto  law  as  a  rider  to  the  Army  appropriation  act  for 
the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1917,  approved  Aiigust  29,  1916. 

The  first  project  of  the  revision  of  the  Articles  of  War  was  prepared 
during  the  uitter  half  of  the  calendar  year  of  1903.  This  project  was 
subnutted  to  department  commanders  and  to  a  large  number  of 
specially  selected  officers  for  criticism  and  was  exhaustively  consid- 
ered by  a  board  of  officers  convened  by  the  then  commandant  of  the 

309 


310  EEPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 

Army  Service  Schools,  Maj.  Gen.  J.  Franklin  Bell,  but  was  not  trans- 
mitted to  the  Congress  hj  the  War  Department.  It  was  not  until 
April,  1912,  that  the  revision,  perfected  in  the  light  of  the  criticism 
it  had  received,  was  submittea  by  the  then  Secretary  of  War,  Mr. 
Stimson,  to  Congress  as  a  basis  of  remedial  legislation  very  much 
needed.  The  revision  was  introduced  in  the  House  on  April  22,  1912, 
by  the  chairman  of  the  House  Military  Committee,  and  in  the  oenate 
on  April  25  by  the  chairman  of  the  Senate  Mihtary  Committee,  and 
was  by  both  Houses  of  ConCTess  referred  to  their  respective  Conmiit- 
tees  on  Mihtary  Aflfairs.  Hearings  were  conducted  by  the  House 
Mihtary  Committee  covering  the  period  from  May  14  to  May  27, 1912, 
but  that  committee,  though  receiving  the  revision  favorably  and 
su^esting  a  few  amendments  therein  of  a  nature  to  improve  the 
revision,  did  not  report  the  revision  as  a  whole.  The  Senate  com- 
mittee reported  out  9  articles  of  the  revision  relating  to  the  composi- 
tion, constitution,  and  jurisdiction  of  courts-martial,  and  these  articles 
were  enacted  as  a  part  of  the  Army  appropriation  act  approved 
March  2j  1913. 

The  Sixtj-third  Congress  convened  on  April  7,  1913.  The  revision 
of  the  Articles  of  War,  carrying  the  amendments  su^ested  during 
the  House  Military  Committee's  nearings  and  certain  otners  suggested 
by  further  study  was  introduced  by  the  chairman  of  the  Senate  Mih- 
tary Committee  on  April  15,  1913,  and  referred  to  the  Committee  on 
Mihtary  Affairs.  Hearings  were  subsequently  held  by  a  subcommit- 
tee of  the  Senate  Mihtary  Committee,  whicn  reported  the  revision 
back  to  the  full  committee  during  the  second  session  of  the  Sixty- 
third  Congress,  which  reported  the  revision  to  the  Senate  on  Febru- 
ary 6,  1914,  with  certam  amendments.  The  revision  passed  the 
Senate  with  further  amendments  on  February  9,  1914,  and  upon 
reaching  the  House  was  referred  to  the  Committee  on  Mihtary 
Affairs,  which  took  no  action.  On  February  22,  1915,  the  Senate 
Military  Committee  included  the  revision  in  the  tnen  pending  Army 
appropriation  bill,  and  as  a  part  of  that  bill  the  revision  again  passed 
the  Senate  February  23, 1915^  and  went  to  conference.  The  conferees, 
after  reporting  back  to  their  respective  houses  two  disagreements 
respecting  the  revision,  finally  rejected  it  and  the  bill  passed  without 
this  particular  rider. 

Shortly  after  the  convening  of  the  Sixty-fourth  Congress,  first  ses- 
sion, the  revision  was  again  introduced  in  the  Senate  January  6, 
1916,  and  hearings  were  conducted  before  a  subcommittee  of  the 
Senate  Military  Committee.  On  February  9,  1916,  the  revision,  with 
amendments,  was  favorably  reported  by  the  full  committee  to  the 
Senate,  and  on  March  9,  1916,  the  revision  was  again  passed  by  the 
Senate.  On  reaching  the  House  it  went  to  the  House  Military  Com- 
mittee March  11,  1916,  but  it  was  not  until  June  29,  1916,  that  a 
subcommittee  of  the  House  convened  to  consider  the  revision.  It 
does  not  appear  that  the  subcommittee  made  any  report  iipon  the 
revision.  Meantime  the  Senate  Committee  on  Mihtary  Affairs,  in 
reporting  to  the  Senate  the  Army  appropriation  bill  on  July  3,  1916, 
includecT  the  Articles  of  War  m  tne  form  they  had  passed  the 
Senate  on  March  9,  and  with  the  articles  included,  the  appropriation 
bill  was  passed  on  July  25.  The  House  disagreed  to  the  Senate 
amendments  and  the  bin  went  to  conference.  On  August  7  the  con- 
ference report,  embodying  the  Articles  of  War  amended  so  as  to 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL.        311 

exempt  retired  officers  and  soldiers  from  amenability  thereto,  and  in 
certam  other  regards,  was  accepted  by  both  Houses,  and  the  bill 
went  to  the  President  for  his  approval.  On  August  18  the  President 
vetoed  the  bill,  basing  his  objections  thereto  on  the  amendment 
introduced  by  the  conferees  respecting  retired  officers.  The  appro- 
priation bill  was  inmnediatelv  remtroduced  in  the  House  without  the 
Articles  of  War,  and  in  that  form  was  passed  by  the  House  on  August 
22.  Upon  reaching  the  Senate  MiUtary  Committee  that  committee 
restored  the  Articles  of  War,  with  the  changes  necessary  to  meet  the 
objections  of  the  President  and  with  certain  other  minor  amend- 
ments, and  in  this  form  the  bill  was  passed 'by  the  Senate.  In  the 
House  a  motion  to  concur  in  all  the  Senate  amendments  prevailed. 
The  bill  was  approved  by  the  President  August  29,  1916. 

With  the  exception  of  articles  4,  13,  14,  15,  29,  47,  49,  and  92, 
which  take  effect  immediately,  the  revision  will  go  into  effect  on 
March  1, 1917.  Meantime  the  Manual  for  Courts  Martial  will  have  to 
be  revised  and  circulated  throughout  the  Army.  It  is  proposed  to 
enter  upon  this  work  at  once,  and  an  attempt  will  be  made  to  have 
the  revised  manual  distributed  throughout  tne  Armv  by  February  1, 
1917,  in  order  that  there  may  be  a  month  available  for  its  study 
before  the  new  code,  as  a  code,  takes  effect. 

GENERAL  REVISION  OF  THE  MILITART  LAWS. 

A  much  larger  task  than  the  revision  of  the  Articles  of  War  is  the 
revision  and  codification  of  all  our  military  laws  which  this  office  has 
been  directed  to  prepare  in  pursuance  oi  authority  granted  in  the 
Anny  appropriation  act  approved  August  29,  1916.  In  1911  this 
office  suDmitted  a  report  to  the  Secretary  of  War  recommending  that 
such  a  general  revision  be  attempted,  the  revision  to  conform  in  scope 
and  character  to  the  revision  and  codification  of  the  laws  of  tne 
United  States  of  a  permanent  and  general  nature  directed  by  the  act 
of  March  3,  1901.  Mihtary  legislation  since  1878,  enacted  mainly  in 
the  form  of  riders  to  appropriation  acts,  is  piecemeal  legislation. 
Related  legislation  is  widely  separated  and  there  is  real  difficulty 
within  the  military  estabUshment  in  ascertaining  the  condition  of  the 
statute  law  on  any  subject.  Experiencing  the  same  difficulty  in 
drafting  the  large  amount  of  legislation  enacted  this  year,  the  mili- 
tary committees  readily  accepted  the  suggestion  for  a  comprehensive 
revision  and  codification  and  have  provided  an  initial  appropriation 
of  $5,000  for  paying  the  expense  of  clerical  hire,  printing,  and  other 
expenses  incioent  to  the  making  of  the  revision.  The  work  has  been 
already  entered  upon  and  substantial  progress  has  been  made  with 
the  chapter  relatmg  to  organization  of  the  Regular  Army.     The 

Sroblem  in  that  chapter  is  to  restate  the  provisions  of  the  new 
rational  Defense  Act  of  June  3,  1916,  on  tne  subject  of  Regular 
Army  organization,  incorporating  the  unrepealed  provisions  of  prior 
law  and  particularly  of  the  act  of  February  2,  1901,  and  to  make  of 
it  a  consistent  whole.  It  is  hoped  to  have  this  much  of  the  revision 
ready  to  submit  with  the  preliminary  report  of  progress  which  must 
be  rendered  to  Congress  on  the  first  day  of  the  ensuing  session  of 
that  bodv.  It  is  confidently  expected  that  the  general  revision  will 
be  completed  well  within  the  two-year  period  allowed  by  law.  The 
scope  and  character  of  the  revision  authorized  by  Congress  will  per- 


312        EBPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 

mit  of  the  omission  of  redundant  and  obsolete  matter,  the  making  of 
such  alterations  as  are  necessary  to  reconcile  contradictions^  supply 
the  omissions,  and  amend  the  imperfections  of  the  original  text;  and 
permits  also  the  embodiment  in  the  revision  of  changes  in  the  sub- 
stance of  existing  law.  It  is  hoped  to  take  advantage  of  this  authority 
to  rewrite  the  statutes  in  the  light  of  the  administrative  and  judicial 
construction  they  have  received,  in  the  expectation  that  we  may 
thereby  reduce  the  number  of  references  to  the  War  Department 
and  to  this  office  for  legal  construction. 

OTHER  REVISION   WORK. 

The  revision  of  the  book  on  Military  Reservations,  etc.,  Title, 
Jurisdiction,  etc.,  has  been  completed  and  the  book  published  and 
distributed  to  tiie  Army.  The  revision  of  Federal  Aid  in  Domestic 
Disturbances  was  interrupted  by  the  relief  of  lieut.E.V.  Cutrer  from 
duty  as  instructor  in  law  at  West  Point  and  his  assignment  to  station 
in  the  Philippines,  thus  postponing  indefinitely  tne  completion  of 
this  work.  On  accoimt  of  the  large  increase  in  the  volume  of  work 
of  this  office,  the  revision  of  Winthrop's  Military  Law  and  Precedents 
has  been  suspended  for  many  montns,  but  with  the  increased  per- 
sonnel authorized  bv  the  national  defense  act  it  is  hoped  thk  work 
may  be  resumed  ana  completed  at  an  early  date. 

During  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30,  1916,  this  office  has  contin- 
ued the  preparation  of  the  monthly  bulletin  giving  a  digest  of  the 
opinions  of  this  office,  decisions  of  the  Comptroller  of  the  Treasury 
and  of  the  State  and  Federd  courts,  as  weU  as  of  the  opinions  of  tlie 
Attorney  General  on  questions  relating  to  the  military  service. 

TRIALS   IN   CIVIL  COURTS. 

During  the  year  a  number  of  important  insular  cases,  involving 
considerable  laoor,  were  prepared  and  presented  by  this  office  in  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  and  in  the  Court  of  Appeals  for 
the  First  Circuit,  to  which  circuit  the  district  of  Porto  Rico  oelongs. 
In  addition,  this  office  has  represented  the  interests  of  the  depart- 
ment in  various  Federal  courts  and  in  several  State  courts  in  a  num- 
ber of  habeas  corpus  and  injunction  proceedings  arising  out  of  the 
call  of  the  Organized  Militia  and  National  Guard  into  the  military 
service  of  the  United  States,  and  involving  novel,  difficult,  andim- 

E>rtant  questions  growing  out  of  the  reorganization  of  the  National 
uard  prescribed  by  the  national  defense  act. 

TRIALS  BY  GENERAL  COURTS-MARTIAL. 

There  were  4,743  trials  by  general  courts-martial  during  the  year 
1916,  of  which  trials  337  resiuted  in  acauittal,  as  against  5,339  for 
1915  and  4,572  for  1914,  showing  a  reauction  of  11.1  per  cent  as 
against  1915  and  an  increase  of  3.6  per  cent  over  1914. 

DELAY  IK   GENERAL  COURT-MARTIAL  TRIALS. 

While  the  judge  advocates  at  the  department  headquarters  have 
continued  their  efforts  to  reduce  the  delay  between  the  arrest  of  the 
soldier  \mder  charges  and  the  final  action  Dy  Uie  reviewing  authority 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENEBAL. 


813 


in  bis  case,  the  UBsettled  conditions  affecting  the  Army,  requiring  a 
lai^  portion  of  the  troops  to  be  stationed  on  the  Mexican  border, 
away  from  their  permanent  stations,  have  caused  the  average  number 
of  days  of  delay  lor  the  year  1916  to  increase  to  36,  as  compared  to  33 
in  1915  and  34  in  1914.  There  has  been  a  notable  decrease  in  the 
delay  this  year  of  12  days  at  West  Point,  while  in  the  Eastern, 
Central,  and  Philippine  Departments  the  average  number  of  days 
remained  the  same  as  last  year.  The  average  delay  in  the  Western 
Department  was  increased  by  6  days,  in  the  Southern  Department 
by  3  days,  and  in  the  Hawaiian  Department  by  4  days  over  last  year. 
TTiese  delays  have  been  caused  principally  by  the  difficulty  in  secur- 
ing witnesses  and  depositions  from  great  distances,  due  to  the  fre- 
quent chan^  of  stationed  troops  during  the  year — sometimes  per- 
sons belonging  to  oi^anizations  in  the  field  in  Mexico — and  other 
causes  which  active  duty  in  the  field  has  served  to  counteract  the 
efforts  to  reduce  the  average  number  of  days;  also,  another  primary 
counteracting  cause  to  expeditious  trials  of  cases  has  been  the  break- 
ing up  of  courts  by  sending  oflScers  and  organizations  to  the  Southern 
Department,  thereby  increasing  the  penod  during  1916  over  that 
for  the  two  preceding  years. 

The  following  taUe  shows  the  average  delays  in  the  several  de- 
partments for  flie  past  five  years: 


Eastern  Department  1 .. . 

Central  Department  1 

Western  Department  i. . . 
Boathem  Department . . . 
Hawaiian  Department. . . 
Philippine  Department^. 
Canal  zone 


West  Point 

China  expedition . 


1912 


Dairt. 
48 
48 
44 


25 


Average. 


41 


1913 


Day 9. 
47 
48 
40 
44 
36 
38 


40 


1914 


Daf9. 
42 
45 
41 
89 
32 
30 


26 


34 


1915 


Daft. 
37 
40 
40 
80 
22 
37 


38 


33 


1910 


Dvft. 
37 
40 
40 
43 
20 
37 
32 
20 


30 


^  These  were  "Divisions"  in  1912,  and  the  figures  given  under  that  year  so  relate  to  them. 

From  July  1,  1915,  to  June  30,  1916,  this  oflice  received,  recorded, 
and  filed  5,017  general  courts-martial  records;  prepared  1,749 
clemency  reports,  255  reports  on  restoration  to  duty,  130  on  citizen- 
ship, 128  on  parole,  and  4  on  reenUstment,  making  a  total  of  7,283 
cases  handled.  During  this  period  the  oflBce  loaned  451  general 
courts-martial  records  to  the  united  States  Disciplinary  Barracks  at 
Fort  Leavenworth,  Kans.,  455  to  the  Pacific  Branch,  IJnited  States 
Disciplinary  Barracks^  Alcatraz,  Cal.,  and  105  to  the  Atlantic  Branch, 
Fort  Jay,  In.  Y.,  making  a  total  of  1,001. 


TRIALS   BY   SPECIAL   OOUBTS-MAETIAL. 

During  the  year  there  were  2,163  trials  by  special  courts-martial. 
of  which  trials  159  resulted  in  acquittal,  as  against  2,533  in  1915  and 
1,953  in  1914,  showing  a  reduction  of  15  per  cent  as  against  1915  and 
an  increase  of  9.2  per  cent  over  1914.  There  were  also  88  general 
prisoners  tried  by  special  courts  during  the  year,  of  which  3  were 
acquitted. 


314 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENEBAL. 


TRIALS   BY   SUlOfARY   OOURTS-MABTIAL. 

The  total  number  of  trials  of  enlisted  men  by  summary  courts- 
martial  during  the  year  1916  was  37,877,  of  which  trials  965  resulted 
in  acquittals,  as  compared  to  40,905  in  1915  and  36,856  in  1914,  show- 
ing a  decrease  of  0.074  per  cent  as  against  1915,  and  a  decrease  of  0  026 
per  cent  as  against  1914. 

DESEBTnON. 

The  statistics  show  that  there  were  1,950  enlisted  men  tried  by 
general  courts-martial  for  desertion  in  1916,  as  against  2,535  in  1915 
and  2,097  in  1914,  showing  a  decrease  of  23  per  cent  as  against  1915 
and  7  per  cent  as  against  1914.  There  were  also  432  enlisted  men 
tried  bjr  special  comets-martial  in  1916,  as  compared  to  201  in  1915, 
indicatmg  an  increase  of  114  per  cent. 

The  desertions  reported  durmg  the  fiscal  year  1916  amount  to  2,382, 
or  2.40  per  cent  of  the  whole  number  of  enlistment  contracts  in  force 
during  the  year,  as  compared  to  4,435  reported  desertions  and  a  i>er- 
centage  of  3.23  per  cent  for  last  vear. 

It  snould  be  noted  that  these  tigures  include  the  cases  in  which  the 
charge  of  desertion  was  removed  as  having  been  erroneously  made, 
in  which  the  accused  was  acquitted,  in  whicn  he  was  convicted  of  the 
lesser  included  offense  of  absence  without  leave  and  retained  or  dis- 
honorably discharged  from  the  service. 

The  reports  of  the  judge  advocates  show  that  during  this  year  there 
were  5  acquittals,  105  cases  in  which  charges  were  removed  as 
having  been  erroneously  made,  364  cases  in  which  the  soldier  was  con- 
victedof  the  lesser  included  offense  of  absence  without  leave  and  re- 
tained in  the  service,  and  114  cases  in  which  the  soldier  was  convicted 
of  the  lesser  includea  offense  of  absence  without  leave  and  dishonora- 
bly discharged,  making  a  total  of  588  cases,  which,  subtracted  from  the 
nimiber  of  desertions  reported,  leaves  1,794,  or  1.81  per  cent,  of  the 
total  number  of  enlistment  contracts  in  force  during  the  year. 

The  following  table  exhibits  the  true  as  compared  with  the  reported 
percentages  for  the  past  eight  years. 


Year. 


1900. 

mo. 

1911. 
1913. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 
1910. 


T)iKmi  tlmn 

Charges 

True  nam- 

Reported 

reported. 

onsiis* 
Uined. 

ber  of  de- 
sertions. 

percent- 
ages. 

4.07 

4,993 

311 

4,682 

3,464 

696 

2,768 

8.66 

2,504 

380 

2,124 

2.28 

3,411 

660 

2,851 

8.00 

4,451 

871 

3,580 

4.15 

3,882 

810 

3,072 

8.10 

4,435 

795 

3,640 

8.23 

2,3^ 

688 

1,794 

2L40 

True  per- 


4.66 
192 
LOS 
2LS0 
8.84 
145 
16S 
LSI 


REVISED    PUNISHMENT   ORDER. 


The  executive  order  published  in  War  Department  General  Orders' 
No.  70,  September  23,  1914,  making  important  chafes  in  the  regu- 
lations governing  punishment  to  m  imposed  by  miUtary  tribunab 
has  been  in  operation  now  about  22  months,  and  the  reports  received 
indicate  that  the  failures  to  comply  with  its  requirements  have  been 
decreasing  until  now  they  are  quite  unusual. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENEBAL.  315 

As  to  the  figures  which  follow  it  may  be  said  that  in  all  but  a  small 
percentage  of  the  cases  in  which  detention  of  pay  alone,  forfeiture 
alone,  or  hard  labor  without  confinement  was  imposed,  or  sentence 
of  confinement  was  suspended,  the  soldier  imder  former  conditions 
would  have  been  awarded  a  sentence  including  confinement. 

Sentence  of  confinement  imposed  in  cases  not  involving  dishonorable  dis- 
chaige 3, 143 

Sentences  of  confinement  suspended 79 

Sentences  of  detention  of  pay  alone 1, 416 

Sentences  of  forfeiture  alone 14, 437 

Sentences  of  hard  labor  without  confinement 674 

Sentences  of  hard  labor  and  forfeiture  without  c<Hifinement 846 

Total  without  confinement 17»  452 

CrVIL  WORK   OF  THE   OFFICE. 

The  civil  work  of  the  office  is  indicated  by  the  following  summary 
classes  of  opinions  and  reports  rendered  and  legal  instrmnents 
prepared. 

Questions  involving  appropriations 51 

Examination  of  bonds 559 

To  secure  issues  of  Government  property  to  rifle  clubs  under  the  act  of 

April  27,  1914 352 

To  secure  issues  of  Government  property  to  schools  under  the  act  of 

April  27,  1914 66 

To  secure  issues  of  Crovemment  property  to  universities  and  colleges 

having  courses  in  military  training 34 

Of  ofiicers  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps 63 

Of  Quartermaster  agents 7 

Of  oisbursing  officers  of  the  militia 28 

To  secure  the  performance  of  contracts 3 

Indemnity  bonds 5 

Of  treasurer  of  Soldiers'  Home 1 

Claims  against  the  Crovemment 50 

Contracts 74 

Clemency  to  general  prisoners 1, 749 

Detached  service 21 

Discharge 51 

Eieht-hour  law 64 

Enlistment 16 

Gratuities  to  disabled  or  deceased  officers  and  soldiers 39 

Instruments  relating  to  Government  property 118 

Leases 49 

Revocable  licenses 69 

Proposed  legislation 92 

Loans  and  mles  of  Government  property 46 

The  militia 54 

Navigable  waters 54 

Parole  of  general  prisoners , 128 

Pajr  and  allowances 72 

Pnvate  debts  of  persons  in  the  military  service 29 

Permits  for  work  in  navi^ble  waters 337 

For  wharves  and  similar  structures,  dredging,  etc.,  under  authority 

of  section  10  of  the  act  of  March  3,  1899 116 

For  bridges  across  waterways  the  navigable  portions  of  which  He 

wholl  V  within  a  single  State,  under  authority  of  section  9  of  said  act .      170 
For  bridges  across  navigable  waters  of  the  United  States,  under  the 

general  bridge  act  of  March  23,  1906,  and  special  acts 30 

Notices  to  alter  bridges  which  have  become  unreasonable  obstruc- 
tions to  navigation,  under  authority  of  section  18  of  the  act  of 
March  3,  1899 U 


316  REPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  QENEBAL. 

Permits  for  work  in  navi^ble  waters — Continued. 

For  deposits  of  material  in  navigable  waters,  under  authority  of  sec- 
tion 13  of  the  act  of  March  3, 1899 3 

For  structures  in  navigable  waters  of  Porto  Rico,  imder  authority  of 

the  act  of  June  11, 1906 7 

Government  reservations 186 

Beenlistment  of  discharged  general  prisoners 4 

Restoration  of  general  prisoners 256 

Retirement 31 

Questions  concerning  taxation 11 

Volunteers 3 

Transportation 47 

Restoration  of  citizenship 130 

Transfer  of  general  prisoners 139 

Miscellaneous  opinions  and  reports  (estimated) 1, 100 

Total  of  opinions,  reports,  and  instruments 6, 056 

Total,  6,056,  compared  with  4,211  for  last  year,  which  shows  an 
increase  in  volume  of  work  of  43.81  per  cent. 

The  following  tables,  marked  '  *  Appendix  A,"  show  detailed  statis- 
tics as  to  the  number  of  trials  by  general  and  specieJ  courts-martial, 
and  the  classification  of  offenses  tried  by  all  courts-martial,  as  well 
as  the  trials  by  summary  courts. 

There  is  also  submitted  herewith,  marked  "Appendix  B,"  a  sum- 
marization of  reports  of  judge  advocates  on  duty  at  department  head- 
quarters and  other  generd  court-martial  jurisdictions  during  the 
year,  in  order  that  the  remarks  and  recommendations  of  each  officer 
may  be  scrutinized  by  the  others  and  by  the  service  generidly,  with 
a  view  to  eliciting  broader  criticism  as  to  the  betterments  of  the 
legal  work  of  the  Army. 

E.  H.  Crowdeb, 
Jvdge  Advocate  OenerdL 

The  Segbstabt  op  Wab. 


APPENDIXES. 


APPENDIX  A. 

Number  of  trials  by  general  court-martUd. 

CkymmifiGioned  officers 31 

OonvictionB 24 

GonvictiQna  disapproved 

Acquittals  approved 4 

Acquittals  disapproved 8 

Awaiting  action  by  the  War  Department  (June  30, 1916) 

Cadets,  convictions  approved 2 

Enlisted  men 4,660 

Convictions  approved 4, 262 

Convictions  di^pproved 81 

Acquittals  approved 206 

Acquittals  disapproved 26 

Proceedings  declared  inoperative 

Desertion  proceedings  declared  void 5 

Plea  in  bar  sustained 2 

Members  of  China  expedition  (report  does  not  show  action  of  reviewing 

authority) 88 

General  prisoners 50 

Convictions  approved 45 

Acquittals  approved 2 

Convictions  disapproved 2 

Trials  null  and  void 1 

Total 4,743 

The  statistics  as  to  trials  by  general  court-martial  in  recent  years  are  as  follows: 


1909 

1910 

i9il 

i912 

1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

CoinTn*s!«*An«!>d  offl'W'^trfft'l 

43 

10 

2 

80 

7 

4 

2 

5,127 

45 

6.98 

42 
6 
5 

"3,*766' 
48 

5 

29 
6 

10 

6 

4,345 

53 

5.2 

33 

8 

7 

2 

5,121 

48 

&8 

32 

8 

1 

1 

4,466 

71 

4.7 

35 

7 
3 

31 

Commissioiied  oflQcers  dismissed 

Cadets  tried 

3 
2 

Cadet?  dismissed .......r.rwTr 

KnHsted  men  tried ...,.-» t 

5,449 
56 

7.4 

5,235 
66 

4.3 

4,660 
50 

Qeneral  Drisoners  tried 

Percentage  of  trials  of  enlisted  men  to 
average  enlisted  strength  of  the 
Army 

4.7 

Additional  general  court-martial  statistics. 


Charges  received  reoonmiending  trial  bv  general  court-martial 

Cases  referred  fortrialby  eeneral  court-martial 

Cases  returned  for  trial  by  inferior  court-martial 

Charges  upon  which  no  trial  was  ordered 

Defective  charges  requiring  amendment  before  reference 

Cases  in  which  prooeedinss  were  returned  for  revision 

Enlisted  men  dishonorably  discharged  as  result  of  trial 

Where  dishonorable  discharge  resulted  only  from  5  previous  convictions. 


1913 


5,546 
5,193 

215 

138 
2,117 

397 
2,653 

412 


1914 


1915 


5,199 

6,191 

4,595 

5,468 

460 

493 

116 

232 

^»SS 

2,436 

207 

422 

2,732 

3,241 

299 

368 

1916 


6,037 
4,619 

217 

103 
1,733 

348 
2,906 

438 


317 


318 


REPORT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 


Additional  general  court-martial  statistics — Continued. 


Total  trials  by  general  court-martial 

Convictions  approved 

Trials  of  enlisted  men  by  special  coorts-mar- 
tlal 

Acquitted 

Trial  of  enlisted  men  by  summary  court- 
martial 

Acquitted 


1910 


5,206 
4,820 

346 
96 

42,275 
1,216 


1911 


3,851 
206 


33,062 


1912 


4,435 
4,063 

249 
52 

37,805 
1,036 


1913 


5,209 
4,831 

884 
54 

39,795 
1,023 


1914 


4,572 
4,292 

1,953 
175 

30,856 
1,102 


1915 


5,339 
4,992 

2,523 
202 

40,905 
1,166 


1016 


4,748 
4,321 

2,158 
158 

37,877 
966 


During  the  year  88  general  prisoners  were  tried  by  special  court-martial,  of  which  3 
were  acquitted,  and  52  by  summary  court-martial,  7  or  which  were  acquitted. 


DESERTION. 


statistics  for  desertion  for  the  &ye  fiscal  years  preceding  June  30, 1916,  are  set  forth 
below: 


Tried  for  desertion  by  general  court-martial 

Convicted  of  de8ertion.and  dishonorably  discharged . . . 

Convicted  of  desertion  and  not  dishonorably  discharged . 

Convicted  of  absence  without  leave  only  and  dishonor- 
ably dlsdiareed 

Convicted  of  absence  without  leave  only  and  not  dis- 
honorably discharged 

Tried  for  desertion  by  speclal.oourt 

Tried  for  desertion  by  special  court  and  convicted  of 
absence  without  leave  only 


1911 


1,347 

932 

14 

101 

283 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1,577 

944 

98 

117 

414 


1,896 

1,107 

163 

169 

457 


2,097 

1,280 

149 

158 

492 


1915 


2,635 

1,637 

120 

161 

531 
201 

11 


1916 


1,950 

1,358 

64 

147 


4sa 

229 


The  above  table  does  not  specifically  set  out  the  number  tried  for  desertion  and 
acquitted,  and  it  does  not  include  cases  of  desertion  where  action  other  than  trial  by 
court-martial  has  been  taken. 

General  Orders,  No.  77,  War  Department,  June  10,  1911,  announced  the  policy  of 
the  War  Department  as  to  the  proper  punishment  for  the  offense  of  desertion  in  the 
cases  of  inexperienced  soldiers  who  desert  in  the  earlier  periods  of  their  enlistment 
contracts,  and  as  well  for  the  surrendered  deserter.*  Disciplinary  punishment  by 
confinement  and  forieiture  was  therein  suggested  as  an  appropriate  punishment  for 
such  of  these  men  as  show  a  disposition  to  atone  for  their  oQenses,  and  the  cooperation 
of  reviewing  authorities  was  invited  in  carrying  out  the  new  policy. 

The  order  was  issued  near  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  1911,  and  so  does  not  materially 
a£Fect  the  statistics  of  that  ^ear.  The  execution  which  the  order  has  received  is  very 
clearly  revealed  by  comparing  the  number  of  soldiers  convicted  of  desertion  who  were 
retained  in  the  service  for  the  two  years  preceding  the  issue  of  the  order  with  the  num- 
ber so  retained  during  the  three  years  following  the  order.  For  the  former  years  (1910 
and  1911)  these  numbers  were  38  and  14.  respectively,  the  corresponding  percentages 
to  the  total  number  of  soldiers  tried  and  convicted  of  desertion  being  3  per  cent  and 
2  per  cent.  For  the  latter  years  (1912, 1913, 1914,  and  1915)  the  number  of  convicted 
deserters  retained  in  the  service  rose  to  98, 163, 149,  and  310,  respectively,  the  corre- 
sponding percentages  being  10,  13,  11,  and  18.  While  the  percentage  increase  of  men 
saved  to  the  colors  through  the  operation  of  this  order  has  been  most  marked,  the 
numbers  actually  restored  continue  small  in  comparison  with  the  total  number  con- 
victed of  this  o£fense  and  dishonorably  discharged.  ' 


BBPOBT  OF  THE  JTTDGE  ADVOCATE  QEKEBAIj. 


319 


CUusification  of  offenses  tried  by  all  eourts-martidl. 


Article 
or  War. 


Description  of  offense. 


8    Making  fialse  return. 

Offenses  relating  to  pablic  property: 

16  Wasting  ammunition. 

17  Selling  horse  or  arms. 
1 7  Selling  accouterments  or  clothing  ^ 
17  Losing  or  spoiling  horse  or  arms  through  neglect 
17          Losing  or  spoilmg  aoooutermmts  or  clothing 

through  neglect 

62  Abusing  public  animals. 

62  Destroying  publ  ic  property. 

62  Pawning  and  disposing  of  clothing. 

62  Attempting  to  sell  clotning 

62  Losing  arms,  accouterments,  stores  or  other  prop- 
erty  

62  Disposing  of  equipment. 

62  Disposing  of  other  public  property 

62  Other  offenses  relating  to  public  property  tmder 
sixty-second  article  of  war 

60  Purchasing  Government  property 

Offenses  against  constituted  autnority: 

20  Disrespect  to  oommanding  officer 

21  Offering  violence  to  superior  officer 

21  Disobeying  superior  officer 

23  Mutiny 

23  Failure  to  endeavor  to  suppress  mutiny 

24  Disobeying  nancommissumed  officer  while  quel- 

ling n'ay,  etc 

62  Disobedience  of  standing  orders  or  regulations 

62  Disobedience  of  or  failure  to  obey  commissioned 
officer 

62  Disobedience  of  or  failure  to  obey  noncommis- 
sioned officer 

62  Dlsobed  ience  of  or  failure  to  obey  sentinel 

61  Impugning  professionaleonduct  of  superior  officer. 

62  Disrespect  or  Insulting  language  or  insubordi- 

nate conduct  or  threats  toward  or  striking  or 
assaulting  a  commissicmed  officer 

62  Disrespect  or  threats  or  insulting  language  or  in- 
subordinate conduct  toward  or  assaults  upon  a 
noncommissioned  officer 

62  Disrespect  or  insulting  language  or  insubordinate 
conduct  or  threats  toward  or  assaults  upon  a 
sentfaiel 

62  Resisting  arrest  by  military  authorities 

62  Breach  of  arrest 

62  Breaking  quarantine  or  restrictions  or  parole 

62  Escape  or  conspiring  to  escape  from  confinement 
or  sentinel 

62  Other  offenses  against  those  in  authority 

Offenses  against  subordinates:  Abuse  by  officer  or 
noncommissioned  officer  of  auth(H-ity  over  subor- 

dtoates 

Conduct  unbecoming  an  officer  and  a  gentleman: 

61  Financial  Irregularities 

61  Other  irregularilies 

61  Violation  of  pledge 

62  Fraudulent  enlistment 

62    Carrying  concealed  weapons 

Offenses  by  guards: 

39  Leaving  post 

30  Sleeping  on  post 

40  Quittiiu;  guard 

62  Senti^^allowing  prisoner  to  escape 

62    Sentinel  permitthig  prisoner  to  obtain  intoxicating 

liqucM' 

62    Sentinel  sitting  down  on  post 

62'  Other  offenses  committed  by  sentinels  or  others  on 

guard  in  connection  with  such  duty 

Offenses  of  violence: 

62  Fighting 

62  Threats  to  kill  or  injure 

62  Assault  with  dangerous  or  deadly  weapon 

62  Assault  with  hitent  to  do  bodily  harm 

62  Assault  with  Intent  to  kill 

62  Assault  with  Intent  to  commit  robbery 

62  Assault,  or  assault  and  battery,  nnd  other  offenses 
of  violence  not  against  one  In  authority  nor 
otherwise  classified  under  this  subhead 

08  Manslaughter 


Number  of  ooovictJona. 


OtHowB. 


Enlisted 
men. 


6 

6 

183 

90 

464 

270 

62 

47 

6 

188 
5 
0 

213 


60 

14 

141 

1 

1 

3 
3,730 

840 

2,852 
151 


273 
2,510 


174 

100 

1,610 

25 

150 
326 


18 


411 
41 

74 
117 
194 

51 

21 

140 

057 

17 
51 
43 
301 
38 
1 


410 

7 


Oaieral 
prisoners. 


Militia. 


5 

8 


4 

6 


1 
34 


8 
7 
6 


a 
s 

1 

*i 


2 

2 


7 

a 


3 
8 


320 


REPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  QEmSBAL. 


ClassificoHon  of  offenses  tried  by  all  oenirto-mortiol— Continued. 


Article 
oCWar. 


Description  of  offense. 


60 
80 
60 
60 
60 

60 
62 
62 


62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 

62 


81 
82 
83 
47 
62 

62 
86 
62 
81 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 

62 

62 
84 
62 
62 
62 
62 
62 


88 
62 


Oflteises  involving  personal  dishonesty: 

Embesslement  or  misappropriation 

Forgery 

Larceny 

Making  or  pr«8enting  false  claims 

Wrongful  acquirement  or  disposition  of  Govern- 
ment property 

Any  other  violation  of  the  sixtieth  article  of  war . 

Failure  to  pay  debts 

Failure  to  return  borrowed  property 

Selling,  pawning,  or  otherwise  diq>08ing  of  bor- 
rowed property 

Perjury  or  sabomation  of  perjmy 

Falsifying  aooounts 

Forgery  and  utterinc  forged  papers 

Fraudulent  flnancJaitransactions 

Larcmy 

Embezdement 

Robbery 

Having  possession  of  stolen  property 


Burglarv.. 
emptinf 


Attempting  burglary 

Obtaining  money  or  other  property  under  Itlse 

pretenses 

Other  offenses  under  the  sixty-eeoond  article  of 

war  involving  persooaldishonesty  of  the  offender. 
Unauthorfied  absences: 

Lving  out  of  quarters 

Absence  without  leave 

FaUure  to  attend  drill,  roll  call,  etc 
Desertion 


Absence  without  leave  from  duty 

lUtary 


Offenses  closely  connected  with  military  duty: 

Losing  or  abandoning  eouipment 

Hiring  men  to  perform  duty 

Quitting  ranks  on  march 

Advisinc  another  to  desert 

Careless  handling  or  discharge  of  firearms 

False  official  statement  or  report 

Impersonating  superior  officer  or  sentinel 

Conspiring  to  desert 

Refusing  to  submit  to  surgical  operation  or  medi- 
cal treatment 

Refusing  to  submit  to  medical  treatment  for 
syphilis 

Malmgering 

More  than  I  mile  from  camp  without  pass 

Sleeping  while  on  duty 

Failure  to  perform  company  punishment 

Failure  to  report  for  prophylactic  treatment 

Failure  to  salute 


Other  neglects  of  duty  not  classified  under  this 
lead 


subh< 


62 

62 
62 


62 
62 
62 
62 
62 


62 
66 


Offtaises  connected  with  intoxicating  liquor: 

Drunkenness  on  duty 

Drunkenness  at  post  or  in  quarters 

Drunkenness  ana  disorderly  cooduot  at  poet  (or 
in  quarters) 

Drunkenness  and  disorderly  conduct,  causing 
oflteider's  arrest  and  conviction  by  oItII  author- 
ities  


Having  possession  of  or  selUng  or  buying  faitoxi- 
catingUquor 


Introducing  liquor  into  camp,  quarters,  etc 

Other  offenses  connected  with  intoncating  liquor  and 

not  otherwise  classified  under  this  subhead 

Offenses  against  decency: 

Committing  a  nuisance 

Indecent  exposure  of  person 


Sodomv  ana  other  unnatural  practices. 
Assault  with  intent  to  commit  rape. . .. 


Other  similar  offenses 

Conduct  (not  involvjug  drunkenness^  causing  ar- 
rest and  conviction  by  civil  authorities 

Loaning  monev  at  usurious  rates  of  interest 

Use  or  possMsion  of  narcotics 

Oflteses  against  private  property 

Offenses  against  private  property 


Number  of  convlciiona. 


Officers. 


1 
6 


2 
4 


28 


Enlisted 
men. 


22 

5 

191 

4 

68 

8 

348 

29 

39 
7 

12 

99 

33 

629 

28 

24 

2 

23 

2 

41 

816 

9 

14,841 

6,117 

1,593 

1,244 

8 

6 

8 

2 

821 

886 

15 

2 

67 

4 

43 

1 

68 

6 

1.094 

10 

1,609 

1,624 
8,424 

1,728 


811 

347 

876 

1,787 

346 

19 

62 

4 

46 

76 
7 

34 
1 

18 


Oenenl 
prlsonera. 


3 


MOltift. 


8 

19 
8 


3 
1 


1 


REPORT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 


321 


Clasnfication  of  offenses  tried  by  aU  oenirto-mortJd^-Oontinued. 


Articto 
of  War. 


62 
63 

62 
63 
63 
62 
62 
63 

63 
63 
63 
62 
63 
63 
63 
63 


Description  of  offense. 


Offenses  to  the  disgrace  of  the  uniform  and  service 

Profane  or  provoking  or  threatening  or  indecent  lan- 
gnage  or  creating  a  disturbance  in  quarters 

Qambling  in  post  or  quarters 

Attenipts  to  commit  suicide 

Disorderly  conduct  and  neglects  not  classified 

Dirty  arms,  accouterments,  or  clothing 

Visiting  neighboring  towns  without  pass 

Wearing  improper  uniform  or  civiliah  dothing  with- 
out authority 

Fraudulent  use  of  class  A  card 

Having  contraband  in  guardhouse 

Missing  or  sailing  on  transport  without  authority 

Prisoner  refusing  or  failing  to  work 

Resisting  arrest  by  or  interfering  with  civil  authorities. 

Trespass  and  loitering  around  private  quarters 

Offenses  agataist  civilmns 

Offenses  not  otherwise  classified 


Number  of  coovictions. 


OfBoers. 


Enlisted 
men. 


63 

170 

29 

1 

238 
53 
34 

51 
7 
12 
12 
21 
3 

30 

15 

1,023 


General 
prisoners. 


Militia. 


TridU  by  summary  courts. 


Posts. 


each  month,  during  year. 


Alcatraz  Island,  Cal 

Apache,  Fort.  Arix 

Armstrong.  Fort,  Hawaii 

Army  ana  Navy  General  Hospital,  Arkansas 

Baker,  Fort,  Cd 

Balboa,  Canal  Zone 

Baltimore,  Md..  coast  defenses  of 

Barry,  Fort,  Cal 

Bayanl,  Fort,N.  Mex 

Benicia  Arsenal,  Cal 

Benj.  Harrison,  Fort,Ind 

Bliss,  Fort,  Tex 

Boston,  Mass.,  coast  defenses  of 

Brady,  Fort,  Mich 

Cape  Fear,  N.  C,  coast  defen'^es  of 

Casey,  Fort,  Wash 

Charleston,  8.  C,  coast  defenses  of 

Chei<t^>eake  Bay,  coast  defenses  of 

Clark,  Fort,  Tex.^ 

Columbia,Fort,  Wash 

Columbus  Barracks,  Ohio 

COTOzal,  Canal  Zone 

Cristobal,  Canal  Zone 

Crook,  Fort,  Nebr 

D.  A.  Russell,  Tort,  Wyo 

Davis,  Fort,  Alaska 

Delaware,  coast  defenses  of 

Department  Headquarters,  Hawaiian  Department, 

Department  Hospital,  Hawaiian  Department 

DeRussv,  Fort,  Hawaii 

DesMomes,  Fort,  Iowa 

Douglas,  Fort,  Utah 

Eastern  N.Y..  coast  defenses  of 

Empire,  Canal  Zone 

E.  8.  Otis,  Camp,  Canal  Zone 

Ethan  Allen,  Fort.Vt 

Filler,  Fort,  Wash 

Gaulard,  Camp,  Canal  Zone 

Galveston,  Tex. ,  coast  defenses  of 

Gatun,  Canal  Zone 

George  Wright,  Fort,  Wash 

Gibbon,  Fort,  Alaska 

Grant,  Fort,  Canal  Zone 

Harrison,  Fort.  Mont 

Henry  I5arracks,  P.  B 


Average  of 
enlisted 
strength 

K resent  on 
kst  day  of 


Total 

number  of 

trials  by 

summary 

courts 


339 


238 
231 


18 


1,351 

8 

226 

3.18 

367 

1,063 


1.118 

461 

19 

13 

385 

99 

238 

21 

86 


17 

24 

668 

1,760 

1,675 

1.097 

325 

990 

660 

254 

256 

316 

671 


157 


345 
"63 


118 


119 
83 


8 
14 


718 


82 

36 

133 

276 


251 

294 

30 

2 

208 

49 

114 

2 

56 

121 

3 


212 
833 
592 
436 

47 
262 
245 

99 
169 

73 
490 


35 


Peroentaga 
oftrlaUby 
summary 

Courts 
during  year. 


34.8 


50 
35.6 


.77 


58 


36 
10.6 
36 
26 


.23 
63 
1.80 
.15 
.54 
49.5 
47 
9.9 
65.3 


.17 


31 

47 

35 

40 

14.5 

36 

44 

38 

66 

S4.0 

73 


16 


69176'— WAB  19ie--voL  1 21 


I  i 


■ 


I 


I     II 


\i\  !; 


'  I 


n. 


1 

J___ 


322 


BEPORT  OF  THE   JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL, 
Trials  by  summary  cowrts — Continued. 


Posts. 


Huachuca,  Fort,  Arls.i 

Jay,  Fort,  N.Y 

Jefferson  Barracks,  Mo 

Kamehameha.  Fort,  Hawaii 

Keogh,  Fort,  Mont 

Key  west  Barracks,  Fla 

Lawton,  Fort,  Wash 

Leavenworth,  Fort,  Kans 

Letterman  General  Hospital,  California 

Llscum,  Fort,  Alaska 

Logan,  Fort,  Colo 

L^an  H.  Roots,  Fort,  Ark 

Long  Island  Sound,  coast  defenses  of 

McDowell,  Fort,  Cal 

Mcintosh,  Fort,  Tex.> 

McPherson,  Fort,  Oa 

Mackenzie.  Fort,  Wyo 

Madison  Efarracks,  New  York 

Mason,  Fort,  Cal 

Meade,  Fort,  8.  Dak 

Miley,  Fort,  Cal 

Missoula.  Fort,  Mont 

Mobile,  Ala.,  coast  defenses  of 

Myer,  Fort,  Va 

Narrf«ansett  Bay,  coast  defenses  of 

New  Bedford,  Mass.,  coast  defenses  of 

New  Orleans,  La.,  coast  defenses  of 1 

Niagara,  Fort,  N.  Y 

Oahu.  Hawaii,  coast  defenses  of. 

Oglethorpe,  Fort,  Ga 

Omaha,  Fort,  Nebr..'. 

Ontario,  Fort,  N.  Y 

Panama,  coast  defenses  of 

Pensacola,  Fla. ,  coast  defenses  of 

Plattsburg  Barracks,  N.Y 

Porter,  Fort,  N.Y 

Portland,  Me^  coast  defenses  of 

Portsmouth,  N.  H.,  coast  defenses  of 

Potomac,  coast  defenses  of 

Presidio  of  Monterey,  Cal 

Quarry  Heights,  Canal  Zone  • 

Randolph,  Fort,  Canal  Zone 

Rilev,  Fort.  Kans 

Robbison,  Fort,  Nebr 

Rock  Island  Arsenal,  111 

Rosecrans,  Fort,  Cal 

Ruger,  Fort,  Hawaii 

St.  Michael,  Fort,  Alaska 

Sam  Houston,  Fort,  Tex.» 

Sandy  Hook,  rf .  J.,  coast  defenses  of 

San  Juan,  P.  R 

Savannah.  Ga.,  coast  defenses  of 

Schofield  Barracks,  Hawaii 

Shaf ter,  Fort,  Hawaii 

Sheridan,  Fort,  111 

Sherman,  Fort,  Canal  Zone 

Signal  Corps  A\iation  Corps 

SiJl,  Fort,  Okla.i 

Slocum,  Fort,  N.  Y 

Snellhig,  Fori,  Minn 

Southern  New  York,  coast  defenses  of 

Stevens,  Fort,  Oreg 

Tampa,  Fla.,  coast  defenses  of 

Thomas,  Fort,  Ky 

United  States  DisdpUnary  Barracks,  Fort  Leavenworth,  Kans. 

Valdez,  Alaska 

Vancouver  Barracks.  Wash 

Walter  Reed  General  Hospital,  District  of  Columbia 

Ward,  Fort,  Wash 

Washington  Barracks,  District  of  Columbia 

Wayne,  Fort.  Mich 

West  Point,  N.  Y 

WiUiam  H.  Seward,  Fort,  Alaska 

WinfleM  Scott,  Fort,  Cal 

Wood,  Fort, N.Y 

Worden,  Fort,  Washlngtoo 

Yellowstooe,  Fort,  Wyo 


Average  of 
enlisted 
strength 

{>resent  on 
ast  day  of 
each  month 


284 

1,306 


143 

353 

274 

169 

76 

391 

17 

1,446 


39 

13 
560 

42 
214 
226 

14 
182 
801 
887 
140 
168 

17 
945 
871 

11 
268 


520 
869 
37 
1,318 
143 
189 
333 
174 
135 
118 
172 
136 
398 


67 


672 
524 
376 
5,443 
1,908 
261 
345 


24 
929 
274 
160 

29 
225 
124 
915 


133 
730 
13 
707 
225 
1,180 
126 
636 


Total 

number  of 

trials  by 

summary 

courts 
during  year. 


106 
404 
121 


30 

220 

206 

64 

24 

49 

4 

547 

303 


6 

2 

346 

2 

110 

54 

7 

79 

262 

413 

70 

46 

5 

433 

523 


89 


225 

222 

6 

449 

78 
130 
119 
707 

14 
127 
101 

17 
163 

25 

28 


207 

99 

127 

2,115 

766 

163 

200 

15 


304 

2 

479 

62 

77 

8 

121 

3 

248 

128 

38 

110 

3 

205 

80 

355 

30 

127 

79 


Peroeatag» 
of  trials  b  J 
gnmmary 

courts 
during  year. 


37 


.30 


21 
62.3 

.75 
37.9 
3L6 

.12 
23 
38 


15 
15 
62 
4.8 

.51 
23.9 

.50 
43 
33 
46 
50 
27 
29 

45.8 
60 


33 


43 
25 
16 
34 
54 
68 
35.7 

4.04 
10 

L07 
.58 
.12 

4a9 

'4L8* 


31 

19 

34 

38.8 

4ai 

.62 
57 


.08 
51 

22.6 
48 
28 

.53 
2.4 
27.1 

'28.6' 
15 

.23 
2&9 
3&2 

sai 

34 

ao 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 


323 


TriaU  bff  nanmajy  eourU — Continued. 


Posts. 


Av«rm{!«of 

prventon 
wstday  of 


Tout 

numborof 

triatoby 

tommary 

coorts 


Mch  mooUL  durtnc  FMT. 


Camps  of  instruction , 

Camp  at  San  Diefo,CaI , 

Camp  at  Calexfco,  CaJ , 

Miscellaiieous: 

Augusta,  Frank/ord,  WatwtOArn,  and  Watervliet  Arsenals  and 
Springfiald  Armorr 

TransMrts 

R«cnuting  and  signal  stations  in  the  field,  and  miscellaneous. . . 

Twenty-seventh  In'antrv  » 

Ordnance  Depot,  Hawaii 


946 
236 


PHILIPPINE  1SLAin>9L* 


A  Qgnr  Barracks 

Camp  Eldridfe 

CampGreo^. 

Camp  JiAin  Hay 

CampKeithiy 

CampMcCkath 

CampNidiols 

Camp  Overton 

Camp  Stotsenburg 

Fortimis 

Fort  San  Pedro 

Fort  WUUam  McKlnley 

Ludlow  Barracks 

Manila: 

Cuartel  de  Espana,  Department  Hoq>ital,  and  Ordnance  Depot . . 

Pettit  Barracks 

Regan  Barracks 

Warwick  Barracks 

Miscellaneous  camps,  stations,  etc 

Transports 


890 
13 


864 
333 

223 
483 

719 

563 
96 

418 
1,628 
4,396 

329 
2,348 

851 

855 


573 
434 


451 
93 
67 


68 

79 

325 

47 


143 

304 
33 
63 
70 

471 
17 
44 

688 

1,110 

54 

1,574 

69 

441 
44 

331 
56 
37 
63 


Perc«ntac» 
of  trials  by 
summary 

courts 
durtnc  yMT. 


37.4 


6.00 


16w6S 
61.36 

0.91 
13.04 

0.73 
83.66 
17.71 
ia53 
43.36 
35.83 
16.41 
67.04 

8wll 

51.58 

0.91 

57.79 

13.31 


RECAPITULATION. 


Eastern  Department 

Central  Department 

Western  Department 

Southern  Department' 

Hawaiian  Department 

Philippine  Department 

Unitea  States  Military  Academy . 

Canal  Zone 

China  expedition 


18,410 
4,632 
8,269 


8,413 

15,436 

707 

7,373 

1,249 


8,133 
3,015 
3,525 


3,373 
5,499 
205 
3,583 
1,007 


38.70 

.38 

33.10 


4a  00 
35.62 
29.00 
49.00 
i^OO 


1  The  frequent  shifting:  of  tro(n)s  pertainfnt;  to  posts  and  camps  in  the  Southern  Department  durinc 
the  fiscal  year  in  connection  with  border  patrols  make  it  impracticable  to  complete  statistics  which  would 
be  of  any  practical  value. 

s  The  summary  court  at  Quarry  Heights  tries  offenders  from  all  posts  on  the  Canal  Zone  for  offenses 
committed  at  or  in  the  vicinity  of  Panama.  The  number  of  trials  of  members  of  the  provost  guard  com* 
pany  was  50;  hence  the  percentage  given  above  would  not  be  an  indication  ol  the  discipline  of  the  com- 
mand, the  actual  pat»ntage  of  whicn  is  28. 

s  Twenty-seventh  Infantry  stationed  on  Canal  Zone  September,  October,  November,  December,  1915, 
and  January,  1916. 

*  July  1, 1915,  to  May  31, 1916. 

*  Abandoned. 


APPENDIX  B. 


Extracts  From  Reports  and  Recommendations  of  Judge  Advocates  of  Depart- 
ments AND  West  Point. 


eastern  department. 


There  have  been  very  few  cases  of  duplication  of  charges  requiring  correction  before 
reference  for  trial  or  reduction  of  sentence  because  of  such  duplication. 

The  failures  to  comply  with  the  requirements  of  paragraph  8,  General  Orders,  No. 
70,  War  Department,  1914,  have  been  constantly  decreasing  and  are  now  quite  unusual. 
The  same  may  be  said  of  paragraph  9  of  said  order. 


324        BEPORT  OP  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 

There  were  very  few  cases,  only  two  or  three  as  recalled,  in  which  the  court  spread 
upon  the  record  its  reasons  upon  which  its  findings  and  sentence  were  based. 

(Signed)  Lieut.  Col.  Dodds. 


80T7THERN   DEPARTMENT. 

The  daily  routine  work  of  this  office  throughout  the  year  has  included  notation  of 
all  points  arising  which  suggest  the  advisability  of  changes  in  the  procedure  or  in  the 
reflations  pertaining  to  it.  From  time  to  time,  when  the  importance  of  the  points 
arising  seemed  to  warrant  such  action,  recommendations  relative  thereto  have  been 
submitted  to  the  War  Department.  The  following  miscellaneous  recommendations 
gleaned  from  the  notes  made,  while  of  minor  importance,  are  nevertheless  submitted 
■as  reHecting  desirable  changes  resulting  from  questions  of  a  routine  nature. 

Paragraph  126,  Army  Regulations,  provides  for  discharge  without  trial  of  a  deserter 
foimd  physically  unfit  for  service.  This  paragraph  should,  I  think,  contain  a  qualifi- 
cation so  as  to  preclude  discharge  under  its  provisions  when  the  umfitness  for  service 
is  due  to  insanity. 

Paragraph  139,  Army  Regulations,  provides,  inter  aliaj  for  the  discharge  of  an  enlisted 
man  on  account  of  a  sentence  to  imprisonment  by  a  civil  court,  whether  suspended 
or  not.  This  provision  should  include  discharge  because  of  any  sentence  of  a  civil 
court  resulting  in  imprisonment,  whether  suspended  oir  not,  as  well  as  sentences 
resulting  in  probation  or  parole,  either  of  which  status  is,  I  believe,  inconsistent  with 
military  service. 

Paragraph  928,  Army  Regulations,  provides  designations  for  different  classes  of 

Prisoners.  I  think  prisoners  sentenced  to  dishonorable  discharge  in  whose  cases  the 
ishonorable  dischiu^  has  been  suspended  should  have  a  desifiiiation  different 
from  general  prisoners.  I  suggest  that  they  be  designated  as  ''disciplinary  pris- 
oners. 

Deserters'  descriptive  circulars  issued  by  the  War  Department  are  useful  in  con- 
nection with  the  action  of  reviewing  authorities  upon  the  records  of  their  trials,  and 
it  is  sug^ted  that  officers  preferring  charges  for  desertion  be  required  to  attach 
thereto  me  descriptive  drciuar  of  the  alleged  deserter. 

It  is  important  that  all  decisions  of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  be  available  at 
Department  Headquarters  for  use  in  the  office  of  Department  Judge  Advocates,  and 
I,  therefore,  suggest  that  photographic  copies  of  all  opinions  issued  by  the  Judge 
Advocate  General  be  furnished  each  Department  Juoige  Advocate. 

If  it  is  the  policy  of  the  War  Department  to  give  effect  to  the  provisions  of  the  act 
of  March  4,  1915,  in  so  far  as  it  provides  for  honorable  restoration  to  duty  of  general 
prisoners  confined  elsewhere  than  in  the  Disciplinary  Barracks,  I  think  that  the 
service  should  be  furnished  with  appropriate  regulations. 

The  service  at  laive  is,  1  think,  unacquainted  with  that  provision  of  the  act  of  April 
25, 1914,  which  decGires  that  no  distinction  shall  be  made  between  the  Regular  Army, 
the  Organized  Militia  while  in  the  service  of  the  United  States,  and  the  voluntew 
forces  in  respect  to  the  eligibility  of  any  officer  of  said  Army,  militia,  or  volunteer 
forces  for  service  upon  any  court-martial,  and  which  revokes  section  6  of  the  act  of 
May  27,  1908,  requiring  that  the  majority  membership  of  courts-martial  for  the  trial 
of  officers  or  men  of  the  militia  when  in  the  service  of  the  United  States  shaU  be  com- 
posed of  militia  officers.  It  is  suggested  that  the  attention  of  the  service  at  large  be 
invited  to  this  imfamiliar  provision  of  law. 

Six  himdred  and  ninety-eight  general  court-martial  charges,  out  of  a  total  of  892 
during  the  ^ear^  contained  errors  which  necessitated  either  minor  or  material  amend- 
ment in  this  office.  These  errors  were  due  principally  to  carelessness  on  the  part  of 
the  officers  preferring  them,  and  to  their  failure  to  conform  to  the  prescribed  models 
for  charges.  I  do  not  believe  that  this  carelessness  can  be  corrected  and  I  consider 
it  quite  the  proper  function  for  the  Department  Judge  Advocate's  office  to  correct 
chfljges  before  reference  to  courts. 

Sixty-three  trials  by  general  courts-martial  out  of  889  in  this  department  during  the 
year  were  held  in  order  that  the  accused  inight  be  discharged  from  the  service  because 
of  five  previous  convictions.  When  the  important  and  varied  duties  of  the  commis- 
sioned personnel  along  the  Mexican  border  during  the  past  year  and  the  diJ£culty  of 
holding  meetings  of  general  courts-martial  are  considered,  I  think  the  above  fact  is 
a  strong  argument  for  an  administrative  discham  by  department  commanders  on  the 
approved  action  of  boards  of  officers,  and  I  therefore  renew  a  recommendation  recently 
made  that  the  discharge  of  soldiers  with  five  or  more  previous  convictions  by  depart* 
ment  commanders  upon  the  approved  action  of  boiuxls  of  officers  be  authonsed. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  JXTDGE  ADVOCATE  GENEBAI^.  325 

The  average  period  of  time  aanued  were  in  confinement  before  final  action  of  the 
reviewing  authority  ap<Hi  the  proceedingB  amoonted  for  the  past  year  in  thia  depart- 
ment to  42  days.  I  consider  Uiis  average  large,  particularly  when  it  is  remembered 
that  depositions  are  not  extensivelv  used  in  the  trial  of  cases  in  this  department. 
The  delays  have  been  due  principally  to  the  frequent  moving  of  officers  and  enlisted 
men,  necessitating  frequent  changes  of  courts,  of  judge  advocates,  transfers  of  prisoners^ 
second  reference  of  charges,  ana  to  the  difficulty  of  securing  military  witnesses.  In 
this  connection  I  desire  to  renew  a  recommendation  that  I  nave  previously  made  to 
the  effect  that  time  spent  by  accused  in  confinement  awaiting  trial  and  result  of  trial 
shall  be  awarded  as  good-conduct  abatement,  provided  conduct  while  in  confinement 
during  service  of  sentence  warrants  such  abatement.  Such  a  scheme  would.  I  think, 
materially  improve  our  system  and  ]>revent  injustice  due  to  long  periods  of  confine- 
ment awaiting  trial  and  result  of  trial  and  preclude  anj  criticism  of  that  system. 
The  department  judge  advocate  should  be  mtrusted  with  the  duty  of  preventing 
trials  from  being  delayed  unnecessarily  because  of  a  knowledge  on  the  part  of  those 
concerned  that  the  allatement  would  prevent  any  injustice  due  to  delav. 

I  desire  also  again  to  submit  a  rec(Mnmendation  that  I  have  frequently  made  with 
a  view  to  securing  an  improvement  of  procedure  in  trials  of  desertion  cases.  I  recom- 
mend that  when  a  desertion  occurs  the  organization  commander  be  required  to  make 
a  thorough  investigation  and  to  secure  by  means  of  depositions  all  pertinent  testimony 
as  to  the  circumstances  attendant  upon  the  offenses  discovered  to  have  been  committo<l 
and  to  transmit  the  charges  with  accompKanyin^  P^P^  including  the  depositions  so 
secured,  to  the  War  Department  to  remain  until  notification  is  received  there  of  the 
deserter's  return  to  mihtarv  control,  and  that  the  papers  then  be  mailed  directly  to 
the  proper  commanding  officer  for  investigation  and  action  under  the  provisions  of 
paragraph  954,  Army  Keguladons.  It  has  been  extremely  difficult  to  try  deserteiv 
from  the  organizations  in  Mexico  who  absented  themselves  before  their  organlzati/ms 
entered  that  country.  The  records  of  these  organizations  were  left  in  the  United 
States  and  have  not  been  accessible  to  organization  commanders,  so  that  long  [Hmods 
of  confinement  awaiting  trial  have  resulted.  I  do  not  think  that  the  nincty-flrst 
article  of  war,  which  permits  the  use  of  depositions  if  taken  upon  reasouahio  notice  to 
the  opposite  party,  would  be  interpreted  to  preclude  their  use  when  takoTi  in  the 
manner  above  suggested,  provided,  of  course,  that  the  accused  consents  to  tlicir  uuo. 
If  he  does  not  consent,  then  the  delay  is  his  own  fault  and  not  that  of  the  Government. 

The  number  of  troops  in  the  department  has  increased  during  the  last  six  monttis 
from  a  total  of  about  ^,000  to  a  total  of  approximately  130,000.  During  this  time  the 
work  of  this  office  has  been  carried  on  by  exactly  the  same  personnel  that  was  on  duty 
when  the  department  contained  bv  approximately  one-fifth  as  many  troops  and  with- 
out any  necessity  of  a  change  in  tne  enrstem  in  vogue,  and  without  any  necessity  of  a 
subdivision  of  the  court-martial  jurisdiction  of  the  department  commander.  In  fact 
the  department  commander  has  recently  recommended  that  no  such  subdivision  of 
the  duties  of  this  office  be  made,  but  that  the  entire  court-martial  work  of  the  dej)art' 
ment  continue  to  be  conducted  from  this  office  as  heretofore. 

During  the  last  few  months  the  number  of  troops  in  the  department  has  increased 
very  materially,  with  a  natural  increase  in  the  work  of  this  office,  but  it  has  been 
impossible  to  secure  additional  clerks  to  assist  the  present  clerical  force  in  handling 
the  large  amount  of  additional  work  thrust  upon  it.  This  fact  necessitates,  in  my 
opinion,  the  repetition  of  the  recommendation  so  frequentlv  made  by  dei>artment 
judge  advocates  that  judge  advocates'  clerks  should  be  under  tne  exclusive  jurisdiction 
of  the  Judge  Advocate  General  in  order  that  assignments  and  promotions  of  these  clerks 
may  be  more  equitably  and  expeditiously  accomplished. 

Ill  conclusion,  I  desire  to  sav  that  the  very  vaned  and  extensive  nature  of  the  work 
of  this  office  for  the  past  year  has  not  only  afforded  a  splendid  test  of  the  procedure  in 
vo^e  in  the  Judge  Advocate  GeneraPs  Department,  but  has  demonstrated,  in  mv 
opinion,  that  no  material  modification  of  that  procedure,  as  exemplified  in  the  work 
here,  is  necessary. 

(Signed)  Capt.  Howze. 


HAWAIIAN  DEPARTMENT. 


In  the  last  annual  report  of  this  office  the  desirability  of  making  it  easier  to  ^et  rid 
of  worthless  soldiers  other  than  by  general  court-martial  on  five  previous  convictions 
was  stressed.  In  this  connection  attention  is  Invited  to  the  amenaed  excerpt  from  th& 
one  recommendation  made  by  the  undersigned  on  June  17.  1911.    *    *    » 


326        REPORT  OF  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENERAL. 

It  is  submitted  that  this  is  still  incomplete  and  inadequate  in  that  it  applies  money 
voted  by  the  people  for  their  defense  to  returning  to  the  places  of  acceptance  former 
soldiers  found  to  be  of  no  value  in  such  defense. 

It  should  be  impossible  for  a  soldier  who,  either  because  of  the  existence  of  disquali- 
fication or  because  of  a  vicious  feigning  of  such  disqualification,  has  earned  a  dis- 
charge under  this  paragraph  to  enter  or  reenter,  in  time  of  peace,  as  a  haven  or  asylum, 
anv  Branch  of  the  public  service. 

If  these  two  changes  were  written  into  the  law  and  were  made  known  to  all  men  on 
entering  the  service,  they  would  result  in  great  improvement. 

It  is  recommended  that  the  legislation  necessary  to  e£fect  these  changes  be  secured; 
that  no  discharce  under  paragraph  148i,  Army  Regulations,  be  ordered  until  the  pro- 
ceedings have  been  passed  upon  b)r  the  judge  advocate  of  the  general  court-martial 
jurisdiction;  that  the  payment  to  interpreters  of  $5  a  day  be  authorized;  and  that 
judge  advocates'  clerks  be  placed  in  a  separate  class  and  promoted  therein. 

(Signed)  Capt.  Galloglt. 


PHILIPPINE    DEPARTMENT. 

lu  the  last  annual  report  of  this  office  the  hope  was  expressed  that  the  Philippine 
Legislature  would  pass  an  act  similar  to  section  35,  Federal  Penal  Code,  punishing 
the  unaiitUorized  purchase  of  clothing  and  other  Government  property  from  soldiers. 
Such  a  law  has  been  enacted.  The  terms  are  substantially  identical  with  those  of 
section  35.  No  statistics  are  yet  available  as  to  the  number  of  prosecutions  imder 
this  new  law. 

The  average  period  of  time  the  accused  has  been  in  confinement  under  general  court- 
martial  charges  before  final  action  of  the  reviewing  authority  on  the  proceedines  has 
been  37  days.  The  period  was  the  same  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1915.  Effort 
has  been  made  to  reduce  this  period,  but  the  time  required  to  transmit  mail  between 
the  southern  islands  and  Mamla  and  the  absence  of  a  sufiScient  number  of  competent 
stenographers  to  report  proceedings  of  courts  convened  in  the  vicinity  of  Mamla  are 
two  elements  that  have  made  it  impracticable  to  reduce  it  further.  . 

During  the  past  vear  progress  has  been  made  in  clearing  up  titles  to  military  res- 
ervations. The  title  of  the  United  States  to  the  military  plaza  in  Manila  has  been 
decided  to  include  the  filled-in  land  between  the  plaza  and  tne  Cavite  Boulevard. 

(Signed)  Lieut.  Col.  Morrow. 


WEST   POINT. 

The  statement  of  evidence  submitted  with  a  view  to  meeting  the  reouireraents  of 
para^pli  9o4,  Army  ReiruUtions,  frequently  consists  solely  ot  a  number  of  papers 
bearing  si«^ne  1  or  uusignei  statements  of  witnesses  whose  testimony  is  relied  upon 
by  tie  otficer  preferring  the  charges.  This  practice  multiplies  papers  and  seldom 
results  in  presenting  for  consideration  a  complete  and  logical  summary  of  the  avail- 
able evidence.  It  is  my  opinion  that  more  satisfactory  results  would  be  obtained  if 
the  officer  preferring  the  chuges  were  required  by  regulations  to  submit  a  communica- 
tion, signed  by  himself,  sotting  forth  in  logical  order  a  summary  of  the  testimony  that 
may  be  expected  of  each  witness,  together  with  an  appropriate  reference  to  any  other 
available  e^Hdence.  The  closer  study  which  the  officer  preferring  the  charges  would 
find  it  necessary  to  make  in  order  to  prepare  a  complete  and  logical  written  summary 
of  available  evidence  would  tend  to  reduce  the  number  of  charges  requiring  materia' 
amendment  before  reference  to  general  courts-martial  or  return  for  reference  to  in- 
ferior courts.  Such  a  summary  would  enable  the  officer  detailed  to  investigate  the 
case  to  make  his  report  with  the  least  possible  delay  and  also  enable  the  judge  advo- 
cate to  go  to  trial  with  the  greatest  promptness.  The  general  effect  of  the  adoption  of 
the  plan  outlined  would,  it  is  bolieve-i,  be  to  lead  to  more  accurate  pleading  and  to 
greater  promptness  in  the  final  disposition  of  cases. 

(Signed)  Lieut.  Col.  Krbobr. 


Iff   TT    TTT^a    ia^;CjL!3    »UX-51k..4* 


■UbJ.bi   jUjtX. 


* .- 


K'latc-iusiiia;  tut  immr  i  umiKninBiii  'm  ii«uutu«*tjtT4.  .  m'tj**  Sai*'*  .>  .   -^ 
aerknv  jffiniftgn.     T'auh  f^-^s-'  fifni^  it  l^an^^  huuh  m  iv*t-  r^umma'/tn^  i,   .^,^,\is^\ 

erefflinr  ▼•*«r    or  viili^  at  ihik    t»*imr  rnmCMLrS^  ?vc  in?'?»t  7;  v<ifc?  u»f  r.uKit  .»r.\«*> 


hMTif  "ULtHL  fc'.'ii^*'  HiepF  Trrrjsrc  "Uif-  rrnkiarativTii  and  -^^nar-.lfiiirMa)!  ix  a  f^u:.ic<r»' 
tbe  c&oerr  kuq  eLm^r-HC  meE  tif  "drt-  '■nniiuiiii   ai»-  :t  if  iiop^  xhw  lixwr  *iD.<n?  mill 

Dritpt  --Tiif  tinjr  ^^iJ,  ■eape^naL'T  c^ntiijf  if  ii  hit  r»;iirujii:  «n/ifidaiT  iiirrwa^cTic. 
Sev«a3  c^aiePF  in  iLh-  x.^aaricrnf  r.-u'^iue*-  '^^sj'.t'i.'i  in  I*i.i:fi.TTii^  lis-vf  ^»f»fiii  It^cTY'it^*:  t»iit 
•ad  irouciii  bekre  Xiie  kicaid-e  aiia  :ii^  nitixiTi.iiiii  ji'iiufti.iiHin ,  a  t.iw  iii  JfM*  I  r.n<*d 
Stjtqp  nnTBXirT.  air»r6<*d  in  ea^*i  •'•apt-.  Ti^ese  r:»r%3  ^:j<-»Tif  "were  f»f^ruTY*d  bv  fsir.-'^}.^'- 
VDZ  swdi«»  on  cuiT  a;t  tiii-«f  ii^i*d^iiaru*rF,  iiirLi.siit*c'.  viih  fuDcif  oxit  iti  nn  v^ra 
prkf^,  £jjd  dirwted  to  jiun-naftt'  liaf  drur  iroiii  lij^  f*uppfH"i^  ^eudllr<u  I  tx^e  Tiie 
-^,^E  '  l»€dn^ «a."irr^d .  h  irae  sein  to  itie  patiicilari'.'aj  ia!*  w^uttt,  Abcitii,  C-aiiaJ  Zi^fli*, 
far  atia^^-me.  "W'liV,  r>.is  e^idenoe  the  'im-viTniditf  referred  io  irere  cvbtaiihpd  \\  was 
rej^»on-:'d  to  me  a.t  tbe  linkf  of  one  of  the  tii&ls  in  t}»e  alralde't  oouri  the  alcaide  pro- 
docad  SiTid  Aowad  11  c^'un  C'^e^  5{t  eniiJ]  boxep,  2  mr^  t»otuwv,  1  >ial.  and  i  lin  bax, 
cootajring  about,  o^er  3(i  drwee  of  tbiF  t-erriMe  dmir.  which  his  men  had  secured  iixmh 
v^kJois*  i»laceR,  freauented  t>T  The  soldiera.  aft^r  pe-v^ral  raids  thereon,  ebofrini:  That 
to  aH  appezLraaces  ti>e  supply  of  cocame  in  the  city  of  Panama  if  aliDOf*l  unliiun^d, 
ae  it  k  fe3t  that  a  great  iniiiiher  of  vendoTF  of  tlup  diruf  escaped  del^ection, 

I  leel  that  it  is  Xkot  to  be  expectcni  that  an  iDdiA^duaJ  (^oe^*  should,  from  hif>  own 
liosited  Boesiif,  be  reqtiired  br  our  OovemiDeiii  10  meet  the  eJtpeiisap  of  lighting  thia 
penuckxis  and  dtaxkaraLuin^  practice,  and  1  therefore  reiterate  and  apdn  reoew  my 
reoommendatioDft,  aad  request  that  mifficieiit  funds  be  furnished  this  ofin^e  to  be 
used  lor  this  and  lite  purpoeee.     *    *     ♦^ 

I  am  azaiii  forced  to  call  to  your  attentioo  the  fact  that  thi?  command  should  be 
made  a  d^nrtmeut  without  delay.  The  rapidity  with  which  the  disciplinary*  mat- 
ten  are  acted  upon  when  comiiared  to  the  oW  method  of  refemnt  them  to  the  Depart- 
ment <rf  the  East  in  New  York  City,  has  l>een  oi  in€%«timaMe  >Jue  to  the  command, 
and  ii»  rajadity  with  which  all  other  business  could  be  handled  were  this  a  depart- 
ment ia  of  aimiJar  comparable  chara<*teT.  1  c^an  see  no  ai|rumeDt  a^nst  the  otstab- 
liriimeDt  of  a  department  and  many  in  fa\  or  of  such  actiou . 

(^Si^ed)  Herbert  A.  WnrrK, 

Major,  Jydge  AdxKtaUe, 


CHINA    BXPEMHON. 


The  discipline  of  this  command,  from  the  nature  of  conditioDs  here,  most  alwmyi 
be  maintained  at  an  excepti<HiaUy  hi^  standard,  and  that  it  has  been  so  maintained 
during  the  past  year  is  diown  by  the  reports  of  the  department  oommander  and  the 
d^MTtment  inspector. 


328  REPOBT  OP  THE  JUDGE  ADVOCATE  GENEBAL. 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  liquors  of  all  kinds  can  be  purchased  uy  our  soldiers  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  of  barracks  for  less  than  one-third  what  they  would  cost  in  the 
United  States,  the  number  of  trials  in  this  command  is  small. 

Besides  all  kinds  of  liquors,  cocaine  and  morphine  are  easily  obtained  here.  Every 
effort  is  made  to  prevent  our  men  from  becoming  addicted  to  the  use  of  these  dru^, 
and  those  found  guilty  of  usine  them  are,  as  a  rme,  sent  to  Alcatraz,  in  order  to  give 
them  a  chance  to  break  the  habit.  I  believe  that  here,  as  in  most  places,  the  great 
majority  of  offenses  committed  by  enlisted  men  are  due,  directly  or  indirectly,  to 
dnigs  or  liquor.  The  fact  that  this  place  is  so  accessible  to  all  sorts  of  vice  and  ia  not 
supplied  with  wholesome  amusements  on  the  outside  undoubtedly  increases  the 
number  of  trials. 

(Signed)  Col.  Hale. 


CBNTRAL  OBFARTMBNT. 

None. 

(Signed)  Col.  Hull. 


WB8TBRN  DBPARTMBNT. 

None. 

(Signed)  Lieut.  (3ol.  Goodibb. 


REPORT  OF  THE  QUARTERMASTER  GENERAL 


329 


REPORT  OF  THE  QUARTERMASTER  GENERAL. 


War  Department, 
Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General  of  the  Army, 

Wdshington,  September  6,  1916, 
The  Secretary  of  War. 

Sir:  I  have  the  honor  to  submit  the  annual  report  of  the  operations 
of  the  Quartermaster  Corps  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916. 

PERSONNEL. 

Commissioned. — On  June  30,  1915,  the  comnussioned  strength, 
Quartermaster  Corps,  was  as  follows: 

Major  ^neral 1 

Brigadier  generals 2 

Colonels 14 

Lieutenant  colonels 18 

Majors 48 

Captains 102 

Total 185 

The  two  vacancies  in  the  grade  of  lieutenant  colonol  which  existed 
Jime  30,  1915,  remain  unfiUed. 

Of  the  14  colonels  in  the  corps  Jime  30,  1915,  1  was  retired  and  the 
vacancy  filled  by  the  promotion  of  a  lieutenant  colonel  who,  later  in 
the  year,  was  also  retired  and  his  vacancy  filled  by  the  promotion  of 
a  Ueutenant  colonel,  leaving  the  number  of  colonels,  June  30,  1916,  14. 

Of  the  18  lieutenant  colonels  in  the  corps  Jime  30,  1915,  2  were 
promoted  to  colonels  and  the  vacancies  filled  by  the  promotion  of  2 
majors,  leaving  a  total  number  of  lieutenant  colonels,  June  30, 
1916,  18. 

Of  the  48  majors  in  the  corps  Jime  30,  1915,  4  were  relieved,  2  were 
promoted,  2  were  retired,  1  died,  reducing  the  nimiber  from  48  to  39. 
Nine  majors  were  detailed  in  the  corps,  bringing  the  total  number  of 
majors  in  the  corps,  Jime  30,  1916,  to  48,  the  number  authorized 
by  law. 

Of  the  102  captains  in  the  corps  June  30,  1915,  45  were  relieved 
from  detail  and  1  was  killed,  reducing  the  number  to  56.  Forty-six 
captains  were  detailed  in  the  corps  from  captains  of  the  line,  making 
a  total  of  102  in  the  corps  June  30,  1916. 

The  duties  being  performed  by  officers  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps 
on  June  30,  1916,  are  shown  in  Exhibit  No.  1. 

Quartermaster  sergeants^  Quartermaster  Corps. — During  the  year  25 
quartermaster  sei^eants.  Quartermaster  Corps,  were  retired,  6  died, 
3  transferred  to  the  permanent  school  detachment,  2  discharged  bv 
purchase,   1  discharged  to  accept  commission  in  National  Guard, 


t 


331 


332        BEPOBT  OF  THE  QUAKTERM ASTER  GENERAL. 

and  1  dishonorably  dischai^ed,  making  a  total  of  38  vacancies,  31  of 
which  were  filled  from  eligibles  who  had  qualified  for  appointment  to 
the  position,  leaving  7  vacancies  Jime  30,  1916. 

Pay  clerks, — On  Jime  30,  1915,  there  were  74  pay  clerks  in  the 
service.  Between  Jmie  30,  1915,  and  June  30.  1916,  1  pay  clerk  was 
retired  from  the  service,  he  having  been  found  by  an  Armv  Retiring 
Board  incapacitated  for  active  service  on  account  of  disability  inci- 
dent thereto,  leaving  a  total  of  73  pay  clerks  in  the  service  on  June 
30,  1916. 

The  regular  annual  educational  examinations  of  enlisted  men  for 
appointment  to  the  higher  grades  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps  (quar- 
termaster sei^eants.  Quartermaster  Corps,  excepted)  were  hela  on 
March  6,  1916,  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  Circular  No.  18,  Office  of 
the  Quartermaster  General,  1915.  Attached  hereto,  as  Exnibit  2.  is 
a  statement  showing  the  number  of  persons  examined  and  the  numoer 
of  appointments  made  of  those  who  attained  an  eligible  rating  of  both 
the  educational  and  noneducational  grades  during  the  period  July  1, 
1915,  to  June  30,  1916. 

On  Jime  30,  1916,  a  total  of  1,941  civilian  employees  in  the  United 
States  and  243  in  the  Philippines,  together  with  2,045  enlisted  men  of 
the  line  on  extra  duty  in  the  Quartermaster  Corps,  had  been  replaced 
by  5,379  enlisted  men  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps. 

Attached  hereto,  as  Exhibit  3,  is  a  statement  showing  the  number 
of  men  by  grades  apportioned  to  the  diiferent  departments  and  other 
stations  and  to  Hawaii  and  the  Philippines,  the  number  of  men  in 
the  service,  and  the  number  of  vacancies  as  of  June  30,  1916. 

Civilian  employees, — ^There  are  distributed  throughout  the  United 
States  and  its  insular  possessions  approximately  7,900  civilian 
employees. 

NATIONAL  CEMETERIES. 

There  are  83  national  cemeteries,  classified  as  follows: 


First  clasB 31 

Second  class 18 


Third  class 6 

FourthclasB 28 


The  interments  therein  during  the  fiscal  year  were  1,752,  the  total 
at  the  close  of  the  year  being  219,026  known,  153,138  unknown; 
grand  total,  372,164. 

The  appropriation  for  maintaining  and  improving  national  ceme- 
teries, including  fuel  for  superintendents,  pay  of  laborers  and  other 
employees,  purchase  of  tools  and  materials,  was  $120,000.  From 
this  sum  the  buildings,  drives,  walks,  walls,  fences,  monuments, 
etc.,  have  been  kept  in  proper  condition,  so  far  as  practicable,  the 
most  important  improvements  being  made  at  the  foUlowing  ceme- 
teries: 

Alexandria,  La. ,  new  45>foot  well |250. 00 

Arlinfftonj  Ya.: 

Repairing  Mansion  House 1,140.00 

Providing  parking  space  for  automobiles 250. 00 

New  hot-water  boiler  for  greenhouse 350. 00 

Baton  Rouge,  La.,  new  75-foot  steel  flagstaff 315.00 

Chalmette,  La.,  window  screens  and  screened  balcony  for  lodge 425. 00 

City  Point.  Va.,  new  75-foot  steel  flagstaff 614.00 

Fort  Donelson,  Tenn.,  new  wire  fence  around  reservation 500.00 

Qettvsburg,  Pa.,  resurfocing  lower  road SOaoO 

^obUe,  Ala.,  new  concrete  sidewalkB 354.00 


The  ptiptthk: i-?i£  tilin^e  :f  tir  arrr  rr.:  ::.ri  *x  the  <»^i  *v  ^ise 
fiscftl  year  ttas  f  ^^< . 

of  narion&.  <»r:-e:>r>^,  £-jl1  jriT  :.->".  wisi  $^v\:>.\  ar.^^airt 
expencled.  $6^:;.::i.n  :  >4T^r  t-  ^mexrvr  :.-i  h&lAiicie  of  $1x1?. 

There  *r«  76  szp&r^'i^-Zr.i^  :f  r.i-..-i*  coir.-xeri^  axithv^-tsJ  by 
law.  Scxen  rerz.*-t^ri*?  ^r^re-  --irrr  :iiij^^  of  ■:jj>rtAkers  dunng  tb<> 
year.  There  Lfcxe  i.-rn  iLr^  OL-uiliit^.  all  by  dwitii,  and 
new  Appob^zzz.^!.!.^  Live  V«?-r-  r  .s-ie, 

C^ooenuK/r^  c;  ;**  -::--•  -.o:  .^:  .. — Ti.-?  appropriaiic^n  far  rrpjdiing 
the  17  roadiriys  ::■  r.*::!.*:  ••'".t'-n-es  maintiiDed  by  the  Gv^vent^ 
ment  ^ras  S12,<»j,  cf  wL;  i.  $il,^^7-5I■  wiiS  expended,  leavi-.^  an 
unexpended  biliir.:^  c-f  ?:   J.S- 

The  mo?t  irLp:>n2Ln:  r?j  -irs  Lixe  >-  n  -^tde  :  d  :Le  f .  "owing  roads : 

Astietam,  Md. $<Pifl  M 

BaBsBfaiS.  Va. 3VlOO 

CoDiitiuMia. Lf?6.O0 

FrBdcnckitazE.  V&. 2^  00 

MoaadCirr.  IX t  v*<  M 

Hatcbez.Mis :   ^  00 

NewbenuX.  C 2  -    W 

BaliAnrv,  K-C 4-T.OO 

Bpost^e^Mo Z  *;-::. 00 

gtnnatan,  Va. 22^.00 

Vicicabin]^  JUS.. ........ -   .   -      ^i*.»-50 

Port  cem^Urie^, — ^Approximately  il/y/J  wa«  ♦'rpfrjd'vj  irj  the 
repair  and  maintenance  of  |x>st  cer:f't*'ri*-«  durio^  tr^f;  fi^ral  y*'U". 

Headttoneg, — A  contract  was  ent-ered  into  J'Jy  2^.  191-5*  for  fnr- 
ptfthmg  14,000  headstones  for  miliijown  grave*;  of  Union  *^'')dif'r3, 
sailors,  and  marine^,  and  Confederat**  buried  in  nittionaJ  <i*Tnet*-rieB 
and  ctrilian  emplorees  buried  in  po^t  eerneteries,  undf*r  the  act%  of 
March  3,  1873,  Februarr  3,  1879,  March  9,  1906,  April  2%,  1904,  and 
Jane  30,  1906,  at  S2^9  each. 

YieTcxx  thousand  eigiit  hundred  and  sixty-one  headstones  were 
furnished  and  shipped  for  this  purpose  during  the  fiscal  year. 

DUpoiiiion  <f  rerruiins. — ^Appropriation  for  fiscal  vear  1916, 
J57^;  expen<fod,  $53,789.76;  learing  a  balance  of  $3,710. 24. 

Ihe  following  dispoeition  was  made  of  the  remains  of  officers  and 
enlisted  men  ot  the  Army  (active)  and  the  remains  of  civilian  em- 
ployees in  the  emplov  of  the  War  Department  who  died  abroad,  in 
Alaska,  in  the  Canal  Zone,  in  Mexico^  or  on  Army  transports,  or  who 
died  while  on  duty  in  the  field,  or  at  military  posts  witnin  the  limits 
of  the  United  States: 

Becehred  at  San  FnuKuaoo,  Cal.  (including  tLe  remaine  of  24  clviLiao0  mad 
IZ  ranaaisM  handled  (or  tU«  Nav/  liepartoMmt): 

^Sbdupped  bome ».,.. 49 

DeUv«ced  torelativee 15 

Intecrod  in  San  Franciaco  (Cal.)  National  OemoWry 36 

Awaiting  diBpoaition  July  X,  U>1« 6 

IOC 


334  REPORT  OP  THE  QUARTERMASTER  GENERAL. 

Buried  in  Alaska 3 

Received  at  Seattle^Wash. ,  from  Alaska  and  shipped  home 1 

Received  at  New  York  from  Panama  and  shipped  home 4 

Received  at  New  Orleans  from  Panama  and  shipped  home 1 

Interred  in  Canal  Zone,  Panama 6 

Interred  in  Porto  Rico 4 

—  19 
In  the  United  States  and  Mexico: 

Missing 6 

Drowned,  not  recovered 5 

Shipped  home 311 

Interred  in  post  or  national  cemeteries 144 

—  465 

Total 590 

To  provide  for  the  preparation  of  the  remains  of  officers,  enlisted 
men,  and  civilian  employees  of  the  Army  and  transportation  of  their 
remains  to  their  homes  when  desired,  contracts  were  entered  into 
with  local  imdertakers  at  all  military  posts  for  this  service,  which 
included  embalming,  furnishing  coffins,  caskets,  and  shipping  cases. 

A  burial  corps  was  organized  by  the  department  quartermaster, 
Southern  Department,  imder  the  charge  of  an  experienced  cmbalmer, 
for  service  in  recovering  the  bodies  of  soldiers  who  might  be  killed  or 
die  in  Mexico. 

During  the  year  the  following  remains  of  soldiers  were  removed 
from  fields  and  abandoned  cemeteries  and  reinterred  in  national  ceme- 
teries. Two  known  soldiers  from  near  Billing,  Mont.,  to  the  Custer 
Battlefield  (Mont.)  National  Cemetery;  15  unlmown  remains  at  City 
Point,  Va.,  to  the  national  cemetery  at  that  place;  and  6  remains  of 
civilians  from  the  abandoned  post  cemetery  of  Fort  Washington,  Md., 
to  the  Arlington  National  Cemetery. 

During  the  year  the  remains  of  a  British  sailor  who  died  in  1855, 
and  of  a  Unitea  States  Navy  seaman,  who  died  in  1850,  were  removed, 
with  the  head  and  foot  stones  at  their  graves,  from  the  Fort  Baker, 
Cal.,  military  reservation  to  the  cemetery  at  the  Mare  Island  Navy 
Yard,  Cal. 

Interment  of  indigent  soldiers. — Forty  claims,  amounting  in  the  ag- 
gregate to  $1,760.67,  have  been  settled  under  the  provisions  of  the 
act  for  expenses  of  burying  in  the  Arlington  National  Cemetery,  or 
in  the  cemeteries  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  indigent  ex-Union  sol- 
diers, ex-sailors,  or  ex-marines  of  the  United  States  service,  etc.,  who 
have  been  honorably  discharged  or  retired  and  who  died  in  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia.  The  amount  allowed  in  each  case,  exclusive  of 
cost  of  grave,  is  $45.  Seven  claims  of  burial  expenses  under  this 
law  were  rejected  and  two  claims  are  awaiting  settlement.  One-half 
of  the  exnenses  incurred  for  this  purpose  is  payable  by  the  District 
of  Columbia. 

Revocable  licenses. — Revocable  licenses  authorizing  the  use  of  por- 
tions of  national  cemetery  reservations  or  Government  approach  road- 
ways to  national  cemeteries  have  been  issued  by  the  Secretary  of  War, 
as  follows : 

Annapolis,  Md.,  to  county  commissioners  for  Anne  Arundel  County, 
Md.,  to  lay  an  8-inch  sewer  pipe  on  the  cem.etery  reservation;  October 
30,  1915.     * 

City  Point,  Va.,  to  E.  I.  DuPont  de  Nemours  &  Co.,  to  lay  a  6-inch 
water  pipe  under  the  approach  roadway;  December  10,  1915. 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  QUABTEBMASTEB  OEKEBAL.  335 

City  Point,  Va.,  E.  I.  DuPont  de  Nemours  &  Co.,  to  lav  two  water 
pipes,  one  4  inches  and  one  6  inches  in  diameter,  across  the  approaoh 
roadway  •  February  14,  1916. 

Corinth,  Miss.,  to  city  of  Corinth,  to  lay  concrete  sidewalk  4  feet 
wide  along  the  approach  roadway;  August  12,  1915. 

Fort  McPherson,  Nebr.,  to  Farmer's  Cooperative  Telephone  Asso- 
ciation, Brady,  Nebr.,  to  erect  three  telephone  poles  on  the  reserva- 
tion, to  string  wires  thereon,  and  maintain  the  same;  August  2,  1915. 

Newbem,  N.  C,  to  William  T.  Hill,  for  himself  and  17  other  resi- 
dents of  Riverview,  Newbem.  to  cross  the  approach  roadway  with 
water  and  sewer  pipes  from  tne  east  to  west  sides  thereon,  in  order 
that  water  and  sewer  faciUties  may  be  given  to  the  residents  of 
Riverview;  September  2,  1915. 

Staunton,  Va.,  to  W.  B.  Johnson,  to  construct  a  crossing  over  the 
approach  roadway  by  placing  a  concrete  slab  acrosLi  the  gutter  at 
station  No.  31 ;  July  17,  1915. 

A  revocable  lease  issued  by  the  Secretary  of  War,  March  26,  1916, 
to  Jacob  Hankins,  of  Brady,  Nebr.,  for  a  term  of  one  year  from  April 
1,  1916,  for  cultivation  of  a  portion  of  the  Fort  McPherson  National 
Cemetery  Reservation,  contaming  from  6  to  8  acres,  the  lessee  agree- 
ing to  seed  the  tract  to  oats,  one-n)urth  of  the  crop  to  be  the  property 
of  the  United  States. 

The  depot  quartermaster,  Jeffersonville,  Ind.,  reported  on  October 
18,  1915,  that  by  an  act  of  the  legislature  of  the  State  of  Tennessee, 
fifty-eighth  general  assembly,  1913,  approved  April  14,  1913,  the  cor- 

8 orate  limits  of  the  town  of  Dover  were  extended  so  as  to  include  the 
rovemment  approach  roadway  to  the  Fort  Donelson  National  Ceme- 
tery, and  under  the  proviso  limiting  the  expenditure  of  the  appropria- 
tion "Repairing  roads  to  national  cemetenes''  to  roads  owned  by  the 
United  States  within  any  town  or  village  the  authorities  of  the  town 
of  Dover  were  accordingljr  advised  that  the  Government  will  make 
no  repairs  on  the  roadwav  in  the  future,  the  title  of  the  United  States 
to  the  roadway  being  only  a  right  of  way. 

Mommients  have  been  erected  during  the  fiscal  year  by  the  State 
ot  Minnesota  in  the  national  cemeteries  at  Andcrsonville,  Ga., 
Little  Rock,  Ark.,  and  Memphis,  Tenn.,  in  memory  of  its  soldiers 
buried  there  who  died  during  the  Civil  War. 

In  October,  1915,  a  monument  which  had  been  erected  on  Flamenco 
or  Deadmans  Island,  in  the  Bay  of  Panama,  by  the  oflBcers  and  crew 
of  the  U.  S.  S.  Lancaster,  to  the  memory  of  nine  shipmates  who  died 
and  were  buried  there  in  1860  and  1861,  and  subsequently  transferred 
to  the  Ancon  Cemetery,  Canal  Zone,  was  brought  on  the  U.  S.  S. 
Ohio  to  Philadelphia,  and  from  that  point  shipped  to  and  reerected 
in  the  ArUngton  National  Cemetery.  When  the  monument  was  re- 
moved to  Ancon  Cemetery  it  was  also  intended  to  remove  the  remains 
thereto,  but  no  trace  of  them  was  found. 

On  August  4,  1915,  a  storm  caused  considerable  damage  to  the 
Poplar  Grove  National  Cemetery,  Petersburg,  Va.,  destroying  138 
trees,  damaging  the  lodge  and  outbuildings,  and  destroying  the  wagon 
sheH,  part  of  inclosing  wall  was  blown  down,  the  Saltan  bent,  and 
a  large  number  of  headstones  were  broken,  etc.,  which  required  an 
expenditure  of  $1,225  to  put  the  cemeterv  in  good  condition. 

On  September  29,  1915,  a  hmricane  also  caused  damage  to  the 
Chalmette  National  Cemetery  and  the  national  cemeteries  at  Baton 


336  BEPOBT  OF  THE  QUABTEBMA8TEB  GENERAL. 

Rouge  and  Port  Hudson,  La.    At  Chalmette  78  trees  were  destroyed, 

Eart  of  inclosing  wall  was  blown  down,  lodge  was  badly  damaged, 
itchen  addition  damaged,  wagon  shed  demolished,  stable  unroofed 
and  waUs  blown  down,  rostrum  wrecked,  and  many  headstones 
broken.  Expenditures  to  place  the  cemetery  in  good  condition 
amoimted  to  $4,204.  At  the  Baton  Rouge  and  rort  Hudson  National 
Cemeteries  $30  each  was  expended  for  repairs. 

On  October  4,  1915,  a  flood  at  the  United  States  National  Ceme- 
tery, Mexico  City,  Mexico,  washed  away  a  large  portion  of  the  in- 
closing wall  and  otherwise  damaged  the  cemetery,  repairs  being  made 
at  a  cost  of  $2,150. 

In  April,  1916,  a  bronze  tablet,  including  bronze  supports  for  same, 
was  erected  near  the  tomb  of  Maj.  Charles  L'Enfant,  m  the  Arlington 
National  Cemetery,  containing  the  facsimile  of  the  inscription  that 
apnears  on  the  tomb,  at  a  cost  of  $297. 

On  May  9,  1916,  the  superintendent's  lodge  at  the  Mill  Springs 
National  Cemetery,  Somerset,  Ky.,  was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  a 
thorough  investigation  of  the  matter  by  the  depot  quartermaster, 
Jeffersonville,  Ind.,  failed  to  disclose  the  cause.  Steps  are  being 
taken  to  reconstruct  the  lodge. 

I  can  not  too  earnestly  invite  attention  to  the^  inadequacy  of  the 
appropriation  made  annually  ($120,000)  for  the  care  and  mainte- 
nance of  the  83  national  cemeteries  imder  the  control  of  this  office. 
Of  this  sum  58J  per  cent  is  expended  annually  in  the  hire  of  labor  in 
keeping  these  cemeteries  in  proper  condition,  which  leaves  but  a 
very  small  sum  available  for  repair  to  lodges,  outbuildings,  water 
supply  and  sewer  systems,  reservation  walls  and  fences,  roads  and 
walks,  trimming  trees,  etc.,  or  the  construction  of  new  locoes  and 
outbuildings  destroyed  by  fire,  or  of  repairing  damages  occasioned 
by  hmricanes  and  storms. 

During  the  past  fiscal  year  the  amount  required  to  repair  damages 
by  storms  at  three  cemeteries  in  the  South  and  in  Mexico  City  aggre- 

fated  $6,414,  and  a  new  lodge  is  required  to  replace  one  destroyed 
y  fire  at  the  Mill  Spriijgs  (Ky.)  National  Cemetery,  which  will  cost 
apm-oximately  $4,500. 

The  price  of  labor  and  material  has  so  far  advanced  in  the  past 
year  or  two  that  most  needed  improvements  and  repairs  at  many 
of  the  national  cemeteries  have  been  postponed,  or  only  partially 
made,  for  want  of  fimds.  To  meet  this  condition  it  is  recommended 
that  in  submitting  estimates  for  the  fiscal  year  1918  the  sum  asked 
for  ''For  care  and  maintenance  of  national  cemeteries"  be  increased 
to  $150,000. 

CLAIMS. 

Miscellaneous  accounts. — ^During  the  fiscal  year  there  were  received 
for  action  49  accounts  for  payment  for  services  due  to  deceased 
civilian  employees  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps,  amoimting  in  the 
aggregate  to  $1,875.46.  One  account,  amoimting  to  $58,  was  allowed 
for  pavment,  and  48  accounts,  amoimting  to  $1,817.46,  were  trans- 
mitted to  the  Treasury  or  other  departments  for  settlement. 

Damage  claims. — At  the  berinning  of  the  fiscal  year  there  were  on 
file  in  the  office  16  claims  for  damages  to  private  property  of  citizens 
of  the  United  States  and  its  island  possessions,  amoimting  in  the 
aggregate  to  $715.95.    Thirty-six  claims  were  received  during  the 


3CEP0BT   or  THE  QTJiSTEXMJLSTESi   GEXSSUkL.  ^T 

fiscal  yevr,  smomitzng  to  S3«5&4.S9.    Tot4J  on  hxnd  «nd  r^c«uvMi.  ^!^ 

In  tie  CBtim&teB  porgtsTDd  in  this  offic*  for  the  Ww  IVr^ttTT^meTit 
mod  submitted  to  Cangrees  aJ  its  present  session  in  IVc<»mhor  liist, 
the  sum  of  $5,0(K)  ^iras  iDcliided  for  the  piyn^ent  of  duna^  c1iu7r$ 
theai  cm  £le  in  t^  office  sod  socb  Additional  ciaiTiis  as  ^'«(N'  <!nh<)e- 
<IiientlT  reoerred  and  approTed  bj  tbe  Secretjuy  of  War  afrw  an 
investisatian  to  aBoertain  viiat  amount  was  iusvUv  doe  to  tho  r]jii;n- 
ants.  Tlus  sera,  h  is  nDder5t<K>i  is  inchidM  in  tbe  hill  making  aT>* 
|Rx>piiatians  for  tbe  support  of  the  Army  durini^  the  cnrront  t»i"^ 
year,  'widci  is  now  petnmng  in  Congress,*  As  the  approrwiatjon  oJ 
$5,000  win  eK-seed  the  amount  required  for  pavnieint  of  the  dATiiiure 
claims  now  on  file  in  tbe  office,  if  that  amount  Is  made  avftU«blA,  ti>e 
balance,  after  paTmcnt  of  the  claims  now  on  lile^  will  be  used  to  p^^' 
such  additionju  claims  of  this  character  as  may  be  received  dtmng 
the  present  fiscal  year. 

ChnfederaU  J^f/r^e  da'tirt^. — ^At  the  beginning  of  the  fissral  yCAf  there 
was  on  file  in  this  office  421  claims  for  payment  for  horses  and  l^>^::irA4^e 
taken  from  paroled  Confederate  soldiers  in  violation  of  the  tcr.^is  of 
the  saiTCTider  of  the  Confederate  armies  at  Appomattox  in  April, 
1865,  pr^ented  to  this  office  under  the  act  of  Conaress  appi\>>-e*i 
FetMnary  27,   1902. 

The  time  limit  fixed  by  law  for  the  presentation  of  these  olaii>^:* 
having  expired  on  June  25,  1912,  no  claims  were  receive<i  during  the 
fiscal  year. 

One  claim  was  disallowed  during  the  fiscal  year,  and  two  chin>!^ 
amoimting  to  $260  were  allowed,  leaving  on  hand  at  the  cK\se  of  the 
last  fiscal  year  418  claims. 

It  is  beheved  tluit  of  tlwse  418  claims,  ncAriy,  if  not  all,  should  W 
dropped  as  abandoned  and  the  papers  sent  to  the  i>ermanet>t  tilcK  <^ 
the  office.  Many  of  tbe  claimants  it  is  presume<i  have  died  sinoe 
their  claims  were  presented,  and  others  have  been  abandonetl  by  the 
claimants  for  want  of  official  evidence  to  enable  favorable  aotion  U> 
be  taken  upon  them. 

There  remained  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  of  the  appri>priatit>n 
made  by  Congress  for  the  payment  of  tliese  claims  the  sum  of 
$5,399.05. 

NEWSPAPERS   AND   PERIODICALS, 

For  the  supply  of  newspapers  and  periodicals  for  the  use  of  the 
enlisted  men  of  the  Armv  there  was  authorized  expondod  d\iiinjx 
the  fiscal  year  the  sum  of  $7,149.13,  and  the  amount  expoiuiod  for 
supply  of  reading  matter  for  the  troops  serving  in  the  Philipniiu^ 
Islands  was,  as  reported,  $632.74,  making  a  total  of  $7,781.87  nutitor- 
ized  expended  for  this  purpose. 

Reading  matter  is  bemg  suppUed  during  the  current  fiscal  year  to 
all  posts  and  stations  in  the  Lnited  States,  including  the  troo|xs  serv- 
ing on  the  Mexican  border,  and  also  the  troops  serving  in  Alaska, 
the  Canal  Zone,  and  tbe  island  possessions. 

FINANCE    AND    ACCOUNTINQ. 

Apportionments, — Consolidated  financial  statement^  fiscal  year 
ended  Jtme  30,  1916.     (Exhibit  No.  4.) 

69176**— WAB  19ie~voL  1 22 


838 


BEPOBT  09  THE  QUABTEBMASTEB  GENERAL. 


Detailed  statement  of  expenditures  of  the  Quartennaster  Corps 
for  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30, 1916,  itemized  under  different  appro- 
priations.    (Exhibit  No.  5.) 

Statement  of  account  of  the  Phihppine  Islands  (Exhibit  No.  6) : 

Letters,  etc.,  received  during  fiscal  year  1916 10, 671 

Letters,  etc.,  eex^t  during  the  fiscal  year  1916 13,781 

OflScers'  money  accounte: 

Onhand  July  1,  1915 212 

Received  diuing  the  fiscal  year  1916 2, 984 

Examined  and  sent  to  the  Auditor  for  the  War  Department  during  the 

fiscal  year  1916 3,045 

On  hand  at  the  close  of  the  fiscal  year  1916 151 

Certificates  of  deposit  received 4, 278 

Beneficiaries. — ^During  the  period  July  1,  1915,  to  June  30,  1916, 
payments  were  made  under  authority  of  the  act  of  Congress  ap- 
proved May  11,  1908.  as  amended  by  act  approved  March  3,  1909, 
to  the  beneficiaries  oi  31  officers  of  the  Regular  Army  $50,205;  for 
321  enlisted  men  of  the  Regular  Army,  $49,112.60,  and  11  enlisted 
men  of  the  Phihppine  Scouts,  $603,  malang  the  total  paid  on  account 
of  enlisted  men  $49,715.60,  and  a  grand  total  disbursement  on  thb 
account  of  $99,920.60. 

Mileage. — For  mileage  disbursements  for  the  fiscal  year  ended 
June  30,  1916,  see  Exhibit  No.  7. 

Letters,  etc.,  received  during  fiscal  year  1916 15,272 

Letters,  etc.,  sent  during  fisotl  year  1916 23, 458 

Property  amounts. — Beginning  with  the  fiscal  year  1916  the  rendi- 
tion of  annual  returns  of  quartermaster  property  in  the  hands  of  the 
Organized  Mihtia  was  discontinued  and  the  system  of  property 
accounts  provided  in  Circular  No.  38,  office  Chief  of  the  Quarter- 
master Corps,  1913,  for  use  in  the  Quartermaster  Corps,  was  adopted 
to  account  for  this  property. 

The  number  of  vouchers  to  property  accounts  handled  during  the 
fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  is  as  follows: 

Onhand  July  1,  1915 9,295 

Received  during  the  fiscal  year 284, 245 

Posted  to  property  accounts 279, 323 

On  hand  June  30,  1916,  to  be  posted 14,217 

Letters,  etc.,  received  during  the  fiscal  year  1915 6, 500 

Letters,  etc.,  sent  during  the  fiscal  year  1916 7, 332 

Deposits  and  aUotments. — Report  of  soldiers*  deposits  received 
and  repaid  during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916: 


Number. 

Amount. 

Interest. 

Deposits  received 

69.514 

S1.&57.&44.02 

PAivMits  reDft^d  by  nnftrtenn«ut*j»^ ......,,.,,.,,,.,., 

44,308 

1,143,614.77 
16,036.36 

$40,677.63 

DebosJts  rebeid  by  Treasury  settlement 

579.13 

Total 

1,159,651.13 

41,156.75 

Amount  remaining  to  credit  of  depositors  June  30, 1916, 12, 719,549.91. 


During  the  period  July  1,  1915,  to  June  30,  1916,  there  was  dis- 
bursed $973,770.47  in  payment  of  allotments  made  by  enlisted  men 
of  the  Army, 


BEPOBT  OF  THB  QTJABTEBMASTEB  GENERAL.  339 

Total  number  of  allotments  in  force  on  June  SO,  1916 8,138 

Letten,  etc.,  received  during  fiscal  year  1916 83,379 

Letters,  etc.,  sent  during  fiscal  year  1916 16,481 

Svhsistenee  returns. — ^The  number  of  subsistence  returns  handled 
during  the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1916,  is  as  follows: 

On  hand  June  30, 1915 80 

Received  during  the  fiscal  year 1,924 

Examined  during  the  fiscal  year 1,894 

On  hand  June  30, 1916 110 

Letters,  etc.,  received  during  fiscal  year  1916 1,349 

Letters,  etc.,  sent  during  fisoil  year  1916 2,323 

Contracts. — ^There  have  been  received,  indexed,  examined,  and  cor- 
rected when  necessary  and  entered  on  record  of  contracts  during  the 
fiscal  year  ended  Jime  30,  1916,  contracts,  leases,  etc.,  as  indicated 
below: 

Contracts  with  bonds 1,658 

Contracts  without  bonds 1,777 

Leases 1,143 

Supplemental  contracts * 189 

Annual  bonds 21 

Notices  of  increase,  decrease,  termination  of  contracts 589 

Letters,  etc.,  received  during  the  fiscal  year 15,990 

Letters,  etc.,  sent  during  the  fiscal  year ••••  2,395 

SUPPLIES. 

Statement  ofisma  made  during  thefieedl  year  1916, 

Qairison,  travel,  reserve,  trail,  and  field  rations  (36,487,325);  average 

cost,  28.0124  cents $10,220,989.99 

Filipino  ration  (2,058,132);  average  cost,  17.4048  cents 358, 213. 85 

Number,  value,  and  average  eoet  of  ratume,  by  geographical  divieione,  etc.,  ieeued  during 

the  fiecai  year  1916. 


DlTiaions. 


United  BtatM  (IncludM  Canal  Zona). 

Alaska 

Hawaii 

PhfUppinaa  (AuMrioan) 


Total  aTwaga  coat: 

Annrlcan 

Phfllppinea  (natlTa), 
Canal  zona 


Nombarof 
rations. 


28,006,531 

215,024 

8,248,027 

4,416,863 


Vahia. 


86,487,325 
2,058,132 
2,334,048 


18,000,825.88 

76,162.00 

800,031.44 

1,244,060.77 


10,220,080.09 
858,213.85 
782,548.77 


oott 

(oants). 


28.00 
85.42 
27.41 
28.10 


28.0124 
17.4048 
83.52 


MILITIA. 


Jima  21  to  36,  inclnsHa,  5  dayi. 
Jima  36  to  30,  incioalva,  5  dayi. 


Total  ftv  mmtia,  Jona  21  to  30,  IncOoalTa. 


106,000 
106,000 


106,000 


8807,600.00 
150,000.00 


556^500.00 


178.00 
t30.00 


153.50 


1  Par  day. 


Average  cast  of  the  roHon,  wiih  and  without  transportation. — ^The 
averagje  cost  of  the  actual  food  included  in  the  garrison  ration 
(Amencan)  during  the  fiscal  year  1916  was  as  follows: 


Canta. 


At  all  posts  or  stations  in  the  United  States  (including  Alaska  and  Hawaii). .  27. 9912 

At  all  posts  or  stations  in  the  Philippines 28. 1664 

At  all  posts  or  stations  in  the  Unitea  States  and  Philippines 28!  0124 


340 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  QUABTEBMASTEB  QENERAIi. 


The  cost  of  transportation  charged  on  subsistence  supplies  was 
$364^143.74.  Charging  this  amount  to  the  total  cost  of  the  garrison 
ration  issued,  it  gives  for  the  fiscal  year  1916  an  increased  cost  for 
each  ration  oi  0.998  cents,  thus  making  the  cost  of  the  garrison  ration 
delivered,  including  food  and  transportation,  as  follows: 

CeDts. 

At  all  posts  or  stations  in  the  United  States 28. 9892 

At  all  posts  or  stations  in  the  Philippines 29. 1644 

At  all  posts  or  stations  in  the  United  States  and  Philippines 29. 0104 

Yearly  and  per  diem  cost  of  subsistence  per  man  in  the  United  States  and  the  Philippine$. 


Cost  in  United  SUtes. . 
Cost  in  Philippines. . . 


Number  of 
rations. 


Datty 
average 
ni  mber 
of  men. 


32,070,472 
6,474,985 


87,864 
17,739 


Netoost. 


$8,976,920.23 
1,602,283.62 


^^^-       (cents). 


$102.17 
90.33  I 


27.99 
24.74 


Emergency  ration, — Some  difficulty  has  been  experienced  with  the 
emergency  ration  and  it.s  final  adoption,  owing  to  a  slight  odor  and 
rancidity  which  was  noted  after  it  had  been  packed  for  several  months. 
This  defect  has  been  traced  and  overcome,  and  20,000  of  these  emerg- 
ency rations  have  been  procured  in  order  to  give  an  elaborate  try-out 
under  difl'ering  conditions  and  in  various  sections,  especially  on  the 
Mexican  border  and  in  the  Philippines,  where  conditions  should  be  the 
most  trying;,  and  if  entirely  satisiactory,  a  large  quantity  will  be  pro- 
cured and  kept  as  a  reserve  to  meet  possible  needs. 

The  ration  as  devised  by  the  fooa  experts  of  the  Department  of 
Agriculture,  working  in  conjimction  with  medical  officers  and  quar- 
termasters of  the  Army,  is  composed  of  the  following:  Raw  and 
ground  lean  beef,  96  parts;  flour,  96  parts;  skim -milk  powder,  64 
parts;  invert  sugar,  3  parts.     Salt  to  taste. 

The  nutritive  qualities  of  the  ration  have  been  tested  fully  by  the 
experts  and  pronounced  satisfactory,  and  it  only  remains  to  test  the 
keeping  qualities,  which  may  be  determined  only  by  long  periods  of 
storage  under  various  conditions  of  climate  and  temperature. 

Restoration  oj  certain  articles  to  subsistence  list, — In  the  act  making 
appropriations  for  the  support  of  the  Army  for  the  fiscal  year  1913. 
certain  articles  from  the  appropriation  ''Subsistence  of  the  Army 
were  transferred  to  the  appropriations ''Reralar supplies,*'  "Incidental 
expenses/'  and  "Clothing,  and  camp  and  garrison  equipage."  The 
act  making  appropriations  for  support  of  the  Army  for  the  nscal  year 
1916  authonzed  the  disbursement  of  the  appropriations  named 
above,  including  "Subsistence  of  the  Army,"  as  one  lund  to  be  known 
as  "Supplies,  services,  and  transportation."  In  view  of  this  it  was 
deemecf  advisable  in  order  to  facilitate  supply,  and  in  order  to  avoid 
complaints  as  to  deUveries  and  keeping  the  stock  of  the  articles  at 
posts  up  to  the  required  Quantities,  to  obtain  authority  to  direct 
the  purchase  of  the  articles  listed  below  with  purchases  of  subsistence 
stores  and  suppUes  for  posts  on  monthly  ana  quarterly  requisitions, 
as  outlined  in  Circular  15,  O.  Q.  M.  G.,  July  6,  1916: 


BEPOBT  OF  THE  QUABTEBMA8TEB  GENE&AIi. 


341 


Baaiiis,  hand. 

Bluing,  ball. 

Bluing,  powdered. 

Borax. 

Brooms,  whisk. 

Brushes,  hair. 

Brushes,  shaving. 

Brushes,  shoe. 

Brushes,  tooth. 

Buttons,    composition, 

large  and  small. 
Buttons,  collar. 
Candles. 
Candles,  lantern. 
Combs,  medium. 
Combs,  pocket. 
Electrosilicon. 
Equipment,  dressing,  olive 

draD. 
Equipment      dressing, 

white. 


Handkerchief,  linen. 

Matches,  safety. 

Metal  polish,  paste. 

Metal  polish,  powder. 

Mugs,  shaving,  enameled. 

Needles. 

Polish,  shoe,  black,  combi- 
nation. 

Polish,  shoe,  russet,  combi- 
nation. 

Poliah,  shoe,  russet,  paste. 

Razors. 

Razor  strops. 

Salt,  rock. 

Shoestrings,  linen,  black, 
long. 

Shoestrings,  linen,  black, 
short. 

Shoestrings,  linen,  olive 
drab,  long. 


Shoestrings,    linen,    olive 

drab,  short. 
Soap,  issue. 
jSoap,  hand. 
Soap,  laundry. 
Soap,  scouring. 
Soap,  shaving. 
Soap,  toilet. 
Starch,  laundry. 
Thread,  cotton,  black. 
Thread,  cotton,  O.  D. 
Thread,  cotton,  white. 
Thread,  linen,  black. 
Thread,  linen,  white. 
Thread,  silk,  olack. 
Towels,  bath. 
Towels,  huckaback. 
Toweling. 


RoUirw  Icitchens, — Quite  a  number  of  experiments  or  tests  of  various 
types  of  rolling  kitchens,  from  both  domestic  and  foreign  sources, 
have  been  made  during  the  year,  and  some  under  severe  service 
conditions  in  Mexico  and  on  tne  border.  It  is  beheved  that  a  satis- 
factory type  of  American  design  has  been  found,  and  over  25  of 
the  most  promising  designs  have  been  procured  and  shipped  to  the 
Southern  Department  for  a  most  elaborate  field-service  test.  A 
special  test  is  also  being  conducted  at  Fort  Sam  Houston,  Tex.,  of 
certain  models,  under  the  direction  of  the  department  authorities  of 
the  Southern  Department. 

Among  those  tried  out  were  several  which  developed  the  fact  that 
the^  simply  added  to  the  amount  of  transportation  that  had  to  be 
mamtainea  for  an  army  in  the  field,  and  did  not  produce  satisfactory 
results  in  the  way  of  hot  food  for  men  on  the  march  and  on  the  firing 
line. 

So  far  as  information  is  obtainable  or  judgment  can  be  depended 
upon,  it  is  believed  that  the  type  that  is  finally  adopted  after  addi- 
tional and  elaborate  tests  have  oeen  made  will  compare  most  favor- 
ably with  the  best  designs  of  rolling  kitchens  in  European  armies. 

Manual  for  Army  bakers  and  Army  cooks. — It  was  deemed  advisable 
to  have  the  Manual  for  Army  Bakers  and  the  Manual  for  Army  Cooks 
revised  and  brought  up  to  date.  It  was  also  desired  when  such 
revision  was  made  to  have  these  two  manuals,  which  are  so  closely 
related  and  both  of  which  are  ordinarily  used  by  instructors  and 
students  at  the  bakers'  and  cooks'  school,  combined  into  one  volume, 
but  divided  into  two  parts.  Such  consolidation  would  reduce  the 
expense  of  printing,  eliminate  the  necessity  for  carrying  so  many 
puolications  for  distribution,  and  enable  the  volume  to  be  more 
readily  carried  or  handled. 

Capt.  E.  S.  Wheeler,  Fourth  Field  Artillery,  who  was  well  qualified 
to  do  the  work,  was  selected  and  bejgan  the  revision.  He  made 
considerable  progress,  but  his  tour  of^duty  in  the  Quartermaster 
Corps  expirea  before  he  could  complete  the  work,  and  did  not.  in 
consequence,  conclude  it.  In  view  of  this,  Capt.  Leonard  L.  Dei- 
trick,  Seventh  Cavalry,  who  was  also  well  prepared  to  continue  and 
complete  the  volume   was  selected  for  this  duty  and  now  has  the 


342  BEPOBT  OF  THE  QUAETERMASTEB  GENERAL. 

work  well  on  toward  completion,  and  it  is  hoped  to  have  it  shortly 
ready  for  issue. 

Mobilization  of  the  National  Guard. — On  May  1,  1916,  the  National 
Guard  of  Texas,  Arizona,  and  New  Mexico  was  called  into  active 
service  by  order  of  the  President,  and  on  June  18, 1916,  the  remainder 
of  the  National  Guard  of  the  United  States  was  called  into  active 
service  by  the  President.  It  became  necessary,  therefore,  to  at 
once  provide  for  their  subsistence.  Under  law  and  regulations, 
when  called  into  active  service  they  are  to  be  subsisted  at  the  expense 
of  the  Government  from  the  time  of  their  arrival  at  company  ren- 
dezvous. The  subsistence  of  the  National  Guard  is  supervised  and 
provided  for  by  the  mihtary  authorities  of  the  State  at  company 
rendezvous,  and  also  at  State  mobilization  camps  until  sworn  into 
the  service,  when  they  come  imder  the  supervision  and  control  of 
the  Federal  authorities  and  are  subsisted  as  are  other  troops  of  the 
Regular  Army. 

When  the  National  Guard  troops  were  transported  from  State 
mobilization  camps  to  the  Southern  Department,  or  Texas  border, 
kitchen  cars  were  provided  in  which  to  prepare  their  food,  or  a 
baggage  or  box  car  was  furnished,  with  a  range  installed  by  which 
the  food  could  be  prepared.  When  they  were  ready  to  be  trans- 
ported, 10  days'  rations  were  furnished  to  make  the  journey  to 
destination  in  the  South  and  to  afford  them  a  small  supply  in  addi- 
tion, so  as  to  provide  against  anv  delays  and  to  care  for  their  wants 
until  arrangements  could  be  mad.e  to  meet  their  needs  at  destination 
in  the  regular  way. 

The  subsistence  of  the  troops,  suddenly  mobilized  in  camps  and 
when  transported  to  the  Mexican  border  and  after  their  arrival 
there,  was  accomplished  in  a  satisfactory  and  successful  manner  by 
the  department.  This  is  borne  out  bv  the  extensive  inspections  of 
the  National  Guard  by  inspectors,  ana  in  the  inspection  and  reports 
of  Maj.  Gen.  Tasker  H.  Bhss,  who  has  borne  testimony  to  the  thor- 
ough and  satisfactory  manner  in  which  the  troops  have  been  sub- 
sisted in  Texas  and  on  the  border. 

Isolated  cases  of  inadequate  subsistence  have  here  and  there  been 
urged  by  some,  but  even  if  true,  it  is  hiunanly  impossible  to  over- 
come every  objection  and  meet  every  possibility  of  hardship,  but 
where  any  mistake  or  hardship  has  occurred  it  will  probably  be 
found  traceable  to  lack  of  experience  and  judgment  of  the  Nationdl 
Guard  in  not  knowing  how  to  care  for  themselves  as  regulars  do, 
which  is  a  most  natural  result,  because  of  the  fact  that  they  have 
not  had  the  necessary  training  and  experience  in  this  direction,  but 
have  done  remarkably  well,  all  things  considered.  Regular,  troops 
at  posts,  when  traveling  or  when  campaigning,  have  very  rarcJy 
complained.  This  is  prmcipally  due  to  the  years  of  training  and 
experience  regular  troops  have  had  in  caring  for  themselves  whereas 
the  National  Guard  come  from  homes  where  they  enjoy  aaily  sur- 
roundings, comforts,  and  cooking  accustomed  to,  and  the  cnange 
comes  somewhat  as  a  revulsion  when  they  go  from  such  homes  and 
food  and  cooking  to  the  camp  and  the  fooa  and  life  of  the  soldier. 
In  short,  most  of  the  complamts  as  to  the  National  Guard  are  due 
to  or  can  be  charged  up  fi^ainst  inexperience.  Cooks  who  may  be 
first-class  men  in  a  restaurant,  club,  or  home,  but  without  experience 
in  the  field  cooking  for  himdreds  and  without  the  tools  ana  equip- 


EEPOBT  OF  THE  QUABTEBMASTEB  QENEBAIi.  343 

ment  at  hand  they  would  have  at  home,  can  not  be  expected  to  meet 
every  demand,  and  is  one  of  the  reasons  for  failure.  Another  reason 
is  the  inexperience  of  commanding  officers  in  not  knowing  how  to 
provide  for  their  men.  One  company  may  be  living  in  plenty  on 
the  regular  ration,  wlule  another  company  may  be  hungry  because 
of  food  spoiled  through  lack  of  proper  care  or  preparation. 

The  niunber  of  meat  inspectors  of  the  Army  is  very  limited.  In 
consequence  meat  inspectors  from  the  Agricultural  Department  were 
detailed,  through  the  courtesy  of  that  department,  to  cooperate  with 
and  assist  the  inspectors  of  the  Army  in  safeguarding  its  meat  supply 
by  making  a  careful  inspection  of  all  fresh  and  canned  meats  before 
issue  to  and  consmnption  by  the  troops. 

Meat  for  use  of  the  Army  is  riridly  inspected  at  the  packing  houses, 
the  inspection  beginning  with  tne  animal  before  it  is  killed  and  all 
througn  the  after  process  by  inspectors  of  the  Agricultural  Depart- 
ment stationed  at  tne  various  packing  houses  throughout  the  coimtry. 
In  addition  to  this,  meat  inspectors  and  experts  of  the  Quarter- 
master Corps  are  also  stationed  at  the  large  packing  centers,  Uke 
Chicago,  Kansas  City,  Omaha,  San  Francisco,  and  elsewhere  where 
meat  is  being  prepared  or  cured  for  the  Army,  and  they  also  watch 
it  through  tne  wnole  process  from  the  killing  of  the  animal  until 
turned  over  to  the  Government.  Besides  all  this,  the  inspectors  of 
the  packing  houses  also  closely  inspect  all  moats. 

In  addition  to  the  above  safeguards,  meat  inspectors  from  the 
Agricultural  Department  have,  with  the  cordial  cooperation  of  that 
department,  been  ordered  stationed  at  all  places  where  large  bodies 
of  troops  are  located  to  inspect  all  meats  oefore  use  by  the  troops. 

With  regard  to  other  food  articles  or  stores  purchased  for  me 
Army,  trained  experts  at  depots  and  purchasing  stations  carefully 
inspect  all  supplies  purchased,  and  at  stations  where  troops  are 
actually  locatea,  inspections  are  made  by  the  officers  who  procure 
the  supplies,  who  are  assisted  by  trained  inspectors  if  they  are 
available. 

The  pure  food  and  drugs  act  of  1906,  and  amendments  since,  as 
to  the  sale,  etc.,  of  poisoned  or  deleterious  food,  and  also  the  meat- 
inspection  law  of  1906,  and  amendments  since,  against  the  use  of 
meat  that  is  *  *  unsound,  unhealthful,  unwholesome,  or  otherwise  imfit 
for  human  food,"  helps  greatly  to  safeguard  the  food  supply. 

The  health,  contentment,  and  efficiency  of  troops  are  tne  first  care 
of  a  commander.  To  make  proper  provision  regarding  the  soldier 
demands  the  best  thought  and  effort  of  his  superiors  at  all  times. 
The  subsistence  of  the  soldier  is  of  vital  importance,  and  it  is  ad- 
mitted that  the  ration  of  the  American  soldier  is  the  most  liberal  of 
that  of  any  army  in  the  world,  and,  as  stated,  proper  subsistence 
or  cooking  of  their  food  is  of  the  greatest  importance,  for  it  is  follv 
to  train  soldiers  to  the  highest  state  of  efficiency  ana  then  by  lacK 
of  care  or  attention  to  their  food  for  a  short  season  prepare  the  way 
to  put  them  out  of  condition  at  the  most  critical  moment. 

The  Army  has  also  the  latest  designs  and  devices  for  cooking 
food  in  the  field  and  baking  bread.  Tne  field  bakery  will  compare 
most  favorably  with  the  very  best  types  of  this  kind,  in  any  of^the 
European  armies  of  to-day,  and  the  bread  produced  is  uniformly 
excellent.  There  are,  too,  trained  cooks  and  bakers  who  prepare  the 
food  and  bake  the  bread  for  the  Army.    These  trained  experts  are 


344  REPOBT  OF  THE  QUARTERMA8TEB  GEKEBAL.      . 

taufbt  in  the  various  bakers'  and  cooks'  schools  that  are  estabEshed 
at  designated  places  in  the  United  States,  in  the  Hawaiian  Territory, 
in  the  rhilippmes,  and  it  is  hoped  shortly  to  establish  a  school  m 
Panama. 

To  meet  any  possible  exigency  that  might  arise,  it  has  been  nec- 
essary to  procure  and  place  in  stock  at  the  depots  at  El  Paso,  Fort 
Sam  Houston,  Harlingen,  CJolimabus,  Nogales,  etc.,  large  quantities 
of  articles  of  the  ration  and  other  subsistence  supplies  for  troops 
on  the  border  and  in  the  Southern  Department.  The  corps  has 
been  able  to  practically  meet  every  demand  made  upon  it,  so  far 
as  the  food  supply  of  the  Army  is  concerned. 

Some  complaints  have  reached  this  office  as  to  the  poor  quality 
and  insufficiency  of  the  food  furnished  various  militia  organizations. 
After  investigation  of  these  cases,  the  records  indicate  that  prac- 
tically all  the  complaints  so  far  as  have  been  investigated  have  oeen 
unfoimded,  or  due  to  the  inexperience  of  cooks  of  the  National  Guard 
or  lack  of  experience  and  training  of  the  National  Guard  in  taking 
care  of  themselves,  though,  as  previously  stated,  they  have  done 
remarkably  well  in  this  respect.  The  following  indicates  the  char- 
acter of  the  complaints  and  some  of  the  replies  thereto: 

Hon.  Hoke  Smith,  United  States  Senate;  Hon.  Carl  Vinson,  House 
of  Representatives;  and  Mr.  C.  T.  Wiebis,  reported  to  this  office  that 
there  was  a  shortage  of  food,  etc.,  also  that  the  food  was  not  of  good 
quality  at  the  Geor^a  mobilization  camp  at  Macon,  Ga.  The  com- 
plaints were  immediately  referred  for  investigation,  and  the  reports 
of  the  senior  mustering  officer  at  the  camp  at  Macon,.  Ga.,  indicated 
that  at  no  time  were  the  rations  inadequate,  but  that  they  were  ample 
and  of  excellent  quality.  Later  on  Senator  Smith  submitted  a  com- 
munication from  the  lion.  Hooper  Alexander,  United  States  attorney 
for  the  northern  district  of  Georgia,  who  stated  that  he  had  visited 
Camp  Harris  and  found  the  troops  in  fine  spirits  and  prospering  in 
every  way.    Mr.  Alexander's  letter  is  as  follows: 

August  7, 1916. 
Hon.  Hoke  Sioth, 

UnxUd  States  SenaU,  Washington,  D.  C. 

Mt  Dear  Senator:  I  see  by  the  ^pen  that  the  customaiy  crop  of  critics  10  com- 
plaining at  the  administration  of  the  War  Department  and  its  treatment  of  the  militia. 

It  has  occurred  to  me  that  the  Secretary  of  War  may  be  interested  to  know  that  the 
Geors^  troops  are  in  fine  spirits  and  prospering  in  every  way.  I  went  to  Camp 
Hams  a  few  days  ago  after  they  were  concentrated  there  and  personally  inspected 
the  cooking  arrangements  and  other  camp  facilities  and  I  was  delighted  with  the 
situation. 

I  have  a  boy  19  years  old,  who  enlisted  with  the  Fifth  Geonria  Regiment  and  is  now 
in  camp.  He  came  here  last  night  on  a  36-hour  furlough.  He  has  gained  14  pounds 
while  m  camp,  and  reports  to  me  that  everything  there,  especially  the  food,  is  as 
nearly  perfect  as  could  be  asked.  He  seems  delighted  with  the  situation,  and  sa^ 
that  practically  every  man  with  the  Georgia  Brigade  feels  the  same  way  about  it. 
There  are  a  few  critics  there  as  you  will  fiuad  them  everywhere,  but  I  am  sure  that 
there  is  no  ground  for  criticising  the  War  Department,  at  least  so  far  as  concerns  the 
Georgia  troops. 

I  am  writing  this  because  it  may  be  of  interest  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  if  you  should 
see  fit  to  communicate  it  to  him. 
Respectfully, 

Hooper  Alsxakder. 

This  communication  was  entirely  volimtary  and  unsolicited,  and 
Senator  Smith,  who  had  previously  deplored  the  alleged  poor  food 
and  conditions,  stated  that  he  was  very  much  gratified  to  receive  this 


EEPOBT  OF  THE  QUABTEBMASTEB  QENEBAL.  345 

letter  and  to  submit  it  to  the  Secretary  of  War,  as  he  had  very  much 
confidence  in  the  statements  of  Mr.  Alexander. 

Mr.  Frank  G.  Gorrell,  secretary  of  the  National  Canners  Associa- 
tion, forwarded  a  clipping  to  this  oflBce  from  the  New  York  World 
relative  to  the  poisoning  of  the  Massachusetts  Militia  by  canned 
salmon.  A  thorough  investigation  of  this  case  disclosed  the  fact  that 
several  cans  of  this  salmon  were  brought  by  the  Massachusetts 
Militia  with  them  from  their  mobilization  camp  at  Framingham, 
Mass.  Through  the  carelessness  of  the  cook  a  swelled"  can  was 
mixed  with  other  cans  containing  good  food  furnished  by  the  Army 
authorities,  and  the  mixing  of  tne  bad  with  the  good  food  was  the 
cause  of  the  illness  of  the  troops.  The  illness  was  the  direct  result  of 
lack  of  judgment  and  experience  of  militia  cooks.  Steps  were  imme- 
diatelv  taken  by  the  authorities  to  prevent  a  recurrence  of  cases  of 
this  cnaracter,  and  orders  were  issued  from  this  office  looking  to  the 
prevention  of  similar  cases. 

Mr.  G.  W.  Pratt  submitted  a  clipping  from  Mr.  McCann  regarding 
the  bad  food  furnished  the  militia  on  the  border,  particularly  the 
New  York  troops.  A  thorough  investigation  of  tnis  matter  was  . 
made,  and  the  commanding  general  of  tne  New  York  Division  re- 
ported that  the  complaint  was  entirely  without  foxmdation  and 
attached  complete  statements  of  company  commander,  mess  ser- 

feant,  first  sergeant,  and  cook  of  Company  H,  Seventh  New  York 
nfantry  (where  it  was  alleged  the  bad  food  had  been  served),  indi- 
cating that  the  food  furnished  was  of  the  best  quality  and  that  the 
complaints  were  entirely  imfoimded. 

But  one  case  reached  this  office  and  was  investigated,  wherein  the 
complaint  of  lack  of  food  was  well  founded.  This  occurred  in  com- 
plaint of  the  Hon.  H.  P.  Snyder,  House  of  Representatives,  who 
reported  to  this  office  that  a  member  of  Troop  6,  First  New  York 
Cavalry,  on  his  way  to  the  border  by  train,  had  been  without  food 
for  24  hours.  On  investigation  it  was  ascertained  that  the  officer  in 
charge  failed  to  provide  for  subsistence  at  the  time.  This  failure 
was  due  to  lack  of  experience  and  poor  judgment  on  the  part  of  the 
officer,  for  he  should  have  met  the  emergency  promptly  by  procuring 
the  necessary  food  if  his  rations  were  exnausted,  at  any  eating 
station,  and  made  a  charge  against  the  Government  the  same  as  he 
would  or  should  have  done  if  his  men  had  been  delayed  and  the  ration 
supplies  were  all  consimied  before  reaching  his  destination,  as  is  fre- 
(juently  the  case  with  the  Regular  Armv.  So  that  while  the  incident 
is  greatly  regretted,  it  seems  to  have  been  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
militia  officer  in  charge  was  lacking  in  experience  and  initiative  in 
caring  for  his  men. 

But,  as  previously  stated,  it  is  humanly  impossible  to  provide 
against  every  contingency,  mistake,  or  even  nardsnip  in  a  great  move- 
ment of  this  character. 

In  conclusion  it  may  be  well  to  repeat  that  Maj.  Gen.  Tasker  H. 
Bliss,  United  States  Army,  Assistant  Chief  of  Staff,  made  an  ex- 
tensive investigation  of  practically  all  the  militia  organizations  en- 
camped on  the  Mexican  Tborder,  and  reported  that  the  rations  were 
ample  and  of  excellent  quality,  and  that  a  general  spirit  of  content- 
ment prevailed  among  tne  troops. 


846  BEPOBT  OF  THE  QUABTEBMASTEB  GENERAL. 

Value  of  miscellaneous  supplies  issued  to  the  militia;  fiscal  year 
1916,  $38,446.65. 

Losses, — ^The  following  l